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Ch_4 PR: The Growth of a Profession

Ch_4 PR: The Growth of a Profession



Chapter 4 Think! textbook. Slides adapted from Think!

Chapter 4 Think! textbook. Slides adapted from Think!



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  • via PRSAY 2011
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  • This question will stimulate discussion of the essential elements of effective public relations, instead of memorizing any particular definition of public relations. via PRSAY 2011
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  • This question will stimulate discussion of the future of public relations given the trends in today’s practice of public relations via PRSAY 2011
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Ch_4 PR: The Growth of a Profession Ch_4 PR: The Growth of a Profession Presentation Transcript

  • Ch 4: The Growth of A Profession Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• Ancient beginnings – The Rosetta Stone – Julius Caesar – The Church Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• Public relations in colonial America – Promoting settlement – Struggle for independence • Boston Tea Party. • Thomas Paine- English-American political activist, author, political theorist and revolutionary. Author: ‘Common Sense’ 1776. • Federalist Papers – Hamilton, Madison, Jay. Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• The age of the press agent – The age of hype – Davy Crockett, Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley – Press agent tactics – The King: P. T. Barnum • Tom Thumb, Jenny Lind• Public relations grows as America grows – Settling the American West – Railroad promotion techniques Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• The rise of politics and activism – Political beginnings • Amos Kendall • Teddy Roosevelt – Activists • Abolitionists • Prohibitionists • Women’s rights advocates • Environmentalists Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• Modern public relations comes of age – Henry Ford • Positioning and accessibility – Ivy Lee • First public relations counselor – Rockefeller • Four key contributions – George Creel • WWI – Edward Bernays • Father of modern PR Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• Public relations expands in postwar America – Rapid growth in all areas of public relations along with the development of mass media. Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Brief History of Public Relations• Evolving practice and philosophy – 1800s to 1920s from press agentry to public information to scientific persuasion. – 1950s & ’60s - Relationship building • Necessitated by activism – 1970s & ’80s - Managerial approach • Investor relations and MBO – 1990s & ’00s - Relationship management Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Four Models of Public Relations• Press agentry/publicity• Public information• Two-way asymmetric• Two-way symmetric Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Trends• Feminization of public relations – 85% of PR practitioners are women [Ragan, 2012]. – 20% of PR practitioners in management are women [Ragan, 2012]. – Women earn less money than men [70 cents to a dollar]-Lilly Ledbetter Act of 2009. Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Global Scope• The public relations industry is growing in many nations. – Global public relations industry grew by slightly more than 8 percent in 2010, ending the year with fee income of at least $8.8 billion and employing about 60,000 people. – Edelman had the highest revenue for public relations agencies in 2010, with $531.5 million in income.• The average annual public relations budget in a publicly-owned company is $9.9 million.• The average annual public relations budget for a government agency is $16.4 million. Source: The Holmes Report - http://bit.ly/SBDk2s
  • PR in the US• Total communications spending, including advertising, marketing, and communications, increased 4.2% in 2011. – Expected to grow 5.6% this year (2012), outpacing GDP growth of 4.4%. – Predicted total communications spending will grow 31%, or by $343 billion, to $1.4 trillion by 2015.• Spending on traditional public relations services grew by 4.9 percent. – From 2005-10, to $3.7 billion.• Spending on combined public relations and word-of-mouth marketing spending will grow 14.6% this year.• Annual spending on traditional public relations services will increase at a compound annual growth rate of 8 percent, to $5.4 billion.• Annual spending on word of mouth marketing services will increase at a compound annual growth rate of 22.3 percent, to $5.6 billion. – Up from $2 billion in 2010. Study performed by Veronis Suhler Stevenson - http://vss.com
  • PR Employees• According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: – Over 7,000 public relations firms in the United States. – Community is even larger considering the public relations function within America’s: • Corporations, government bodies, health care institutions, military branches, professional services firms, associations, nonprofit organizations, and other public and private entities.• In 2008 – 64,000 individuals employed as public relations managers (up from 63,000 in 2007). – 135,000 employed as public relations specialists (up from 132,000 in 2007).• Job titles vary greatly within the industry thus difficult to track. Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics - http://www.bls.gov/
