Small Contributors - $5 to $10. This is 10% of voting aged people
Candidates - incumbents and challengers
Ross Perot spent 65 million out of pocket
Various non-party groups, such as PACs
Temporary organizations, groups developed for the short term pupose of campaign fund raising
Subsidy - a grant of money, from the federal or state treasuries
Regulations are found in detailed laws
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
Federal Election Commission administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance
Established in 1974 as an independent agency in the executive branch.
What they do...make sure you have..
timely disclosure of campaign finance data
spotlight the place of money in federal campaigns
need one certified public accountant in their campaign organizations
cash gifts no higher than 100$ and no worries
Need to closely account for each donation...those over 200$ need to be identified by the source and date
any contribution greater than $5,000 must be reported in 48 hours
Place limits on contributions
an individual can give no more than $2,000 to a single, federal candidate.
No person can give more than $2,000 to a federal candidates general election campaign
A person can give no more than $5,000 to a PAC
A person can give no more than $25,000 to a national party committee
Total contributions can be no more than $95,000 in an election cycle
Place limits on campaign expenditures
most limits apply to presidential elections only
Buckley v Valeo - Supreme Court struck down several spending limits set by the FECA Amendments because they were contrary to freedom of expression
Buckley v Valeo THREW OUT
limit on campaign expenditures by candidates running for seats in the House or Senate
Limit on how much of their own money candidates could put into their own campaigns
no person or group could spend more than $1,000 on behalf of any federal candidate without the candidates permission
FEC can limit money it has given to candidates (federal subsidies). If you do not take the money you are not bound by the limits
Provide public funding (subsidies) for several parts of the presidential election process
pre-convention campaigns - supported by private contributions and public money from the FEC but you need to meet eligibility requirements
if a major party applies for the money it received a grant to pay for it. In 2000 they each received 13.5 million from the FEC
Presidential Election Campaigns
Each major party nominee automatically is qualified for a public subsidy to cover the costs of general election campaigns. The candidate can refuse if they want to raise money somehow else.
money raised and spend to elect candidates for Congress and the White House
funds given to party organizations for such “party building activities” as candidate recruitment, voter registration get out the vote drives
BiPartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 - McCain Feingold Bill -
aimed at the soft money problem. Bans soft money contributions to political parties, in particular, to their national and congressional campaign committees
Political Action Committees
There are 4,000 PACs registered
Distribute money to those candidates who
are sympathetic to its goals
have a reasonable chance of winning
No PAC can give more than $5,000 to any one federal candidate in an election, or $10,000 per election cycle
There is no overall limit on PAC giving to candidates (they can give how ever many candidates they want $5,000 each)
Can contribute up to $15,000 a year to a political party
PACs put an estimated $400 million into the presidential and congressional campaigns in 2000
Running for Pres
Running for Pres
Strategy and Themes
Incumbents Record - defend or attack?
Tone - positive or negative?
Develop a theme - trust? confidence? change? country first?
Judge Timing - early momentum? Save resources for later?
Target voter - who is the audience? What are the constituents?
Getting Elected to Congress
What impacts this?
Malapportionment: districts have different populations, so the votes in the less-populated district “weigh more” than those in the more-populated district (twice as many voters are needed in a larger district to elect)
Gerrymandering: Boundaries are drawn to favor one party rather than another, resulting in odd-shaped districts
Getting Elected to Congress
Problems associated with the House
Size - Congress decides the House size at 435
Allocation of seats - After each 10 year census the states decide the districts
Determining size of congressional districts - states decide
Determining shape of congressional districts - states decide
Winning Congressional Primary
Voter signatures - need enough to appear on ballot in the primary
Win party nomination
Run in general election
Staying in Office
Delegates vs. Trustees
Primary vs. General Campaigns
What works in one, might not work in the other
different voters, media, etc
$$ - need those who will give money and attend the primary
Activists vs voters at large - primary voters are more “radical” than voters at large
Iowa Caucuses (or recent trend of front-loading) and New Hampshire Primary
Media Attention on their results
Winner leanings? Usually most liberal and most conservative
Primary voters are more ideological
Conservative enough/Liberal Enough
Center Move after primary
Translates to a balancing act
Two Kinds of Campaign Issues
1) Position Issues
rival candidates with opposing views, usually voters are divided on partisan lines
2) Valance Issues: does the candidate support the public’s view on an issue where most people agree
ex. strong economy, low unemployment rates, things people are not going to oppose
T.V. Debates, Direct Mail
Who gets the advantage?
What do you risk through the media?
Abortion as a single issue
What Decides Elections?
Party (Democrats less wedded to their party as Republicans, GOP does better with Independents, GOP has a higher turnout)