Research in rats; shows that a single socially stressful situation may contribute to depression by killing new nerve cells in the hippocampus, the area of the brain that processes learning, memory and emotion.
Anxiety disorders, autism, and attention-deficit disorders were believed to be learned, primarily from parents who did a bad job raising their children (Preidt, 2007).
Stress and stressors
Adjustive demands that are placed on a person are known as stressors.
2) The stressors are the effects that they create within an organism. This is known as stress (Butcher, 2007).
Fear and panic is a basic emotion (that is shared by all animals) that involves activation of the “fight or flight” response of the sympathetic system.
Anxiety Disorders are characterized by unrealistic, unfounded fear and anxiety.
Anxiety Disorders appear to have biological causes (Carlson, 2007).
Anxiety is a complex blend of unpleasant emotions and cognitions that is more oriented to the future and much more diffuse than fear.
Anxiety disorders all have unrealistic, irrational fears or anxieties of disabling intensity as their principal and most obvious manifestations.
Types of Anxiety Disorders.
Phobic disorders of the specific or of the social type;
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (Butcher, 2007).
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD)
According to one theory, panic attacks may arise from abnormal activity in the amygdale, a collection of nuclei in the hippocampus in the limbic system.
The anticipatory anxiety that people develop about having another panic attack is thought to arise from activity in the hippocampus of the limbic system.
This is known to be involved in the learning of emotional responses. Phobic avoidance is a learned response that may also involve activity of the hippocampus. (Butcher, 2007).
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD) suffer from obsessions or thoughts that will not leave them.
Compulsions are behaviors that they cannot keep from performing even though sufferers recognize that their thoughts and behaviors are senseless and desperately wish that they would go away (Carlson, 2007).
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is based around obsessive (engrossing) thoughts, for example fear of contamination, as well as a compulsion (urge) to carry out physical rituals such as excessive washing. The ritual behavior often helps to relieve the fear created by the obsessive thoughts.
People with OCD are usually aware that their obsessive thoughts are irrational, but nevertheless feel powerless to control them.
The compulsions, such as excessive hand washing, are time consuming and can interfere with all aspects of your life - your daily routine, work and relationships with others, but if the compulsion is not performed, that too creates great anxiety.
Autistic Disorder is. . .
A chronic disorder whose symptoms include failure to develop normal social relations with other people as well as impaired development of communicative ability, lack of imaginative ability and repetitive stereotyped movements.
Approximately 4 in every 10,000 infants are born with a disorder that impairs their ability to return their parent’ affection.
Symptoms of Autistic disorder include the following:
A failure to develop normal social relations with other people.
Impaired development of communicative ability and lack of imaginative ability.
A lack of care whether they are held.
Do not smile at their caregivers.
If they are ill, hurt or tired they will not look to someone else for comfort.
As they get older, they do not enter into social relationships with other children and avoid eye contact with them.
Their language development is abnormal or even nonexistent.
They may learn words and phrases by rote but they fail to use them productively and creatively.
Autistic people generally show abnormal interests and behaviors.
They may show stereotyped movements such as hand flapping.
They may become attached to a particular object and insist on carrying it around.
They often insist on following precise routines and may become violently upset when they are hindered from doing so.
Not all autistic people are retarded, although most are (Carlson, 2007).
Autism is a devastating developmental and neurological disorder and affects individuals in four key areas:
Communication (verbal and non-verbal)
Social and learning skills
Strange behaviors (such as tantrums, hand flapping, repetitive sounds, etc.)
Medical issues including severe headaches, gastro-intestinal issues, multiple food allergies and many others.
A Card to be given to others
My child’s behavior may be disturbing to you.
My child is not spoiled or misbehaving.
My child has autism.
Over 1 million children are affected with Autism in the United States today. CDC now reports 1 in 160 children have Autism. Families need your help and compassion.
Thank you for your support and for being a friend to someone with Autism.