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Hindi ppt

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  • 1. d{kk v/;kfidk la/;k tSu -vn`tk xqbZu izuksrh f‘kUMs
  • 2. 1. lwpuk 2. fgUnh lkfgR; dk bfrgkl 3. dky vuqlkj izfl/k jpudkjksa ds uke
  • 3. fgUnh lkfgR; dk bf fgUnh ,d ,slh Hkk‛kk gS] tks Hkkjr esa fg ugha cfYd fons’kksa esa Hkh cksyh tkrh gSal blus rjg-rjg ds Hkk‛kkvksa dk :i fyvk gS] vyx-vyx le; esa] tSls- oSfnd] lAl~d``r] izd`r] viHkza’k vkSj vc fgUnhl dbZ dfo;ksa -ys[kdks us vius fopkj O;Dr fd;s gSal dbZ nwljs Hkk‛kkvksa ls ‘kCn fy, x, gSAAl Hkk‚kk ds fodkl&Øe esa viHkza’k ls fganh dh vksj vkrs gq, Hkkjr ds vyx&vyx le;ksa ij vyx&vyx Hkk‛kk&’kSfYk;ka tUehAAl fgUnh buesa ls lcls vf/kd fodflr Fkh] vr% mldks Hkk‚kk dh ekU;rk feyhl vU; Hkk‛kk ‘kSfy;kA cksfy;ka
  • 4. fganh lkfgR; dk vkjaHk vkBoha ‘krkCnh ls ekuk tkrk gSA l ;g og le; gS tc lezkV g‛kZ dh e`R;q ds ckn ns’k esa vusd NksVs NksVs ’kklu dsanz LFkkfir gks x, Fks tks ijLij la?k‛kZjr jgk djrs FksA fons’kh eqlyekuksa ls Hkh budh VDdj gksrh jgrh FkhA fganh lhfgR; ds fodkl dks vkykspd lqfo/kk ds fy, iaakaWp ,sfrgkfld pj.kksa esa foHkkftr dj ns[krs gSa] tks dzeokj fuEufyf[kr & • vkfnsdky (1400 bZloh ls igys)& fgUnh lkfgR; ds vkfndky dks vkyksd 1400 bloh ls iwoZ dk dky ekurs gSa tc fgUnh dk mnHko gks gh jgk FkkA fgUnh dh fodkl&;k=k fnYyh] dUukSt vkSj vtesj {ks=ksa esa gqbZ ekuh tkrh gSA i`Fohjkt pkSgku dk ml oDr fnYyh esa ‘kklu FkkA • HkfDr dky (1375&1600)& ;g dky lexzr% HkfDr Hkkouk ls vksrizksr dky gSA bl dky ds pkj izeq[k dkO;&/kkjk,aW gS& KkuJ;h] izsekJ;h] d`‛.kkJ;h vksj jkekJ;hA bu pkj HkfDr ‘kk[kkvks ds pkj izeq[k dfo tks viuh&viuh /kkjk dk izfrfuf/kRo gSa& dchj nkl] efyd eksgYyn tk;lh]
  • 5. jhfr dky (1600&1850)& bl dky dks jhfrdky dgk x;k D;ksafd bl dky esa vf.kdka’k dfo;ksa us J`axkj o.kZu] vyadkj iz;ksx] Nan c/nrk vkfn ds ca/ks jkLrs dh gh dfork dhA gkykafd ?kukuan] Bkdqj] xksfcan flga tSls jhfr&eqDr dfo;ksa us viuh jpuk ds fo‛k; dks vyx j[kkA ds’ko] fcgkjh] Hkw‛k.k] ?kukuan vkfn bl dky ds izeq[k jpukdkj jgsA • vk/kqfud dky (1850 bZLoh ds i{pkr)& bl dky esa x| rFkk i| nksuks esa vyx&vyx fopkj /kkjkvksa dk fodkl gqvkA tgakW dkO; esa bls Nk;koknh ;qx] izxrhoknh ;qx] iz;ksxoknh ;qx vksj ;FkkFkZoknh ;qx] bu pkj ukeksa ls tkuk x;k gSA x| esa bldks] Hkkjrsanq ;qx] fOnosnh ;qx] jkepan ‘kqDy o izsepan ;qx rFkk v|ru ;qx dk ude fn;k x;kA
