Chapter 10:  Elections and Campaigns <ul><li>What a fitting time to complete this chapter! </li></ul>
Presidential vs. Congressional Campaigns <ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>presidential races are more competitve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Off - Yea...
<ul><li>Their Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>members of Congress can do things for constituents that Presidents cannot </l...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of presidential elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress is independent...
Running for President <ul><li>Getting Mentioned </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elusive “Great Mentioner” - says a person would ...
<ul><li>ID with legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you may identify with certain pieces of legislation </li></ul></ul><...
Running for Pres <ul><li>Set aside time to run </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many years do you need? </li></ul></ul></ul><...
$$ <ul><li>PAC - Political Action Committee - set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or other special inte...
$$ makes the world go ‘round <ul><li>1960:  175 million </li></ul><ul><li>2000:  5.1 billion (including primaries, convent...
<ul><li>Two sources of funding...public and private </li></ul><ul><li>Small Contributors - $5 to $10.  This is 10% of voti...
<ul><li>Various non-party groups, such as PACs </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary organizations, groups developed for the short t...
<ul><li>Regulations are found in detailed laws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) </li></ul></...
FEC <ul><li>Federal Election Commission administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance </li></ul><ul><li>Establ...
<ul><li>What they do...make sure you have.. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>timely disclosure of campaign finance data </li></ul...
<ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cash gifts no higher than 100$ and no worries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Place limits on contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an individual can give no more than $2,000 to a single, fe...
<ul><li>A person can give no more than $25,000 to a national party committee </li></ul><ul><li>Total contributions can be ...
<ul><li>Place limits on campaign expenditures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most limits apply to presidential elections only <...
<ul><li>Buckley v Valeo THREW OUT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limit on campaign expenditures by candidates running for seats...
<ul><li>FEC can limit money it has given to candidates (federal subsidies).  If you do not take the money you are not boun...
<ul><li>Provide public funding (subsidies) for several parts of the presidential election process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>National Conventions  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if a major party applies for the money it received a grant to pay ...
<ul><li>Presidential Election Campaigns  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each major party nominee automatically is qualified for...
<ul><li>Hard money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>money raised and spend to elect candidates for Congress and the White House <...
<ul><li>BiPartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 - McCain Feingold Bill -  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aimed at the soft money...
<ul><li>Political Action Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are 4,000 PACs registered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>There is no overall limit on PAC giving to candidates (they can give how ever many candidates they want $5,000 eac...
Running for Pres <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff ($$) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteers ...
Running for Pres <ul><li>Strategy and Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbents Record - defend or attack? </li></ul></u...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Judge Timing - early momentum?  Save resources for later? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target voter...
Getting Elected to Congress <ul><li>What impacts this? </li></ul>
<ul><li>District Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malapportionment:  districts have different populations, so the vote...
Getting Elected to Congress <ul><li>Problems associated with the House </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size - Congress decides t...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Determining size of congressional districts - states decide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determinin...
Winning Congressional Primary <ul><li>Voter signatures - need enough to appear on ballot in the primary </li></ul><ul><li>...
Staying in Office <ul><li>Delegates vs. Trustees </li></ul>
Primary vs. General Campaigns <ul><ul><li>What works in one, might not work in the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>differ...
<ul><li>Iowa Caucuses (or recent trend of front-loading) and New Hampshire Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media Attenti...
<ul><li>Balancing Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary voters are more ideological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co...
Two Kinds of Campaign Issues <ul><li>1) Position Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rival candidates with opposing views...
<ul><li>2) Valance Issues:  does the candidate support the public’s view on an issue where most people agree </li></ul><ul...
T.V. Debates, Direct Mail <ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who gets the advantage? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ne...
<ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct-Mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Webpages </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Overstated factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul><...
What Decides Elections? <ul><li>Party (Democrats less wedded to their party as Republicans, GOP does better with Independe...
<ul><li>Campaign (reawaken party loyalties,  </li></ul><ul><li>character, (how they handle pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Win...
