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Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
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Chapter 10

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  • 1. Chapter 10: Elections and Campaigns <ul><li>What a fitting time to complete this chapter! </li></ul>
  • 2. Presidential vs. Congressional Campaigns <ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more people vote in presidential elections so they work harder and spend more money </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>presidential races are more competitve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Off - Year </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>years when there isn’t a presidential election...very low turnout in those years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Their Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>members of Congress can do things for constituents that Presidents cannot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals v President </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional nominees can run as individuals, Presidential nominees are not distanced from the “mess in D.C.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of presidential elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress is independent of presidential elections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Running for President <ul><li>Getting Mentioned </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elusive “Great Mentioner” - says a person would make a great candidate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off the Record - not official </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make Speeches - hit “hot states” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your name - is it famous? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>ID with legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you may identify with certain pieces of legislation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Governor of a large State </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parallel to being president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Running for Pres <ul><li>Set aside time to run </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many years do you need? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your current office </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. $$ <ul><li>PAC - Political Action Committee - set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or other special interest group </li></ul><ul><li>Matching federal grants - certain circumstances and the federal government will match grants - ex 5,000 pople in 20 States of $250 or less. </li></ul>
  • 10. $$ makes the world go ‘round <ul><li>1960: 175 million </li></ul><ul><li>2000: 5.1 billion (including primaries, conventions, presidential campaigns) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think about this? </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Two sources of funding...public and private </li></ul><ul><li>Small Contributors - $5 to $10. This is 10% of voting aged people </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates - incumbents and challengers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ross Perot spent 65 million out of pocket </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Various non-party groups, such as PACs </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary organizations, groups developed for the short term pupose of campaign fund raising </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy - a grant of money, from the federal or state treasuries </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Regulations are found in detailed laws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FECA Amendments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul>Regulating
  • 14. FEC <ul><li>Federal Election Commission administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1974 as an independent agency in the executive branch. </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>What they do...make sure you have.. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>timely disclosure of campaign finance data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spotlight the place of money in federal campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need one certified public accountant in their campaign organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cash gifts no higher than 100$ and no worries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to closely account for each donation...those over 200$ need to be identified by the source and date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any contribution greater than $5,000 must be reported in 48 hours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Place limits on contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an individual can give no more than $2,000 to a single, federal candidate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No person can give more than $2,000 to a federal candidates general election campaign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person can give no more than $5,000 to a PAC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>A person can give no more than $25,000 to a national party committee </li></ul><ul><li>Total contributions can be no more than $95,000 in an election cycle </li></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>Place limits on campaign expenditures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most limits apply to presidential elections only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buckley v Valeo - Supreme Court struck down several spending limits set by the FECA Amendments because they were contrary to freedom of expression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>Buckley v Valeo THREW OUT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limit on campaign expenditures by candidates running for seats in the House or Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit on how much of their own money candidates could put into their own campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no person or group could spend more than $1,000 on behalf of any federal candidate without the candidates permission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>FEC can limit money it has given to candidates (federal subsidies). If you do not take the money you are not bound by the limits </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>Provide public funding (subsidies) for several parts of the presidential election process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pre-convention campaigns - supported by private contributions and public money from the FEC but you need to meet eligibility requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>National Conventions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if a major party applies for the money it received a grant to pay for it. In 2000 they each received 13.5 million from the FEC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>Presidential Election Campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each major party nominee automatically is qualified for a public subsidy to cover the costs of general election campaigns. The candidate can refuse if they want to raise money somehow else. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>Hard money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>money raised and spend to elect candidates for Congress and the White House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>funds given to party organizations for such “party building activities” as candidate recruitment, voter registration get out the vote drives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>BiPartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 - McCain Feingold Bill - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aimed at the soft money problem. Bans soft money contributions to political parties, in particular, to their national and congressional campaign committees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>Political Action Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are 4,000 PACs registered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute money to those candidates who </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are sympathetic to its goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have a reasonable chance of winning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No PAC can give more than $5,000 to any one federal candidate in an election, or $10,000 per election cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>There is no overall limit on PAC giving to candidates (they can give how ever many candidates they want $5,000 each) </li></ul><ul><li>Can contribute up to $15,000 a year to a political party </li></ul><ul><li>PACs put an estimated $400 million into the presidential and congressional campaigns in 2000 </li></ul>
  • 29. Running for Pres <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff ($$) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advisors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 30. Running for Pres <ul><li>Strategy and Themes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbents Record - defend or attack? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tone - positive or negative? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a theme - trust? confidence? change? country first? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>Judge Timing - early momentum? Save resources for later? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target voter - who is the audience? What are the constituents? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 32. Getting Elected to Congress <ul><li>What impacts this? </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>District Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malapportionment: districts have different populations, so the votes in the less-populated district “weigh more” than those in the more-populated district (twice as many voters are needed in a larger district to elect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering: Boundaries are drawn to favor one party rather than another, resulting in odd-shaped districts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 34. Getting Elected to Congress <ul><li>Problems associated with the House </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size - Congress decides the House size at 435 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation of seats - After each 10 year census the states decide the districts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>Determining size of congressional districts - states decide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determining shape of congressional districts - states decide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 36. Winning Congressional Primary <ul><li>Voter signatures - need enough to appear on ballot in the primary </li></ul><ul><li>Win party nomination </li></ul><ul><li>Run in general election </li></ul>
  • 37. Staying in Office <ul><li>Delegates vs. Trustees </li></ul>
  • 38. Primary vs. General Campaigns <ul><ul><li>What works in one, might not work in the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different voters, media, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$$ - need those who will give money and attend the primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activists vs voters at large - primary voters are more “radical” than voters at large </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>Iowa Caucuses (or recent trend of front-loading) and New Hampshire Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media Attention on their results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winner leanings? Usually most liberal and most conservative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 40. <ul><li>Balancing Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary voters are more ideological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative enough/Liberal Enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center Move after primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translates to a balancing act </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 41. Two Kinds of Campaign Issues <ul><li>1) Position Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rival candidates with opposing views, usually voters are divided on partisan lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2008? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realignments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 42. <ul><li>2) Valance Issues: does the candidate support the public’s view on an issue where most people agree </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. strong economy, low unemployment rates, things people are not going to oppose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 43. T.V. Debates, Direct Mail <ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who gets the advantage? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>News Broadcast </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paid Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name recognition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 44. <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct-Mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Webpages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Appeal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you risk through the media? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 45. <ul><li>Overstated factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion as a single issue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 46. What Decides Elections? <ul><li>Party (Democrats less wedded to their party as Republicans, GOP does better with Independents, GOP has a higher turnout) </li></ul><ul><li>Issues, Especially Economy </li></ul>
  • 47. <ul><li>Campaign (reawaken party loyalties, </li></ul><ul><li>character, (how they handle pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Winning Coalition (people who will vote for them) </li></ul>

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