Legislative Powers


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Legislative Powers

  1. 1. Powers of Congress <ul><li>What do we know Congress can do? Think back to when we talked about correcting the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Congress has only those powers delegated by the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Large areas are denied because of the silence of the Constitution and the federal system. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Framers feared the power that is inherent to a legislative body so they created a Constitution that spells out what it can and cannot do in more detail than the other branches. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Just how broad? <ul><li>Strict Constructionists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led by TJ and the anti-federalists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress should only be allowed to exercise its expressed and implied powers that are ABSOLUTELY necessary. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Strict Constructionists Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted the States to keep as much power as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Felt that the states can protect interests better than the far-off national government </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Liberal Constructionist </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Hamilton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted a more liberal interpretation of powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Over the years - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>power of the national government has grown to a point that even most liberal constructionists would not have imagined. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THINK ABOUT FEDERALISM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Three types of power <ul><li>Expressed - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly, in specific wording </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implied - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable deduction from expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inherent Powers - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creating a national government for the United States </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Examples <ul><li>Expressed power to lay and collect taxes </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLIES </li></ul><ul><li>power to punish tax evaders and to regulate the sale of some commodities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples <ul><li>Expressed power to borrow money </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLIES </li></ul><ul><li>power to establish the Federal Reserve System of banks </li></ul>
  11. 11. Examples <ul><li>Expressed power to establish naturalization laws </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLIES </li></ul><ul><li>power to regulate and limit immigration </li></ul>
  12. 12. Expressed Powers <ul><li>Lay and Collect Taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes make up a trillion of what US takes in a year to meet public needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was not in the Articles of Confed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Borrow Money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Borrow on the credit of the United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no limits on amount or the spending of it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Commerce Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To regulate interstate and foreign trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articles of Confed did not have this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has prompted the growth of the greatest open market </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Commerce Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all implied powers are built off of the commerce clause </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Restriction on Commerce Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot tax exports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cannot favor ports of one State over another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot require vessels from one state to pay a duty to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can not interfere with slave trade until 1808 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Currency Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coin Money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate value of money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in the Articles of Confed with this </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Bankruptcy Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can establish uniform laws on this subject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal proceeding in which the bankrupt’s assets are distributed among those to whom debt is owed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Foreign Relations Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared with the President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to defer to the President in these cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sole right to regulate foreign commerce </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>War Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declare War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to raise and support armies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide and maintain navy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes rules pertaining to the governing of armed forces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>war powers cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>call forth a militia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rules concerning capture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War powers resolution 1973 - restricts the use of forces where a state of war does not exist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Other powers <ul><li>Naturalization - the process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another </li></ul><ul><li>Postal Power </li></ul><ul><li>Copyrights and Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Weights and Measures </li></ul>
  23. 23. Other powers cont. <ul><li>Acquire, manage, dispose of federal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Eminent domain </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial powers (create all of the federal courts below Supreme Court and to structure federal judiciary) </li></ul><ul><li>Define federal crimes and set punishments </li></ul>
  24. 24. Implied and Non-Legislative Powers
  25. 25. Implied Powers <ul><li>Necessary and Proper Clause - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional basis for implied powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA the “elastic clause” because it has been stretched so far and made to cover so much over the years </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Hamilton and the National Bank </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This was not stated anywhere in the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton used the Necessary and Proper Clause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argued it was necessary because it was related to the expressed powers (taxing, borrowing, commerce, currency) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>McCulloch v Maryland </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1816 Second Bank of the US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents wanted to hurt the bank so they taxed it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deemed Necessary and Proper to the execution of powers to tax, borrow, currency and commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acted as a sweeping approval of implied powers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Who won this argument, strict constructionists or liberal constructionists? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Non-Legislative Powers <ul><li>Constitutional Amendments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress may propose by 2/3 vote in each house. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has been done 33 times (not always passed by the States, though) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Electoral Duties </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House may be called to elect a President. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12th Amendment says that if no candidate receives the majority of electoral votes, then the House must decide the issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House has chosen TJ and JQ Adams </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Impeachment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President, Vice President, All civil officers, Judges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House has the sole power to impeach (accuse, bring charges) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senate has the sole power to try (judge) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Impeachment cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impeachment requires one majority vote in the House, conviction requires a two-thirds vote in the Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Justice presides over Senate when a President is tried </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penalty is removal from office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17 Impeachments, 7 Convictions, all these were federal judges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two presidents have been impeached by the House, Senate found both not-guilty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Executive Powers <ul><li>Confirmation of Appointments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major appointments made by the President must be confirmed by Senate with a majority vote </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Treaties </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President makes treaties with the advice and consent of Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 Senators must concur </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Investigatory Power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate any matter that falls with in the scope of legislative powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oversee bureaucracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus public attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expose questionable activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promote a particular interest </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>House Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House Ways and Means (committee) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only House may initiate tax laws and spending bills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This oversees taxing and spending legislation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Senate Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratify Treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amending Powers on Revenue Bills </li></ul></ul></ul>