Chapter 3: AP

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Chapter 3: AP

  1. 1. Federalism -- Chapter 3 <ul><li>Review: What is federalism? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Government Structure <ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>political system in which there are local units of gov’t, as well as a national gov’t that can make final decisions with respect to at least some government activities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate self-sustaining centers of power, prestige, and profit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 powers...remember?? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Devolution? <ul><li>The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Happening now </li></ul><ul><li>Keep this in mind, whether we are experiencing this now, while learning about the chapter </li></ul>
  4. 4. Governmental Structure <ul><li>Federalist 10 (papers written by Jay, Madison and Hamilton) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the US there is a great opportunity for all relevant interests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Political Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be involved if you think you will have an effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Founding <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to protect liberty (separation of powers and checks and balances) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Bold New Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National and state gov’t would have certain powers, but no supreme authority over the other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framers assumed federal gov’t would have only those powers laid out in the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Founding <ul><li>Elastic Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some clauses were very VAGUE, circumstances would change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would it be called elastic? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Other Systems <ul><li>Unitary System </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All powers in hands of the national government (single, central agency) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States are sovereign (supreme or ultimate political authority), national government can only do what states permit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Dual Federalism, aka layer cake federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and that the two should be kept separate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Federalism, aka marble cake federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory that all levels of government could work together to solve common problems. Supremacy Clause says that the Constitution is supreme. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Debate on the Meaning <ul><li>Who has more power? Are they equal? </li></ul>
  10. 10. In Favor of Congress (Cooperative Federalism) <ul><li>McCulloch v MD </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to pay tax from his national bank to MD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded rights of Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NECESSARY AND PROPER </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ Power to tax involved power to destroy”...why can’t state tax a national bank? </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary and Proper Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can pass laws necessary and proper to its duties, allow them to exercise power not specifically granted (enumerated) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Add to the side </li></ul><ul><li>2 Fundamental questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Does Congress have the right to charter a national bank without constitutional authority? </li></ul><ul><li>Could a State tax such a bank? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Federalism and the Commerce Clause <ul><li>Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P ower to regulate interstate navigation was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W ho holds the power in these two examples? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. In Favor of States <ul><li>Nullification </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state’s opinion, violates the Constitution. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. In Favor of States <ul><ul><ul><li>Police Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. In Favor of States <ul><li>10th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reserved for the states </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>states can do anything not prohibited by Constitution or preempted by federal policy and consistent with their policy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. In Favor of States <ul><li>Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allow voters to put leg. matters directly on the ballot with signatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 states -- remove elected official from office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Referendum </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enables voters to reject a measure adopted by legislature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Federal-State Relations <ul><li>grants-in-aid </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money given by the national government to the states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. Medicaid, for state purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington pays bills, states run the programs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Federal Aid Con’t <ul><li>Conditions of Aid </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terms set by national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain funds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Federal-State Relations Con’t. <ul><li>Categorical Grants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One for specific purposes defined by federal law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. Welfare payments, build airports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Block Grants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>states can spend with broad guidelines determined by Washington </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Federal-State Relations <ul><li>Revenue Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adopted in 1972, expired in 1986 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>federal sharing of a fixed % of its revenue with states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>originally intended to used for any purpose whatsoever </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Federal Aid and Federal Control <ul><li>Block grants and revenue sharing were efforts to reverse federal control over states, but categorical grants grew faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Strings have continually been added since the 1960s (Civil Rights) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Does federal aid support dual federalism? What about cooperative federalism? </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Devolution Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan’s New Federalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>renewed effort to downsize the federal government and turn more authority over to the States </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Devolution Revolution? <ul><li>1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Republican majorities in House and Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>renewed effort to shift functions back to the states </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Devolution Revolution? <ul><li>Welfare </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to Families with Dependent C hildren (AFDC) 1996 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally a categorical grant, changed to block grant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ended federal guarantee of support and turned it over to the states aided by federal block grants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Mandates <ul><li>Mandates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. Civil Rights, Environment Protection, American with Disabilities Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased over time (1980 - 36, 1990s-140) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court has supported growth in mandates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Mandates <ul><li>Clean Air Act of 1990 (reduce smog and air pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Agency sets limits on how much pollutants in the air </li></ul><ul><li>States should carry the Clean Air Act out </li></ul><ul><li>States must develop state implementation plans </li></ul>
  29. 29. Mandates <ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act </li></ul><ul><li>previously in the hands of state officials, but federal officials felt that they were not doing enough </li></ul><ul><li>Unfunded, revenue must be generated locally </li></ul><ul><li>prohibits discrimination based on disability </li></ul><ul><li>Similar protections as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (outlawed discrimination based on sex, religion, race ) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mandates <ul><li>Add - </li></ul><ul><li>Unfunded Mandates Act of 1994 - </li></ul><ul><li>To curb unfunded mandates and strengthen the relationship between nation and the state </li></ul>
  31. 31. Federalism and the Commerce Clause <ul><li>U.S. v Lopez </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S et limits on government interference on state and local affairs under the commerce clause </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. What drives devolution? <ul><li>Beliefs of devolution’s proponents </li></ul><ul><li>Realities of deficit politics </li></ul><ul><li>Views of most citizens </li></ul>
  33. 33. Devolution <ul><li>Are we experiencing a devolution? </li></ul>

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