  • 6. dky vuqlkj izfl/k jpudkjksa ds uke ftl ftl dky esa jpukdkjksa dh jpuk izfl/k gqbZZ] mu jpukdkjkssa ds uke ifj;kstuk dk;Z ds bl vaD‛k esa n‛kZ;k x;k gS&
  • 7. vehj [++kqljks e/; ,f‛k;k dh ykpd tkfr ds rqdZ lSQqg~nhu ds iq= vehj [k+qljks dk tUe lu~(652 fg) esa ,Vk mRrj izns‛k ds ifV;kuh uked dLcs es gqvk FkA [+kqljks dh ekWa cyou FkhA mUkds firk ds nsgkUr ds ckn] mUgksus dfork fy[kuk izkjEHk ‚kq: fd;k vius fd‛kksjkoLFkk esaA 20 dh mez esa ,d dfo ds :I ls ns[ks tkus yxsA [k+qljks esa O;igkfjd cqf/n dh deh ugha FkhA [k+qljks us viuk lkjk thou i`Fohjkt pkSgku ds jkT;J; esa ges‛kk dfo] fZo|kifr fo|kifr Hkkjrh; lkfgR; dh HkfDr ijaijk ds izeq[k LraHkksa es ls ,d vkSj eSfFkyh ds loksZijh dfo ds :Ik esa tkus tkrs gSaA bUgsa oS’.ko vkSj ‚kSo HkfDr ds lsrq ds :Ik esa Hkh Lohdkj fd;k x;k gSA bUgksaus mRrjh&fcgkj esa yksdHkk’kk dh tupsruk dks thfor djus dk egrh iz;kl fd;k gSA fefFkylapy ds nsSfud thouksa esaa xk, tkusokys xhrksa esa vkt Hkh fo|kirh dh fJaxkj vksSj jl esaa ixh jpuk;sa cjdjkj gsSA bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;&
  • 8. HkfDr dky ds izfl/k jpukdkj&
  • 9. dchj nkl dchj nkl dk tUe ygrjk ds ikl lu~ 1398 esa gqvkA dchj ,d dfo ds lkFk&lkFk lekt lq/kkjd Hkh FksA dfcj th fy[kuk&i<+uk ugha tkurs Fks ij muds f‚k’; mudh ckrksa dks fy[krs FksA Hkkjr esa /kZe] Hkk’kk ;k laLd`fr fdlh dh Hkh ppkZ fcuk dchj dh ppkZ ds v/kwjh gh jgsxhA mudk tqykgk ifjokj esa ikyu iks’k.k gqvkA os jkekuan ds f‛k’; FksA dch k dksbZ Hkh lEiznk; vkSj :f<+;ksa dh ijokg fd;s dcuk [kjh ckr dgrs FksA dchj us fgUnw&eqlyeku lHkh lektksa dh :f<+okfnrkvksa dk [kqydj fojks/k fd;kA dchj ds mins‛kks dks muds f‛k’; Onkjk fyihc/kA dk‛kh Rqkylhnkl xksLokeh rqylhnkl(1497&1326) ,d egku dfo FksA mudk tUe jktoiqj xk¡o] mRrj izns’k esa gqvk FkkA vius thiudky esa rqykhnkl th us 12 xzUFk fy[ks vkSj mUgsa laLd`r foOnku gksus ds lkFk gh fgUnh Jkk’kk dk izfl/n vkSj loZJs’Bdfo;ksa esa ,d ekuk tkrk gSA rqylhnkl th dks egf’kZ okYehfd dk vorkj Hkh ekuk tkrk gSA muds firk dk uke viRekjke nqcs Fkk tks ,d izfrf’Br lj;wikjh.k czkã.k FksA muds ekrk dk uke gqlyh