  • Trends• The importance of diversity – Minorities constitute 34% of U.S. citizens. – Hispanics are the fastest growing group. – Minority practitioners lag behind population trends. – Professional groups seek to encourage minority practitioners. Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Trends• Other major trends in public relations – Transparency – An ever-broadening social medial toolbox – Increased emphasis on evaluation [ROI] – 24/7 news cycle – Evolving mass media – Outsourcing – Solo PR pro – Lifelong learning Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012 Via PRNewswireAdrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Business Increases Its Voice In The Digital Space•If 2011 was the year of brands getting their owned-media properties in order, 2012 will be the year of PRprofessionals empowering business leaders and expertsto get involved. As we look to the year ahead, it’simportant for communicators to understand themethodology and value in this and be prepared to workwith business leaders, decision makers and subjectexperts to get them up to speed and involved on digitalplatforms if they aren’t already. (Aedhmar Hynes, CEO,Text 100) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Convergence Continues•The recent news about Johnson & Johnson appointing MichaelSneed as vice president of global corporate affairs, overseeing globalmarketing and public relations, stands as yet another indication thatbrand and reputation continue to converge and create the need forjoining forces. Always a hot-button issue in PR, the reality is thatorganizations will continue to merge their brand managementfunctions (marketing) with their reputation management functions(PR).•If PR professionals are going to continue to work closely with theirmarketing brethren and generate significant results for clients, theyneed to get more comfortable with analytics. (MaryLee Sachs, formerU.S. chairman, Hill & Knowlton; author, “The Changing MO of the CMO”) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Organizations Will Be Defined By Communication•Time magazine named “the protester” as itsperson of the year for 2011 — an insight that foreshadows achallenge for every organization in 2012: never will it beeasier for any David to throw any Goliath off stride, and neverwill organizations be more defined by communication. As wemove ever closer to a world in which global publishing powerlies in every person’s pocket, the punishment for failing tolisten, engage, anticipate and respond effectively will besevere; and the rewards for an organization that defines itselfthrough communication will be rich indeed. (Daniel Tisch, APR, Fellow CPRS, chair, Global Alliance; CEO,Argyle Communications.) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Wanted: Great Industry Leadership•The issues currently being debated by the profession arealmost exactly the same as those that occupied theindustry a decade ago. The topics are familiar to bothstudent and veteran: ethics, formal definitions, diversity,measurement and skills.•With better leadership, the PR industry has theopportunity to become the management consultants ofthe 21stcentury. We need to claim our ground. Theindustry needs leadership. (Stephen Waddington,managing director, Speed) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012The Rise Of The ‘Influence Professional’•The irreversible change wrought by social media and relatedtechnologies, and advances in business performancemanagement, such as the Balanced Scorecard and strategy maps, require transformation of the organization’sstructure, culture, skills, policies and processes to securecompetitive advantage, or simply to maintain viability. Thetask of tracking the six influence flows demands a new skill setand a new job role that I refer to as the “InfluenceProfessional.”•If information paucity characterized the 20th centurymarketing and PR, so-called “big data” is both the challengeand opportunity of the 21st. (Philip Sheldrake, author andfounding partner, Meanwhile). Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Social Validation Becomes The ‘Holy Grail’•In 2012, a campaign’s ability to produce buzz in social orshared media will become a valid, if not Holy Grailbarometer, of one’s success plying the “earned, ownedand paid” media spheres. The booming social TV /second-screen revolution moves beyond a novelty to anactual barometer of a campaign’s success, as brandsincreasingly look to integrate their stories across multiplesimultaneous channels and platforms. (Peter Himler,founding principal, Flatiron Communications.) