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HIV/ AIDS Fact Sheet

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basic facts about HIV/ AIDS in USA

basic facts about HIV/ AIDS in USA

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  • 1. Course 637: HIV/AIDS Dr.Satya K. Gutta & Dr.Krishna M. Gopisetty HIV: Fact Sheet: 1. HIV is caused by an RNA containing enveloped virus known as: Human Immuno- deficiency Virus 2. HIV-1 is more closely related to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Chimpanzee’s (SIV- cpz). 3. The dominant strain in the United States is – HIV-1B 4. HIV-2 spreads poorly by sexual contact 5. About 10% of Caucasians of Western European descent have the mutation for chemokine receptor-CCR5-▲32 making them resistant to HIV 6. AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years 7. Indeed, gay and bisexual men of all races and ethnicities are the most affected of any group of Americans. 8. The cumulative estimated number of cases of AIDS through 2006 in the United States and dependent areas was 1,014,797 9. In 2006, the estimated number of persons living with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas was 448,871. 10. In 2006, the estimated number of deaths of persons with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas was 14,627. 11. The cumulative estimated number of deaths of persons with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas, through 2006, was 565,927. 12. The overall number of people living with HIV has increased as a result of the ongoing number of new infections each year and the beneficial effects of more widely available antiretroviral therapy. 13. Globally, there were an estimated 33 million [30.3 million—36.1 million] people living with HIV in 2007 14. African American males continue to bear the greatest burden of HIV infection. 15. Race and ethnicity are not, by themselves, risk factors for HIV infection. 16. Challenges associated with risk for HIV infection in African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos include high rates of sexually transmitted diseases, which can facilitate HIV transmission [6, 7]; substance abuse, which may increase the risk for HIV infection through sexual or drug-related transmission [8]; and socioeconomic factors, such as limited access to high-quality health care 17. In the mid-to-late 1990s, advances in HIV treatments led to dramatic declines in AIDS deaths and slowed the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. 18. By race/ethnicity, African Americans continue to be most severely affected by AIDS. In 2006, rates of AIDS cases were 47.6 per 100,000 for blacks, 15.6 for Hispanics, 6.2 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, 5.4 for whites, and 3.7 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. 19. Prevalence is the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in a given year. 20. At the end of 2003, an estimated 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 persons in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS, with 24%-27% undiagnosed and unaware of their HIV infection. 21. Incidence is the number of new HIV infections that occur during a given year. 22. In 2008, CDC estimated that approximately 56,300 people were newly infected with HIV in 2006 (the most recent year that data are available). 23. Over half (53%) of these new infections occurred in gay and bisexual men. 24. African American men and women were also strongly affected and were estimated to have an incidence rate than was 7 times greater than the incidence rate among whites.
  • 2. Course 637: HIV/AIDS Dr.Satya K. Gutta & Dr.Krishna M. Gopisetty 25. The HIV virus was first discovered in 1984 by: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi & Dr. Luc Montagnier. 26. Risk factors include: Unprotected sex, Injection drug use, Homosexual behavior,Needle- stick injury - rare transmission, STDs - having other STDs makes catching HIV more likely during sex, Syphilis, Genital herpes, Chlamydial infection, Gonorrhea, Bacterial vaginosis, Unprotected sex , Oral sex, Anal sex, Heterosexual sex, Blood transfusions, Injection drug use, Needlestick injury, Mother-infant transmission- Breastfeeding, Mother-to-fetus transmission,Mother-infant childbirth transmission 27. Risk of acquiring for men is greater if contact occurs during menstruation 28. Uncircumcised men are more likely to be seropositive and contract HIV during sex 29. HIV transmission rates: 30. Risk from single sexual encounter with man who is not a member of a risk group: 1 in 5 million 31. Risk from single encounter with man who is a member of a high risk group: 1 in 20 to 1 in 2 32. Needle-stick (with HIV-positive blood): 1 in 100 to 1 in 1000 (average 1 in 250) 33. Seroconversion from blood transfusion: 2 of 3 34. If mother is HIV positive, 100% of children will test positive at birth 35. About 20% of these will remain HIV positive after 1 year 36. Breast feeding increases transmiss rate ion 37. AZT (zidovudine/Azidothymidine) reduces risk by half (to about 10%). AZT + c-section reduces transmission rate to 5% 38. Neverapine: If given during labor to mother and to child after birth, cuts rate to 10%
  • 3. Course 637: HIV/AIDS Dr.Satya K. Gutta & Dr.Krishna M. Gopisetty 39. There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk —into your body. 40. HIV-negative Individual prevention: 41. Educate yourself and others. 42. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. 43. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. 44. Consider male circumcision. 45. Use a clean needle. 46. Be cautious about blood products in certain countries. 47. Get regular screening tests. 48. Don't become complacent. 49. HIV positive individual prevention: 50. Follow safe-sex practices. 51. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. 52. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. 53. Tell others who need to know. 54. Don't share needles or syringes. 55. Don't donate blood or organs. 56. Don't share razor blades or toothbrushes. 57. If you're pregnant, get medical care right aw 58. HIV infects CD-4 positive cells: 59. CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes 60. Macrophages 61. Lymph node follicular dendritic cells 62. Langerhans cells 63. Rate of Progression: 64. Depends on: 65. Viral load (no. of RNA copies/ml plasma) 66. Genetics 67. Mode of transmission 68. Viral load is the most important markerto determine prognosis and effectiveness of treatment 69. Symptoms of AIDS: 70. HIV-antibody test plus at least one of the following: 71. The development of an opportunistic infection — an infection that occurs when your immune system is impaired — such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) –Now called Pneumocystic jirovecii 72. A CD4 lymphocyte count of 200 or less — a normal count ranges from 800 to 1,200 73. AIDS defining conditions: 74. Encephalopathy, HIV-related (PMLE) 75. Pneumonia, recurrent (leading cause of death) 76. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay): 77. Tests for confirmation of HIV: 78. Western blot for antibodies specific to HIV 79. Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) 80. HIV DNA PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): 81. Culture for HIV
  • 4. Course 637: HIV/AIDS Dr.Satya K. Gutta & Dr.Krishna M. Gopisetty 82. HAART: Highly Affective Anti-Retro Viral Therapy 83. NRTI stands for: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors 84. Non-Nucleoside RTI’S (NNRTI’s)