FkkA vius 126 o’kZ ds nh?kZ thou esa rqylhnkl us dkydzekuqlkj fuEufyf[kr xzUFkksa dh jpuk,¡ dha& jkekKkizUJ] tkudh&eaxy] jkepfjrekul] lrlbZ] xhrkoyh] fou;&if=dk] d`’.k&xhrkoyh] nksgkoyh vkSSj dforkoyh vkfnA jkepfjrekul rqylhnkl th dk lokZf/kd yksdfiz; xzUFk jgh gSA rqylhnkl th tc dk‛kh ds fo[;kr~ ?kkV vlhZ?kkV ij jgus yxs rks ,d jkr bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;&
  • 10. jhfr dky ds izfl/k jpukdkj&
  • 11. fcgkjh ds‛ko bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;& Ekgkdfo fcgkjhyky dk tUe 1595 ds yxHkx Xikfy;j esa gqvkA os tkfr ds ekFkqj pkScs FksA muds firk dk uke ds‛kojk; FkkA mudk cpiu cqansy [kaM esa dVk vkSj ;qokoLFkk llqjky eFkqjk esa O;rhr gqbZA fcgkjh dk uke egRiw.kZ gSA fo’k; ds vuqlkj fcgkjh dh ‚kSyh rhu izdkj dh gS&  Ek/kq;Z iw.kZ O;atuk iz/kku‛kSyh& Ja`xkj ds nkgksa esaA  Izklknxq.k ls ;qDr ljl ‚kSyh& HkfDr rFkk uhfr ds nksgksa esaA  peRdkj iw.kZ ‚kSyh& n‛kZu] T;ksfr’k] xf.kr vkfn fo’k;d nksgksa esaA fdlh dfo dk ;‛k mlds Onkjk jfpr xzaFkks ds ifjek.k ij ugha] xq/k ij fuHkZj gksrk gSA fcgkjh ds lkFk Hkh vkpk;Z ds‛konkl dk tUe 1546 bZLoh esa gqvk FkkA os luk<; czkã.k FksA muds firk dk uke ia ds‛khukFk FkkA vksjNk ds jktnjckj esa esa muds ifjokj dk cM+k eku FkkA ds‛konkl Lo;a vksjNk ujs‛k egkjkt jkeflag ds HkkbZ banzthr ds njckjh dfo] ea=h vkSj xq: FksAds‛konkl laLd`r ds mOnzV foOnu FksA muds dqy esa Hkh laLd`r dk gh izpkj FkkAukSdk&pkdj Hkh laLd`r cksyrs FksA ds‛ko us vius dkO; dk ek/;e cztHkk’kk dks cuk;k] ijarq cztHkk’kk dk tks <yk gqvk :i lwj vkfn v’V Nki ds dfo;ksa esa feyrk gS og ds‛ko dh dfork esa ughaA ds‛ko laLd`r ds izdkaM iafMr Fks] vr: mudh Hkk’kk laLd`r ls vR;f/kd izHkkfor gSA dgha&dgha rks muds
  • 12. c vk/kqfud dky ds izfl/k jpukdkj&
  • 13. bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;&izrki ukjk;.k feJ izrkiukjk;.k feJ dk tUe flracj 1894 esa gqvkA A lektlq/kkj dks n`f’V esa j[kdj mUgksus lSdMksa ys[k fy[ks gAsA ckyd`’.k HkV~V dh rjg og vk/kqfud fgUnh fuca/kks dks ijaijk iq’V dj fgUnh lkfgR;k ds lHkh vaxks dh iw.kZrk ds fy;s jpukjr jgsA ,d lQy O;X;dkj vkSj gkL;iw.kZ x|&i| jpukdj ds :i esa fganh lkfgR;k esa mudk fof‛k’V Lfkku gSA Hkkjr nqnZ‛kk] xkS ladV] dfy&izokg] gBh gehj vkfn feJ th ds ukVd gSaA