When it is not YOUR work or thoughts
• When paraphrasing or summarizing anything
• When using direct "quotes"
• When stating someone else's opinions,
thoughts, or research
• When using an image or work that someone
else created (even if you modified it)
Don’t have to cite:
Your thoughts and interpretations
Your work/images/media creations
So what is common
Go to the Common Knowledge page of the
It doesn't necessarily mean that most people would know it
offhand. And sometimes it's a judgment call because what
seems like common knowledge to one person isn't to another.
Here are good rules of thumb:
• If you can find the same information in multiple places,
stated in relatively the same way, it's common knowledge.
• Generally, it is said that you should find the information in
at least three to five sources.
• If most people are aware of this fact, or if it's general
reference, it's common knowledge
Why are there different citation styles?
Which styles are most common?
What are the differences between them?
Citation styles provide consistent directions for
formatting your papers and the information
about your sources.
• Modern Language
• Used for humanities –
• American Psychological
• Used for social sciences –
Two Most Popular Citation Styles:
So what are the differences
between MLA and APA?
See the examples on the handout provided.
• Order of citation information
• Required Information
Each style has a manual or handbook
with directions and examples to
Each style requires in-text AND
bibliography citation for every source
In-text citation acknowledges the source
at the point of use (source pg#).
If you are using the exact words from a
source (direct quoting), these words
should be placed in quotation marks.
Summarizing & Paraphrasing
Summarize: takes a broad overview of the
source material and highlights only the most
critical main points
Paraphrase: includes important supporting
details that pertain directly to the topic of
Let’s practice …
Go to the In-Text Citation page of the LibGuide.
Good Tips to Remember
• You want the text/resource to be familiar and fresh in
• If you are looking directly at the text, you are going to
be likely to borrow their exact wording. Set it aside
when trying to summarize and paraphrase
• Summarizing and paraphrasing still gives you the ability
to select what to highlight or include about your text. If
five people summarize the same thing, it will be
different every time
• Anytime you are writing a direct quotation down, put it
immediately into quotation marks so you remember
that it was taken word for word
Works Cited/ References
The Works Cited or Reference page
acknowledges all sources that were used
within the paper.
Let’s practice …
First, look at the reverse side of the handout
provided. Then go to the Works Cited page of
Cite because …
The original author/creator deserves credit
for his/her work
People are more likely to believe what you
are saying if you support your claims with
research and credible sources
Success in college (and real life) requires it
Plagiarism is …
Dictionary: an act or instance of using or closely
imitating the language and thoughts of another
author without authorization and the
representation of that author's work as one's own,
as by not crediting the original author.
Source: Plagairism. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/plagiarism
On college campuses …
Academic Integrity Policy
• Campus definition
• Normally includes info on cheating
To avoid plagiarizing, you must change
both the sentence structure and the
words of the original text.