• What’s difference between leadership and management ？
– Management is about coping with complexity.
– Leadership is about coping with change.
• Leadership ： The ability to influence a group toward the
achievement of a vision or set of goals.
– A person may assume a leadership role simply because of the position he
or she holds in the organization.
– Not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all managers
• Trait theories of leadership differentiate leaders from nonleaders by
focusing on personal qualities and characteristic.
• Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual
traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
• Leadership Traits:
• Ambition and energy 、 The desire to lead 、 Honest and integrity 、
Self-confidence 、 Intelligence 、 High self-monitoring 、 Job-relevant
• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
• Traits predict behavior better in weak” than strong” situations.“ “
• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and
• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective
and ineffective leaders.
• Two conclusions ：
– Traits can predict leadership. The Big Five seems to have rectified that.
– Traits do a better job at predicting the emergence of leaders and the
appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective
and ineffective leaders.
• They began looking at the behaviors exhibited by specific leaders.
• Behavioral Theories of Leadership ： Theories proposing that
specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
• Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.
• Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
• Initiating Structure
– The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her
role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment.
– The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships
characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for
• Employee-Oriented Leader
– Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs
of employees and accepting individual differences among members.
• Production-Oriented Leader
– One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
• A nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles.
• Fiedler’s Contingency Model
– The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a
leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the
situation gives control and influence to the leader.
• Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire
– An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or
• Leader-Member Relations
– The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their
• Task Structure
– The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
• Position Power
– Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization;
includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
• Cognitive Resource Theory
– A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a
situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of
stress on the leader.
• Research Support:
– Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high
stress than do more intelligent individuals.
– Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress
than do more experienced people.
• Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
– A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.
• Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-
group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover,
and greater job satisfaction.
• The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining
their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or
support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall
objectives of the group or organization.
• A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the
form and amount of participative decision making in different
• Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model
（ Exhibit 12-5 ）
– A way of communicating that shapes meaning.
– Selective highlighting of facts and events.
– Ignored in traditional leadership studies.
• Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership
abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
• Four characteristics of charismatic leaders:
– Have a vision.
– Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision.
– Are sensitive to follower needs.
– Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
• Traits and personality are related to charisma.
• People can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors.
• A four-step process:
1) Leader articulates an attractive vision
-Vision Statement: A formal, long-term strategy to attain goals.
-Links past, present, and future.
1) Leader communicates high performance expectations and confidence
in follower ability
2)Leader conveys a new set of values by setting an example
3)Leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional
behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision
• Importance of vision
• Must be inspirational, value-centered, realizable, and given with
superior imagery and articulation.
• Charismatic effectiveness and situation
• Charisma works best when:
– The follower’s task has an ideological component.
– There is a lot of stress and uncertainty in the environment.
– The leader is at the upper level of the organization.
– Followers have low self-esteem and self-worth.
• Dark Side of Charisma
• Ego-driven charismatics allow their self-interest and personal goals to
override the organization’s goals.
• Level-5 Leaders
• Very effective leaders who possess the four typical leadership traits
• Individual competency.
• Team skills.
• Managerial competence.
• Ability to stimulate others to high performance.
• Plus one critical new trait…
• A blend of personal humility and professional will.
• Personal ego needs are focused toward building a great company.
• Take responsibility for failures and give credit to others for successes.
• Transactional & Transformational Leadership ？
– Transactional Leaders
• Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of
established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
– Transformational Leaders
• Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of
the organization; they can have a profound and extraordinary effect
• Not opposing, but complementary, approaches to leadership
• Great transformational leaders must also be transactional; only one
type is not enough for success.
• Transactional Leader
• Contingent Reward:
– Contracts exchange of rewards for
effort, promises rewards for good
• Management by Exception:
– Active: Watches and searches for
deviations from rules and standards,
takes corrective action
– Passive: Intervenes only if
standards are not met
– Abdicates responsibilities, avoids
• Transformational Leader
• Idealized Influence:
– Provides vision and sense of mission,
instills pride, gains respect and trust
– Communicates high expectations, uses
symbols to focus efforts, expresses
important issues simply
• Intellectual Stimulation:
– Promotes intelligence, rationality, and
• Individualized Consideration:
– Gives personal attention, coaches,
• Leadership styles listed from passive to very active.
• Note the ineffective styles are mostly transactional.
• It is all about influencing followers.
• Basis for Action:
– Transformational leadership works by encouraging followers to be more
innovative and creative and by providing ambitious goals.
• Evaluation Based on the Research:
– This theory does show high correlations with desired outcomes.
– This style of leadership can be taught.
• Transformational vs. Charismatic Leadership:
– Similar concepts, but transformational leadership may be considered a
broader concept than charisma.
– Instrument-based testing shows the measures to be roughly equivalent .
• Authentic Leaders:
– Ethical people who know who they are, know what they believe in and
value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.
– Primary quality is trust.
• Build trust by:
– Sharing information.
– Encouraging open communication.
– Sticking to their ideals.
• Still a new topic; needs more research.
• Ethics touch on many leadership styles
– As the moral leaders of organizations, CEOs must demonstrate high ethical
– Socialized charismatic leadership: leaders who model ethical behaviors.
– The positive expectation that another person will not act opportunistically.
– Composed of a blend of familiarity and willingness to take a risk .
– Five key dimensions: integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and
• Trust dimensions （ Exhibit ）：
– Honesty and truthfulness.
– An individual’s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills.
– An individual’s reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling
– The willingness to protect and save face for another person.
– Reliance on the person to give you the full truth.
• Deterrence-based Trust
– Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated.
• Knowledge-based Trust
– Trust based on behavioral predictability that comes from a history of
• Identification-based Trust
– Trust based on a mutual understanding of one another’s intentions and
appreciation of the other’s wants and desires.
• Mistrust drives out trust
• Trust begets trust
• Trust can be regained
• Mistrusting groups self-destruct
• Mistrust generally reduces productivity
– A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee
(a prot g ).é é
– Good teachers present ideas clearly, listen, and empathize.
– Two functions:
• Career ： Coaching, assisting, sponsoring .
• Psychosocial ： Counseling, sharing, acting as a role model.
– Can be formal or informal.
– Mentors tend to select prot g s who are similar to them in background:é é
may restrict minorities and women.
– A set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior.
– Effective leaders (superleaders) help followers to lead themselves.
– Important in self-managed teams.
• To engage in self-leadership:
1. Make a mental chart of your peers and colleagues.
2. Focus on influence and not on control.
3. Create opportunities; do not wait for them.
• Attribution Theory of Leadership
– The idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about
– Qualities attributed to leaders:
• Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, are
aggressive, understanding, and industrious.
• Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and unwavering in their
• Effective leaders project the appearance of being leaders.
• Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership
Defining Characteristics Leadership Leadership
Experience/training No effect on Substitutes for
Professionalism Substitutes for Substitutes for
Indifference to rewards Neutralizes Neutralizes
Highly structured task No effect on Substitutes for
Provides its own feedback No effect on Substitutes for
Intrinsically satisfying Substitutes for No effect on
Explicit formalized goals No effect on Substitutes for
Rigid rules and procedures No effect on Substitutes for
Cohesive work groups Substitutes for Substitutes for
– Review specific requirements for the job.
– Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-
monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence.
– Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job.
– Keep a list of potential candidates.
– Recognize that all people are not equally trainable.
– Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders.
– Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of
nascent charismatic employees.
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