laxhr ‚kdqaryk ykouk ds <+x ij xkus ;kX; [kMh+ cksyh esa i|&c/n ukVd gSA [kM+h cksyh ds :i esa izpfyr tuHkk’kk dk iz;ksx feJ th us vius lkfgR; esa fd;kA Hkk’kk dh lq/kkdj fOnosnh egkegksik./;k; if.Mr lq/kkdj fOnosnh(1860&1922) Hkkjr ds vk/kqfud dky ds egku xf.krK ,oa möV T;ksfrfoZn Fks ftudk tUe o:uk unh ds rV ij dk‛kh ds lehi [ktqjh xzke esa gqvkA vki fgUnh lkfgR;dkj ,oa ukxjh ds izcy i{k/kj Hkh FksA buds firk dk uke d`ikyqnRr fOnosnh vkSj ekrk dk uke tkph FkkA lq/kkdj th us xf.kr dk xgu v/;;u fd;k vkSj fHkUu&fHkUu xazFkksa ij viuk ^‛kks/k* izLrqr fd;kA xf.kr ds ikJ~pkR; xzaFkksa ds Hkh v/;;u bUgksaus vaxzsth vkSj Qaszp Hkk’kkvaksa dks i<+dj fd;kA
  • 14. r fOnosnh ;qx ds izfl/k jpukdkj&
  • 15. v;ks/;kflag mik/;k; ^gfjvkS/k* (viSzy] 1865&16 ekpZ] 1947) fganh ds ,d lqizfl) lkfgR;dkj gSA budk tUe mRrj izns‛k ds vkt+ex<+ ftys ds futkekckn uked Lfku esa gqvkA muds firk ds uke iafMr HkksykukFk mik/;k; HkkA mUgksaus fl[k /keZ viuk dj viuk uke Hkksyk flag j[k fy;k Fkk] oSls muds iwoZt luk<~; czkã.k FksA mudh dqN jpuk,¡& fiz; izokl] oSnsgh ouokl] Ikkfjtkr] jl&dy‛ks] BsB fganh ds BkB] v/k f[kyk Qwy] :fDe.kh ifj.k; fiz; izokl gfjvkS/k th dk lcls izfl) vkSj egRoiw.kZ xzaFk gSA gfjvkS/k th us cztHkk’kk vkSj [kMh+ cksyh nksuksa esa gh dfork dh gS] fdarq mudh cf/kdka‛k jpuk,¡ [kM+h cksyh esa gh gSaA gfjvkS/k dh Hkk’kk izkS<+] izkaty vkSj vkd’kZd gSA dgha&dgha mlesa mnZw&Qkjlh ds Hkh ‚kCn vk x, gSaA uohu vkSj vizpfyr ‚kCnksa dk iz;ksx Hkh gqvk gSA laLd`r ds rRle ‚kCnksa dk rks bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;&eSfFkyh‛kj. k xqIr jk’Vªdfo eSfFkyh‛kj.k xqIr (1885&1964) fgUnh ds egRRoiw.kZ dfo gSAJh ia egkohj izlkn fOnosnh th dh izsj.kk ls vkius [kM+h cksyh dks viuh jpukvksa dk ek/;e cuk;k vkSj viuh dfork ds Onkjk [kMh+ cksyh dks ,d dkO;& Hkk’kk ds :i esa fufeZr djus esa vFkd iz;kl fd;k vkSj bl rjg cztHkk’kk tSlh le`) dkO;&Hkk’kk dks NksMdj le; vkSj lanHkksZa ds vuqdwy gksus ds dkj.k u;s dfo;ksa us bls gh viuh dkO;&vfHkO;fDr dk ek/;e cuk;kA fgUnh dfork ds bfrgkl esa xqIr th ds ;g lcls cM+k ;ksxnku gSA xqIr th dchj nkl ds HkDr FksA muds firk lsB jkepj.k dudus vkSj ekrk dkSf‛kY;k ckbZ FksA izeq[k d`fr;k¡  egkdkO;& lkdsr v;ks/;kflag mik/;k; ^gf
  • 16. Nk;kokn ;qx ds izfl/k jpukdkj