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Shifting Metrics And Integration Drive Digital PR•Both a challenge and opportunity for publicrelations professionals in 2012 is to have moredata-driven decision-making processes. For thoseof us focusing primarily on digital, identifying theright data that can inform decisions and integratingacross all channels will position us for success. (Joe Ciarallo, vice president ofcommunications, Buddy Media) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012The Consumerization Of IT Changes PR From The Inside, Out•The consumerization of IT and technology is an importantinternal business issue for PR firms in 2012. Consumerizationof IT has the potential to increase PR firms’ productivity,engender employee satisfaction and provide a more agile,responsive client service experience. Look for consumer-focused technologies, such as social messaging platforms, toincreasingly make their way into the arsenal of PR firms’ in-house communications and IT, fundamentally changing howPR professionals communicate with one another and workdirectly with clients across multiple platforms andchannels. (Janet Tyler, president, Airfoil Public Relations) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Economic Realities Reset The PR / Media Relationship•The impact of a depressed economic environment willdemand incisive PR support to cut through the confusionand blurring of media channels that is sure to intensify in2012. Social media will continue to exert its sometimesunseen, stealthy influence on more establishedpublishers and broadcasters. A richer, more confusingand, perhaps, less reliable media market willensue. (Stefan Stern, director of strategy, Edelman;former management columnist, The Financial Times) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012The Rise Of ‘Brand Journalism’•Layoffs and rapid turnover mean many PR pros arefinding it difficult to establish solid relationships or earnthe attention their promotional efforts may deserve.Enter Brand Journalism. As media fragmentationcontinues relatively unabated, look for more companiesin 2012 to explore the realm of Brand Journalism byhiring their own “reporters” to produce brand contentand news. While enticing, companies will need tocarefully weigh theethical perils present in BrandJournalism. (Derek DeVries, communications technologymanager, Grand Rapids Community College) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Solo PR Pros Make Their Mark•A confluence of events will make 2012 the year theindustry discovers that independent public relationsconsultants are its secret weapon. As the economy edgestoward recovery, the key to weathering the oscillatingbusiness cycles that have become the norm is theeffective use of independent PR contractors. There is agrowing understanding within the business communitythat solo PR pros are experienced and savvyprofessionals, who play a key role in ourprofession. (Kellye Crane, principal, Solo PR Pro) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • #PRin2012Talent Acquisition Goes Social•Will hiring for public relations positions increase in 2012?Many economic indicators offer encouragement. Beyond anincrease in specific job openings, reports indicate afundamental shift taking place in the way the job marketfunctions. Continuing use of social media as a means toenhance one’s career prospects will pave the way for newtalent-acquisition opportunities and challenges.•The coming year will find employees encroaching on HRterritory, serving as brand ambassadors to prospectiveemployees. A coordinated effort between HR and publicrelations to offer continued social media training andguidelines is essential. (Valerie Simon, co-founder, #PRStudChat) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • What Do You Think?• In what ways do you think Public Relations will evolve in the next half century? Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Growing Professional Practice• The Public Relations Society of America – The largest national public relations organization in the world – The Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA) Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Growing Professional Practice• The International Association Business Communications – The second-largest organization of communication and public relations professionals Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • A Growing Professional Practice• The International Public Relations Association – A London-based global organization Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation• Professionalism – Professional practitioners should have: • A sense of independence • A sense of responsibility to society and public interests • Concern for the competence and honor of the profession • A higher loyalty to the profession than to an employer – Careerist versus professional values – Technician mentality Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation• Licensing – Advocates • Defines PR, unifies curricula, unifies standards, protects clients, protects practitioners, raises practitioners’ credibility – Opponents • Violates 1st amendment, malpractice laws exist, states license but PR works nationally/internationally, ensures only minimum competence/ethics, increased credibility not ensured, expensive Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA
  • Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation• Accreditation – “Certification” by professional organizations – PRSA and IABC offer accreditation. Adrienne Wallace MS, MPA