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Blended Learning, Review of a Didactical Framework:
Deb Carter & Albert Dudley

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  1. 1. Article - Michael Kerres & Claudia De Witt A Didactical Framework for the Design of Blended Learning Arrangements Journal of Educational Media Vol 28 Nos. 2-3, 2003 MDDE 601, Athabasca University Presented by: Deb Carter & Albert Dudley February, 2008 How do you put the “blend” in Blended Learning?
  2. 2. Blended Teaching <ul><li>Many blended courses are for the most part held online, but do allow for a few Face- to-Face (FTF) events! </li></ul><ul><li>Wh y are these FTF events important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds Community </li></ul></ul>Douglis (1993-2003)
  3. 3. Definitions of Blended Learning <ul><li>Ginn & Ellis (2007, p. 53) </li></ul><ul><li>“ learning processes that are spread across FTF and on-line” </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison & Kanuka (2004, p. 96) </li></ul><ul><li>“ the thoughtful integration of classroom FTF learning experiences with online learning experiences”. </li></ul><ul><li>Driscoll (2002, p. 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To combine or mix: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviourism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with FTF instructor-led training. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Valiathan (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Didactical criteria to categorizing learning approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skill-driven learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude-driven learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competency-driven learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Authors’ Contentions & Definitions <ul><li>Digital media will not replace FTF learning as some E-learning advocates predict. </li></ul><ul><li>Blended Learning = F2F + Technology-based Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transference of didactical methods to delivery systems , or more precisely, taking didactical instructional methods and delivering them through technological media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why bother with Blended Learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enriches the learning experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTF reduces dropout rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A Division of Labour <ul><li>Didactical methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expository presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delivery systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio & video media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer & internet delivery </li></ul></ul>The foundation for the communicative framework presupposes Social presence theory and the Instructional methods presuppose Media rich theory and Media synchronicity theory .
  6. 6. The Conversion Process And Its Implications. <ul><li>Generally it’s easy to convert many elements of the traditional classes to an online format. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture in class to Video of lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery learning to WebQuests </li></ul><ul><li>Student presentation to Our 2 nd assignment </li></ul><ul><li>However, by dividing the didactical methods into its three main components we can better understand the relationship between method and delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>3C- Didactical Method </li></ul><ul><li>1) Content component </li></ul><ul><li>2) Communication component </li></ul><ul><li>3) Construction component </li></ul><ul><li>The content component is t ext and multimedia material maybe unidirectional and optionally interactive nature. The similarity between information delivered in print and multimedia is that the interaction ‘is always individual and private’ (Moore and Kearsley (2006, p.73). </li></ul><ul><li>The communication component is generally the task or interaction, arguments, discussion, debates, conceptual conflicts, and dilemmas, sharing idea with others, problem solving activities, reflection and concept formation </li></ul><ul><li>The construction component deals mainly with instructional methods such as nominal group techniques, debates, comparative learning tasks. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Didactical Methods & Media Affordances. <ul><li>The authors’ goal was two-fold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>guidelines for selecting elements of a blended learning arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arrangements for the sequential ordering of these elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus far we have discussed the components of blended learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Typical Ingredients in Blended Learning <ul><li>Data Source: Online Survey of E-learning Guild members, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of survey participants combined delivery formats or didactical methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used up to 10 different elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did they use Blended Learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective than classroom alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher learner value/impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness greater than non-blended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learners liked it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1- Classroom instruction 6- Collaboration Software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2- Interactive Web-based training 7- Virtual classroom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3- E-mail-based communication 8- Print-based workbooks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4- Self-paced content 9- Online testing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5- Threaded discussion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Online Survey of E-learning Guild members, 2003 - Ordered Most to Least used Ingredients Typical Ingredients in Blended Learning
  10. 10. What Criteria Should Be Used in Choosing a Delivery System? <ul><li>Clark (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media do not influence learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness of media should determine choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rice (1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media do influence learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must match medium characteristics and communication activities to effectively transfer information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Presence Theory (Communicative Framework) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information/Media Richness Theory (Instructional Methods) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media Synchronicity Theory (Instructional Methods) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Social Presence Theory <ul><li>Lombard & Ditton, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Presence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of an interaction partner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer-mediated communication (CMC) creates varying levels of social presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest to Lowest Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTF learning – Highest Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology-based learning – Lower Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Media Richness Theory (MRT) Main dependent construct(s)/factor(s) Information processing, communication effectiveness Main independent construct(s)/factor(s) Uncertainty, equivocality Face-to-Face Telephone Written, Addressed Documents (note, memo, letters) Unaddressed Documents (flyer, bulletin, Standard reports) Media Richness High Low Source: Appalachian University An older business theory derived from Social distance theory which stipulates that the greater the complexity of the information and task, the greater the need to be in FTF due to its ability to provide quick feedback and its support of non-verbal cues. In education, it is assessing the impact of medicated communication : Synchronous vs. asynchronous communication If everyone has a piece of the puzzle, and a team needs to discuss and choose the correct configuration then rich media may be best: FTF If everyone has information to share, consider, or review then low media such a email may suffice.