  • 17. Ekgknsoh oZeklw;Zdkar f=ikBh fujkyk l;ZdkUr f=ikBh ^fujkyk* ( 21 Qjojh 1899&15 vDrwcj 1961 ) fgUnh dfork ds Nk;koknh ;qx ds pkj izeq[k LrHkksa esa ls ,d ekus tkrs gSaA fgUnh lkfgR; ds lokZf/kd pfpZr lkfgR;dkjksa esa ls ,d lw;ZdkUr f=ikBh ^fujkyk* dk tUe caxky dh fj;klr efg’kkny (ftyk esfnuhiqj) esa ek?k ‚kqDy ,dkn‛kh laor 1955 rnuqlkj 21 Qjojh lu 1899 esa gqvk FkkA muds firk if.Mr jkek=lgk; frokjh mUuko ds jgus okys Fks vkSj efg’kkny esa flikgh dh ukSdjh djrs FksA os ewy :I ls mRrj izns‛k ds mUuko ftys dk x<+dksyk uked xko ds fuoklh FksA fujkyk dh f‛k{kk gkbZ Ldwy rd gqbZA ckn esa fgUnh] laLd`r vkSj ckaXyk dk Lora= v/;;u fd;kA firk dh NksVh&lh ukSdjh dh vlqfo/kkvksa vkSj eku&vieku dk ifjp; fujkyk dks vkjEHk esa gh izkIr gqvkA  dkO;laxzg& vukfedk] ifjey] xhfrdk] fOnrh; vukfedk] rqylhnkl] dqdqjeqRrk] vf.kek] csyk] u;s iRrs] vpZuk] vkjk/kuk] xhr dqat] lk/; dkdyh] vijkA  miU;kl& vIljk] vydk] izHkkorh] fu:iek] dqYyh HkkV] fcYyslqj cdfjgkA  dghuh laxzg& fyyh] prqjh pekj] lqdqy dh choh] l[kh] bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;& egknsoh oekZ (26 ekpZ] 1907&11flracj] 1987) fgUnh dh lokZf/kd izfrHkkou dof;f=;ksa esa ls gSaA vk/kqfud fgUnh dh lcls l‛kDr dof;f=;ksa esa ls ,d gksus ds dkj.k mUgsa vk/kqfud ehjk ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA dfo fujkyk us mUgsa “fgUnh us fo‛kky efUnj dh ljLorh” Hkh dgk gSA egknsoh us Lora=rk ds igys dk Hkkjr Hkh ns[kk vkSj mlds ckn dk HkhA os mu dfo;ksaesa ls ,d gSa ftUgksaus O;kid lekt esa dke djrs gq, Hkkjr ds Hkhrj fo|eku gkgkdkj] :nu dks ns[kk] ij[kk vkSj d:.k gksdj vU/kdkj dks nwj djus okyh n`f’V nsus dh dksf‛k‛k dhA u dsoymudk dkO; cfYd muds lektlq/kkjds dk;Z vkSj efgykvksa ds izfr psruk Hkkouk Hkh bl n`f’V ls izHkkfor jgsA egknsoh th dh f‛k{kk bankSj esa fe‛ku Ldwy ls izkjEHk gqbZ lkFk gh laLd`r] vaxzsth] laxhr rFkk fp=dyk dh fZ‛k{kk v/;kidksa Onkjk ?kj ij gh nh tkrh jghA mudh dqN d`fr;k¡ bl izdkj gSa& 1- uhgkj (1930) 2- jf‛e (1932) 3- uhjtk ( 1934 ) 4- lka/;xhr (1936) 5- nhif‛k[kk (1942) 6- lRii.kkZ (vuwfnr&1952) 7- izHke vk;ke (1974) 8-
  • 18. mRrj&Nk;kokn ds izfl/k jpukd