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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10: Elections and Campaigns <ul><li>What a fitting time to complete this chapter! </li></ul>
  2. 2. Presidential vs. Congressional Campaigns <ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more people vote in presidential elections so they work harder and spend more money </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>presidential races are more competitve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Off - Year </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>years when there isn’t a presidential election...very low turnout in those years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Their Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>members of Congress can do things for constituents that Presidents cannot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals v President </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional nominees can run as individuals, Presidential nominees are not distanced from the “mess in D.C.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of presidential elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress is independent of presidential elections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Running for President <ul><li>Getting Mentioned </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elusive “Great Mentioner” - says a person would make a great candidate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off the Record - not official </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make Speeches - hit “hot states” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your name - is it famous? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>ID with legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you may identify with certain pieces of legislation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Governor of a large State </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parallel to being president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Running for Pres <ul><li>Set aside time to run </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many years do you need? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your current office </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. $$ <ul><li>PAC - Political Action Committee - set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or other special interest group </li></ul><ul><li>Matching federal grants - certain circumstances and the federal government will match grants - ex 5,000 pople in 20 States of $250 or less. </li></ul>
  10. 10. $$ makes the world go ‘round <ul><li>1960: 175 million </li></ul><ul><li>2000: 5.1 billion (including primaries, conventions, presidential campaigns) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think about this? </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Two sources of funding...public and private </li></ul><ul><li>Small Contributors - $5 to $10. This is 10% of voting aged people </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates - incumbents and challengers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ross Perot spent 65 million out of pocket </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Various non-party groups, such as PACs </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary organizations, groups developed for the short term pupose of campaign fund raising </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy - a grant of money, from the federal or state treasuries </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Regulations are found in detailed laws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FECA Amendments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul>Regulating
  14. 14. FEC <ul><li>Federal Election Commission administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1974 as an independent agency in the executive branch. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>What they do...make sure you have.. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>timely disclosure of campaign finance data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spotlight the place of money in federal campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need one certified public accountant in their campaign organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cash gifts no higher than 100$ and no worries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to closely account for each donation...those over 200$ need to be identified by the source and date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any contribution greater than $5,000 must be reported in 48 hours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Place limits on contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an individual can give no more than $2,000 to a single, federal candidate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No person can give more than $2,000 to a federal candidates general election campaign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person can give no more than $5,000 to a PAC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>A person can give no more than $25,000 to a national party committee </li></ul><ul><li>Total contributions can be no more than $95,000 in an election cycle </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Place limits on campaign expenditures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most limits apply to presidential elections only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buckley v Valeo - Supreme Court struck down several spending limits set by the FECA Amendments because they were contrary to freedom of expression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Buckley v Valeo THREW OUT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limit on campaign expenditures by candidates running for seats in the House or Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit on how much of their own money candidates could put into their own campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no person or group could spend more than $1,000 on behalf of any federal candidate without the candidates permission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>FEC can limit money it has given to candidates (federal subsidies). If you do not take the money you are not bound by the limits </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Provide public funding (subsidies) for several parts of the presidential election process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pre-convention campaigns - supported by private contributions and public money from the FEC but you need to meet eligibility requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>National Conventions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if a major party applies for the money it received a grant to pay for it. In 2000 they each received 13.5 million from the FEC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Presidential Election Campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each major party nominee automatically is qualified for a public subsidy to cover the costs of general election campaigns. The candidate can refuse if they want to raise money somehow else. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Hard money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>money raised and spend to elect candidates for Congress and the White House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>funds given to party organizations for such “party building activities” as candidate recruitment, voter registration get out the vote drives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>BiPartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 - McCain Feingold Bill - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aimed at the soft money problem. Bans soft money contributions to political parties, in particular, to their national and congressional campaign committees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Political Action Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are 4,000 PACs registered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute money to those candidates who </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are sympathetic to its goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have a reasonable chance of winning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No PAC can give more than $5,000 to any one federal candidate in an election, or $10,000 per election cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>There is no overall limit on PAC giving to candidates (they can give how ever many candidates they want $5,000 each) </li></ul><ul><li>Can contribute up to $15,000 a year to a political party </li></ul><ul><li>PACs put an estimated $400 million into the presidential and congressional campaigns in 2000 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Running for Pres <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff ($$) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advisors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Running for Pres <ul><li>Strategy and Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbents Record - defend or attack? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tone - positive or negative? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a theme - trust? confidence? change? country first? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>Judge Timing - early momentum? Save resources for later? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target voter - who is the audience? What are the constituents? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Getting Elected to Congress <ul><li>What impacts this? </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>District Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malapportionment: districts have different populations, so the votes in the less-populated district “weigh more” than those in the more-populated district (twice as many voters are needed in a larger district to elect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering: Boundaries are drawn to favor one party rather than another, resulting in odd-shaped districts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Getting Elected to Congress <ul><li>Problems associated with the House </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size - Congress decides the House size at 435 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation of seats - After each 10 year census the states decide the districts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>Determining size of congressional districts - states decide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determining shape of congressional districts - states decide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Winning Congressional Primary <ul><li>Voter signatures - need enough to appear on ballot in the primary </li></ul><ul><li>Win party nomination </li></ul><ul><li>Run in general election </li></ul>
  37. 37. Staying in Office <ul><li>Delegates vs. Trustees </li></ul>
  38. 38. Primary vs. General Campaigns <ul><ul><li>What works in one, might not work in the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different voters, media, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$$ - need those who will give money and attend the primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activists vs voters at large - primary voters are more “radical” than voters at large </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Iowa Caucuses (or recent trend of front-loading) and New Hampshire Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media Attention on their results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winner leanings? Usually most liberal and most conservative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Balancing Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary voters are more ideological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative enough/Liberal Enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center Move after primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translates to a balancing act </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Two Kinds of Campaign Issues <ul><li>1) Position Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rival candidates with opposing views, usually voters are divided on partisan lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2008? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realignments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>2) Valance Issues: does the candidate support the public’s view on an issue where most people agree </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. strong economy, low unemployment rates, things people are not going to oppose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. T.V. Debates, Direct Mail <ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who gets the advantage? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>News Broadcast </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paid Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name recognition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct-Mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Webpages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Appeal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you risk through the media? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Overstated factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion as a single issue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. What Decides Elections? <ul><li>Party (Democrats less wedded to their party as Republicans, GOP does better with Independents, GOP has a higher turnout) </li></ul><ul><li>Issues, Especially Economy </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Campaign (reawaken party loyalties, </li></ul><ul><li>character, (how they handle pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Winning Coalition (people who will vote for them) </li></ul>
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