Section 1 of the Executive Branch Unit


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Section 1 of the Executive Branch Unit

  1. 1. The Executive Branch
  2. 2. Section 1: The Office of the President <ul><li>Just who is the President of the United States? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we know about this position? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Article II in the United States Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Power shall be vested in the President </li></ul><ul><li>It is an outline, loosely drawn, more so than the other two Articles that deal with branches </li></ul><ul><li>There was a struggle as to what this Article intended/meant </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Formal Qualifications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35 years old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Born Citizen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in the US for at least 14 years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Salary and Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress determines Salary, it cannot be touched during a presidential term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$400,000 a year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$50,000 a year expense allowance taxed as part of income </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Benefits are Numerous </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suite of Offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Force One </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fleet of Cars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Benefits Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Camp David </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best health care money can buy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots More! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Presidential Difference 2004 for Fred Greenstein </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities that Bear on Presidential Performance </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Effectiveness as a public communicator - many presidents rehersed and were able to reach the average American </li></ul><ul><li>Best - FDR, JFK Reagan, and Clinton (on a good day) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Organizational Capacity - Ability to forge a team that gets the most done and the ability to minimize the tendency to tell the boss (PRES) what he wants to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Best Organizers - FDR( encouraged diversity), IKE (listened), JFK, Ford, Bush Sr </li></ul><ul><li>Worst - Nixon, Reagan, LBJ : they didn’t like to see disagreements </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Political Skill - ability to stamp on policy in the relatively stalemated American political system. They maintained public support and established reputations as skilled policy-makers. </li></ul><ul><li>Best - LBJ (within hours of JFK’s assassination he began to muster support) </li></ul><ul><li>Worst - Carter </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Vision - capacity to inspire and the ability to assess policy feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Best - FDR, JFK, Reagan, Nixon, Ike </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Cognitive Style - how they think about issues and how they create a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Best - Nixon had a purpose and he succeeded </li></ul><ul><li>Worst - Truman and Reagan (Reagan had no critical reading and had an imperfect understanding of policies) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Emotional Intelligence - are they free of distracting emotional issues? Greenstein argues that this is the most important. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In its absence all else may turn to ash” </li></ul><ul><li>Best - Ike, Ford, Bush Sr, GW Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Worst - LBJ (Mood Swings), Carter (Rigid), Clinton (no impulse control), Nixon (anger and suspiciousness...he was defeated by the qualities that brought his success). </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Informal Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>What are some characteristics you deem desirable in a president? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Presidential Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of State - ceremonial head </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Executive - Execute Laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Administrator - Director of Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Diplomat - Architect of Foreign Policy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Roles, Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Legislator - Architect of public policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of the Party - Acknowledged leader of their party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Citizen - Moral Leader, representative of all the people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Roles, Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition Builders, build coalitions among different parties and with the legislative branch </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Presidential Term in Office </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington limited himself to two terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one dared more until FDR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents were concerned about the orderly transfer of power from one president to another, this is unique to the American presidency, an office transfer with little to no problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>approval ratings make a </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>1951 - 22nd Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A president can be elected no more than 2 terms or 10 years in office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some say that a single, 6 year term would be better (LBJ, Carter) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>1/3 of all presidents have been elected to a second term </li></ul><ul><li>Usually done in wartime or especially tranquil times </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>President usually has some prior experience in a federal agency </li></ul><ul><li>A future president needs to be able to recognize various politically important groups, regions and organizations in order to gain support and a wide appeal </li></ul>Section 2: Who Gets Elected?
  24. 24. <ul><li>Conventions: Purpose of the Conventions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name the party’s candidate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring factions together for a common purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt the party’s platform </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Characteristics of those who usually get elected </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Records in public office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant, most have been (JFK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually from larger states </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Characteristics cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How they look </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking Ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outsider in Washington????? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>What happens if something happens to the president? </li></ul>Section 3: Presidential Succession
  28. 28. <ul><li>Office of the Vice President </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was to be his or her role? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under the original language of the Constitution the VP took over the duties but not the office </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>VP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A VP has become the president 8 times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely acquires presidency when they run for that office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many people gave up real leadership positions for the VP..why? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>VP Cont </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only official duty is to preside over Senate and vote in the case of a tie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be as important or weak as a president wants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What about Dick Cheney? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Succession: What is the president is ill but not dead? If the VP steps up then who becomes the new VP? </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Succession Act of 1886 - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of State next in line should the VP die </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>followed by Cabinet in order of seniority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Change to the Succession Act of 1886 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1947 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included the Speaker of the House and the President Pro Tempore in succession </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>25th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1967 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows VP to serve as acting president when pres declares he is unable to do his job or the VP and a majority of the Cabinet say he cannot in writing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the president and the VP and Cabinet disagree then Congress decides, a 2/3 vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP must nominate a new VP, both houses must confirm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Line to Presidency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pres Pro Tempore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Treasury </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Succession cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attorney General </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of the Interior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc, all the Cabinet Dept heads in order of when they were incorporated into the Cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would be last? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Presidential Disability </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP becomes the President if the President informs Congress in writing that he/she cannot preform duties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The VP and the majority of members of the Cabinet inform Congress in writing </li></ul></ul></ul>