Section 2: Section 1: Planning &Preparing for Implementing Instruction Effective Lesson Plans Section 3: Section 4:Instructional EvaluatingStrategies for StudentAll Students Progress Section 5: Defining a Standards- Based Classroom
• Step 1: Review the Individualized Education Program (IEP)• Step 2: Select Instructional Materials• Step 3: Creating a Class Schedule
Review each student’s IEP andcomplete the following tasksbefore planning and implementinghis or her instructional plan:• Identify specific academic skills and course standards to be taught• Identify specific methods and materials to be used in the instructional process• Identify specific methods and materials to be used to monitor progress and evaluate each goal and objective• Review the initiation and completion dates of all goals and objectives• Identify specific provider(s) for all academic areas in which the
Utilize the following planwhen selecting instructionalmaterials:• Identify the curriculum areas in which materials are needed.• Rank the areas from highest to lowest in priority.• List affordable materials that are designed to teach in the selected skill area(s).• Obtain the materials and evaluate them so that a decision can be made regarding to a purchase.
The class schedule should flow with the school’s masterschedule,is conducive to schedules of inclusive students, and allowsfor teacher planning.Consider the following when planning yourschedule: Level Elementary Secondary Level • Analyze the day’s events • Homeroom • Plan opening exercises • Academic instruction (class • Schedule academic periods) instruction • Lunch • Plan closing exercises • Exploratory or elective class • Transition program • Planning • Advisement
Instructional Planning Guide:• Plan lessons at least two weeks in advance.• Set aside time each day to plan – don’t try to do all your planning in one day.• Collaborate and plan with the primary teacher in inclusive settings.• Review the objectives or standards for each lesson to be taught.• Develop essential questions and enduring understandings for each lesson or unit.• Post essential questions and enduring understandings in highly visible location.• Select supporting materials to reinforce lesson objectives or standards being taught.• Make copies of all reinforcement materials in advance.• Prepare a weekly syllabus or homework calendar for students.• Inform students in advance of all test dates.
Preview Lesson:• Introduce lesson or skill using essential questions and enduring understandings.• Administer a diagnostic assessment or require students to complete a KWL chart if beginning a unit.• Review previous lesson (linking prior knowledge).• Pre-teach lesson vocabulary.Lesson Content:• Demonstrate skill and/or standard; explain & discuss with students.• Provide opportunity for guided practice, independent practice, and for students to demonstrate skill.• Administer formative assessment, check on learning• Reteach problem areas and determine next steps.Lesson Conclusion:• Summarize lesson/review enduring understandings.• Answer essential questions.• Administer summative assessment, determine skills or standards
Strategy 1: DifferentiatedInstruction consider such The teacher should differences as the students’: Four Ways to • Learning styles, skill levels, and Differentiate Instruction: rates 1. Differentiating the • Learning difficulties content/topic • Language proficiency 2. Differentiating the • Background experiences and process/activities knowledge 3. Differentiating the product • Interests 4. Differentiating by manipulating the • Motivation environment or through • Ability to attend accommodating individual • Social and emotional learning styles development • Various intelligences • Levels of abstraction • Physical needs
Strategy 2: Teacher-Directed Instruction – “In ateacher-directed classroom, the teacherplans, shapes and guides the learning process. Heor she analyzes course standards and prepares asequence of instructional strategies to helpstudents acquire the knowledge and skills to meetthose standards” (Tanner, Bottoms, &Bearman, 2001 as cited in Shelton &Pollingue, 2009).Strategy 3: Student-Centered Learning – “Basedon the belief that active involvement by studentsincreases learning and motivation. Good student-centered learning values the student’s role inacquiring knowledge and understanding”(Tanner, Bottoms, & Bearman, 2001 as cited in
Graphic organizers can be defined as the following:1. They help students comprehend information through visual representations of concepts, ideas, and relationships. They provide the structure for short- and long-term memory.2. They turn abstract concepts into concrete visual representations.3. Understanding text structure is critical to reading comprehension. If students have a guide to the text structure, their comprehension is considerably higher than when they rely only on reading and memorization.4. The most important question a teacher can answer is: “How do I want students to think about my content?” Then, the teacher selects a graphic organizer that facilitates that type of thinking. (Thompson & Thompson, 2003 as cited in Shelton & Pollingue, 2009)
Having students summarize is important to the learning processfor the following reasons:1. Summarizing is perhaps the key thinking skill for learning.2. Summarizing is a learning strategy, not a teaching strategy. Learners must summarize themselves for the learning to construct meaning.3. When summarizing, students create a “schema” for the information and remember it better and longer.4. Teachers find out what students have internalized, understood, and remembered.5. When students summarize, their confusions, misconceptions, or misunderstandings surface, and teachers can then adapt future teaching accordingly. It is key to knowing when and on what to reteach.6. Student summarizing should be distributed through a lesson, not just at the end. (Thompson & Thompson, 2003 as cited in Shelton & Pollingue, 2009)
Formative assessments: given to students in order to determinetheir levels of understanding of the concepts being taught, andthe results provide the teacher with insight into any instructionaladjustments that need to be made.Summative assessments: used to determine whether thestudents have successfully learned what was taught.Performance-based assessments: require students todemonstrate their knowledge of acquired skills; a type offormative assessment.Examples of performance assessments:• Open-ended or constructed response items• Performance-based items or events• Projects or experiments• Portfolios
Teachers must rethink their instructional formatsand create classrooms that are standards-basedready: “A classroom where teacher and students have a clear understanding of the expectations (standards). They know what they areteaching/learning each day (standards), why the day’s learning is an important thing to know or know how to do (relevance), and how to do it (process). Standards-based learning is a process, not an event” (Georgia Department ofEducation as cited in Shelton & Pollingue, 2009).
Shelton, C. F. , & Pollingue, A. B. (2009). The exceptionalteacher’s handbook: The first-year special educationteacher’s guide to success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Photo Credits:Page 2: http://searchandsocialschool.com/special-education-teacher-roles.