  • 19. f‚koeaxy flag ^lqeu* f‛koeaxy flag ^lqeu* ( 1916&2002) fganh ds ‚kh’kZ dfo;ksa esa FksA mudk tUe mRrj izns‚k ds mUuko ftys esa gqvkA izkjfEHkd f‛k{kk Hkh ogha gqbZA mUgsa lu~ 1999 esa Hkkjr ljdkj us lkfgR; ,oa f‛k{kk ds {ks= esa i Hkw’k.k ls lEekfur fd;k FkkA ^lqeu* th us Nk= ls gh dkO; jpuk izkjEHk dj fn Fkh vkSj os yksdfiz; gks pys FksA iw¡thifr ‚kks’k.k ds iafr muds eu esa rhoz vkdks‛k gSA muesa jk’Vªh;rk vkSj ns‛kizse dk Loj Hkh feyrk gSA izzeq[k d`fr;k¡&  dkO;& fgYyksy] thou ds xku] izy;&l`tu] foÜpkl c<+rk gh x;k] ij v¡k[ksa ugha Hkjha] foa/; fgeky;] feV~Vh dh ckjkr vkfnA ukxktqZu bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;&
  • 20. k y Izk;ksxokn&u;h dfork ds izfl/k
  • 21. fxfjtkdqekj ekFkqj fxfjtk dqekj ekFkqj (22 vxLr 1919&10 tuojh 1994) dk tUe Xokfy;j ftys ds v‛kksd uxj dLcs esa gqvkA os ,d dfo] ukVddkj vkSj leykspd ds :I esa tkus tkrs gSaA muds firk nsohpj.k ekFkqj Ldqy v/;kid Fks rFkk lkfgR; ,oa laxhr ds ‚kkSdhu FksA os dforkHkh fy[kk djrs FksA flrkj ctkus esa izoh.k FksAekrk y{ehnsoh ekyok dh jgus okyh Fkh vkSj f‛kf{kr FkhaA fxfjtkdqekj dh izkjfEHkd f‛kf{kk ?kj ij gh gqbZA Lfkkuh; dkWyst ls b.VjehfM,V fd;kA 1938 esa mUgksaus ch-,- fd;k] 1941 esa mUgksaus y[kuÅ fo‛ofo|ky; ls ,e-,- fd;k rFkk odkyr dh ijh{kk Fkh ikl dhA fxfjtkdqekj dh dkO;kRed ‚kq:vkr 1934 esa cztHkk’kk ds ijEijkxr dfoRr&loS;k ys[ku ls gqbZA os fonkzsg dkO; ijEijk ds jpukdkj ek[kuyky prqosZnh] ckyd`’.k ‚kekZ ujs‛k esgrk ujs‛k esgrk dk tUe lu~ 1922 esa e/;izns‛k ds ekyok {ks= ds ‚kktkiqj dLcs esa gqvkA cukjl fo‛ofo|ky; ls vkius ,e-,- fd;kAvkius vky bf.M;k jsfM;ks bykgkckn esa dk;ZØe vf/kdkjh ds :i esa dk;Z fd;kA ujs‛k esgrk dh Hkk’kk laLd`rfu’B [kM+hcksyh gSA mUgksaus lh/ks] ljy fcEcksa dk iz;ksx Hkh fd;k gSA ujs‛k esgrk nwljs lRid ds izeq[k dfo ds :I esa izfl) gSaA lu~ 2000 esa esgrk th dk fu/ku gks x;kA ujs‛k esgrk dks muds lkfgfR;d lsokvksa ds fy, 1992 esa KkyihB iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;kA KkuihB iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fgUnh ds ;‛kLoh dfo ujs‛k esgrk mu ‚kh’kZLFk us[kdksa esa gSa tks Hkkjrh;rk dh viuh xgjh n`f’V ds fy, tkus tkrs gSaA ujs‛k esgrk us vk/kqfud dfork dks u;h O;atuk ds lkFk u;k vk;ke Hkh fn;kA mudh dqN d`fr;k¡& vj.;k] mRrj dFkk] ,d lefiZr efgyk] fdruk vdsyk vkdk‛k] pSR;k] bu esa ls nks tuks dk ifjp;&