What’s difference between leadership and management ？
Management is about coping with complexity.
Leadership is about coping with change.
Leadership ： The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.
A person may assume a leadership role simply because of the position he or she holds in the organization.
Not all leaders are managers, nor, for that matter, are all managers leaders.
Trait theories of leadership differentiate leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristic.
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
Ambition and energy 、 The desire to lead 、 Honest and integrity 、 Self-confidence 、 Intelligence 、 High self-monitoring 、 Job-relevant knowledge
No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.
Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
Two conclusions ：
Traits can predict leadership. The Big Five seems to have rectified that.
Traits do a better job at predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.
They began looking at the behaviors exhibited by specific leaders.
Behavioral Theories of Leadership ： Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.
Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment.
The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.
One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
A nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire
An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader.
The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
Cognitive Resource Theory
A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals.
Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.
Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.
Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model （ Exhibit 12-5 ）
A way of communicating that shapes meaning.
Selective highlighting of facts and events.
Ignored in traditional leadership studies.
Two contemporary leadership theories:
Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
Four characteristics of charismatic leaders:
Have a vision.
Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision.
Are sensitive to follower needs.
Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
Traits and personality are related to charisma.
People can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors.
A four-step process:
Leader articulates an attractive vision
-Vision Statement: A formal, long-term strategy to attain goals.
-Links past, present, and future.
Leader communicates high performance expectations and confidence in follower ability
Leader conveys a new set of values by setting an example
Leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision
Importance of vision
Must be inspirational, value-centered, realizable, and given with superior imagery and articulation.
Charismatic effectiveness and situation
Charisma works best when:
The follower’s task has an ideological component.
There is a lot of stress and uncertainty in the environment.
The leader is at the upper level of the organization.
Followers have low self-esteem and self-worth.
Dark Side of Charisma
Ego-driven charismatics allow their self-interest and personal goals to override the organization’s goals.
Very effective leaders who possess the four typical leadership traits
Ability to stimulate others to high performance.
Plus one critical new trait…
A blend of personal humility and professional will.
Personal ego needs are focused toward building a great company.
Take responsibility for failures and give credit to others for successes.
Transactional & Transformational Leadership ？
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization; they can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.
Not opposing, but complementary, approaches to leadership
Great transformational leaders must also be transactional; only one type is not enough for success.
Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments
Management by Exception:
Active: Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action
Passive: Intervenes only if standards are not met
Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions
Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust
Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important issues simply
Promotes intelligence, rationality, and problem solving
Gives personal attention, coaches, advises
Leadership styles listed from passive to very active.
Note the ineffective styles are mostly transactional.
It is all about influencing followers.
Basis for Action:
Transformational leadership works by encouraging followers to be more innovative and creative and by providing ambitious goals.
Evaluation Based on the Research:
This theory does show high correlations with desired outcomes.
This style of leadership can be taught.
Transformational vs. Charismatic Leadership:
Similar concepts, but transformational leadership may be considered a broader concept than charisma.
Instrument-based testing shows the measures to be roughly equivalent .
Ethical people who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.
Primary quality is trust.
Build trust by:
Encouraging open communication.
Sticking to their ideals.
Still a new topic; needs more research.
Ethics touch on many leadership styles
As the moral leaders of organizations, CEOs must demonstrate high ethical standards.
Socialized charismatic leadership: leaders who model ethical behaviors.
The positive expectation that another person will not act opportunistically.
Composed of a blend of familiarity and willingness to take a risk .
Five key dimensions: integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness.
Trust dimensions （ Exhibit ）：
Honesty and truthfulness.
An individual’s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills.
An individual’s reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations.
The willingness to protect and save face for another person.
Reliance on the person to give you the full truth.
Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated.
Trust based on behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction.
Trust based on a mutual understanding of one another’s intentions and appreciation of the other’s wants and desires.
Mistrust drives out trust
Trust begets trust
Trust can be regained
Mistrusting groups self-destruct
Mistrust generally reduces productivity
A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee (a protégé).
Good teachers present ideas clearly, listen, and empathize.
Career ： Coaching, assisting, sponsoring .
Psychosocial ： Counseling, sharing, acting as a role model.
Can be formal or informal.
Mentors tend to select protégés who are similar to them in background: may restrict minorities and women.
A set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior.
Effective leaders (superleaders) help followers to lead themselves.
Important in self-managed teams.
To engage in self-leadership:
Make a mental chart of your peers and colleagues.
Focus on influence and not on control.
Create opportunities; do not wait for them.
Attribution Theory of Leadership
The idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals.
Qualities attributed to leaders:
Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, are aggressive, understanding, and industrious.
Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and unwavering in their decisions.
Effective leaders project the appearance of being leaders.
Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership
Relationship- Task- oriented oriented Defining Characteristics Leadership Leadership Individual Experience/training No effect on Substitutes for Professionalism Substitutes for Substitutes for Indifference to rewards Neutralizes Neutralizes Job Highly structured task No effect on Substitutes for Provides its own feedback No effect on Substitutes for Intrinsically satisfying Substitutes for No effect on Organization Explicit formalized goals No effect on Substitutes for Rigid rules and procedures No effect on Substitutes for Cohesive work groups Substitutes for Substitutes for
Review specific requirements for the job.
Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence.
Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job.
Keep a list of potential candidates.
Recognize that all people are not equally trainable.
Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders.
Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of nascent charismatic employees.