  13. 13. Media Synchronicity Theory <ul><ul><ul><li>Immediacy of feedback : receiving rapid feedback from their communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol variety : format by which information is conveyed, verbal and non-verbal symbols included, cost of delays in order to alter or compose a message for a medium, social cost of lack of symbols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallelism : number of effective simultaneous conversations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsability : fine tuning a message before sending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reprocessability : readdressing a message within the context of the communication event </li></ul></ul></ul>This theory is very similar to Media Rich theory, and may be better suited for emerging technologies. Its advantage is the increase number of variables that are brought in regard to the media capabilities.
  14. 14. Example Using Media Synchronicity Theory <ul><li>Problem solving (steps) with group of 5 learners: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>2- Consult resources and identify options and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>3- Identify best solution </li></ul><ul><li>4- Plan how to achieve best solution </li></ul><ul><li>5- Put plan into action </li></ul><ul><li>Which media would suit each of these tasks and their sub-tasks? </li></ul><ul><li>When working in your group for this assignment, which media best suited your assigned tasks and their sub-tasks? </li></ul>Table 1 Relative Trait Salience of Selected Media
  15. 15. What is the Right Mix of FTF & Technology-based Learning? <ul><li>As the example shows, it depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unidirectional or Interactive flow of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous vs. Asynchronous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical considerations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise with technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction Component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group consensus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned methods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What Learners’ Costs are Associated with any Chosen Communication Delivery System? <ul><li>FTF Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babysitting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of wages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community and home obligations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology-based Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-monetary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community and home obligations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Relations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. FTF Learning in Distance Education Blended Learning Arrangements <ul><li>Authors’ Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be w ell prepared and seen as necessity by learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivering basic information about the course and the used technology/tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting to know each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing learning groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules for group work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting group work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying out examinations and evaluations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. FTF Learning in Distance Education Blended Learning Arrangements <ul><li>Sólveig Jakobsdóttir (Survey 2007-08) Top Four Overall Student Preferences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions and seminars (Averaged 76%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures (Averaged 59%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands on experiences (Averaged 51%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a good group spirit (Averaged 49%) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Bibliography: Garrison, D. R. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Internet and Higher Education , 7 , 95-105. Ginn, P. & Kanuka, P. (2007). Quality in blended learning: Exploring the relationships between on-line and face-to-face teaching and learning. Internet and Higher Education , 10 , 53-64. Jakobsdóttir, S. (2008). The role of campus-sessions and face-to-face meetings in distance education. Sent for Publication , 1-18. Kerres, M. & De Witt, C. (2002). A didactical framework for the design of blended learning arrangements. Journal of Educational Media , 28 (2-3), 101-113. Moore, M. & Kearsley, G. (2005). Distance Education: A Systems view, 2nd Edition. Toronto, ON, Canada: Thomson Wadsworth.