Sections 4 and 5 of the Executive Branch Unit


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Sections 4 and 5 of the Executive Branch Unit

  1. 1. Section 4: Evolution of the Presidency
  2. 2. <ul><li>Some feared that the president would overpower state governments using the military or that they would become just a tool of Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Their biggest fear: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REELECTION (would they try to stay in office for life?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Plan 1 for election: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress to elect the president (quasi-legislative) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Plan 2 for election </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen directly by the voters, but would all voters make an informed decision? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Which one won? </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise ----- ELECTORAL COLLEGE!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The First Presidents </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most prominent men in the new nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the early years the national government had little to do </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>The presidency was kept modest, kept simple, ex. Cannot be on a coin until after death - decided by Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely vetoed, only when law seemed unconstitutional. Washington only used two vetoes. TJ and J Adams used 0. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Jacksonians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoed 12 acts, more than all previous presidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He saw himself as the tribune of the people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Jacksonians cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not shrink from conflict with Congress, only intensified by their personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in a strong and independent presidency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Reemergence of Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After Jackson Congress reestablished much of its power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President largely subordinate to Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ No Names” Era </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only Lincoln broke new ground (implied, inherent, and C in Chief) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Presidency now and DIVIDED GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is divided government? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One party controls the White House and the other controls Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16/24 elections between 1952-2000 produced divided government </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many argue that it produces partisan bickering, political paralysis and policy gridlock, but its not clear whether this really happens. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided Government does well on passing important laws, conducting investigations, and ratifying treaties. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and balances ensure the power struggle between the two branches, NOT divided government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mid Term Elections - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential party usually loses power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>White House Office- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest assistants have offices in the west wing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They generally oversee the political and policy interests of the presidents </li></ul></ul>Section 5: The White House Office
  15. 15. <ul><li>They do not have to be confirmed by Senate because they are his/her personal staff </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually drawn from the ranks of the presidents campaign staff, and long time associates of the president </li></ul><ul><li>He looks toward the staff for advice </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Different White House Office Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ike, Nixon, Reagan, Bush Sr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most assistants report through a hierarchy to a Chief of Staff who then deals directly with the president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Circular Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Ad Hoc Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task forces, committees and informal groups of friends and advisors report to president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Which would be most effective? </li></ul><ul><li>What style would you want to have? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Executive Office of the Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies and the bureaucracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These appointments must be confirmed by Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps carry out presidents administration’s responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 issues - Domestic, Foreign and Military </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Chief of Staff - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top Aide to pres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manages executive office and can control access to the pres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this they have a tremendous impact on the effectiveness of president and Cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Chief of Staff cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President has trust in this person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually a long time aide or friend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rahm Emanuel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>National Security Council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headed by the National Security Advisor, Stephen Hadley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct access to president in matters relating to military and foreign policy </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largely free from congressional oversight and because of this it has become a favorite resource of presidents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Examples where presidents used the National Security Council </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JFK-Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan - Iran Contra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bush Sr. and the Gulf War </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Domestic Policy Council </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assist president in formulating policies relating to: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy, education, agriculture, natural resources, economic affairs, health and human resources, welfare reform, drug abuse, crime </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Council of Economic Advisors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help to make national economic policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to increase prosperity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>US Trade Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for negotiating complex trade and tariff agreements for the president </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GATT (General Agreements on Tariff and Trade) and NAFTA are negotiated by the Trade Representatives on behalf of the president and with the guidance of the White House </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Office of Management and BUDGET </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budget Bureau then OMB in 1921 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembles and analyzes figures that go into the national budget which president submits to Congress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>OMB cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies over executive organizations and their operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews proposals of Cabinet departments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of power because they have the ability to allocate $ to Cabinet departments through the budget process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure of tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution does not mention this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not have all that much influence over presidential decisions, but it also matters on the president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Cabinet cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 major departments, newest is the Department of Homeland Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be dismissed at the president’s will </li></ul></ul>