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Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives<br />Archives 360, Society of American Archivists<br />Chicago, US...
The goal of Linked Data is to enable people to share structured data on the Web as easily as they can share documents toda...
Linked Data Design Issues<br />URIs<br />LD Design Issues<br />Triples<br />http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html...
Triples<br />Triples statements<br />‘Things’ have ‘properties’ with ‘values’<br />Subject – Predicate - Object<br />Tripl...
LOCAH Project<br />Linked Open Copac and Archives Hub<br />Funded by #JiscEXPO 2/10 ‘Expose’ call<br />1 year project. Sta...
What is LOCAH Doing?<br />Part 1: Exposing Archives Hub & Copac data as Linked Data<br />Part 2: Creating a prototype visu...
Archives Hub Model<br />in<br />Finding Aid<br />Place <br />PostcodeUnit<br />Repository(Agent)<br />administeredBy/admin...
We’re Linking Data!<br />If something is identified, it can be linked to<br />We take items from our datasets and link the...
Enhancing our data<br />Already have some links:<br />Time - reference.data.gov.ukURIs<br />Location - UK Postcodes URIs a...
http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/<br />
http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/id/person/nra/webbmarthabeatrice1858-1943socialreformer<br />
Visualisation Prototype<br />Using Timemap – <br />Googlemaps and Simile<br />http://code.google.com/p/timemap/<br />Early...
Key Benefit of Linked Data<br /><ul><li>API based mashupswork against a fixed set of data sources
Hand crafted by humans
Don’t integrate well
Linked Data promises an unbound global data space
Easy dataset integration
Generic ‘mesh-up’ tools</li></li></ul><li>Linked Open Data<br />Data can be open or closed<br />Linked Data can be open or...
Some challenges<br />
Data Modelling<br />Steep learning curve<br />RDF terminology “confusing”<br />Lack of archival examples<br />Complexity<b...
Linking Subjects<br />
Linking Places<br />
Sustainability<br />Can you rely on data sources long-term? <br />Ed Summers at the Library of Congress created http://lcs...
Library of Congress Subject Headings<br />
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Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives

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A presentation given at Archives 360, Society of American Archivists conference, Chicago, USA.
26th August 2011

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  • Has been described as a ‘data commons’, or more usually a Web of Data.
  • http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • In hypertext web sites it is considered generally rather bad etiquette not to link to related external material. The value of your own information is very much a function of what it links to, as well as the inherent value of the information within the web page.  So it is also in the Semantic Web.Remember, this is about machines linking – machines need identifiers; humans generally know when something is a place or when it is a person. BBC + DBPedia + GeoNames + Archives Hub + Copac + VIAF = the Web as an exploratory spaceUsers very interested in related materials acc to Terry Catapano at SAA 2011. LD can really help with this.
  • Can get XSLT stylesheet here too!
  • Note that it is machine readable interface as well as the human interfaceCurrently have a few hundred in Locah. There are 25,000 EAD records on theHub srevice. We’re Intending to put about 2,000 up for Linking Lives Project.
  • Data can be integrated from many diff sourcesUsers very interested in related materials acc to Terry Catapano at SAA 2011. LD can really help with this.
  • Steep learning curve: - RDF Linked Data modelingterminology - Lack of archive domain examples – though you now have LOCAH! - Certain level of expertise neededDirty Data - Joe Bloggs and others’ rather than just a name, or where the access points do not have rules or a source associated with them. - Extent data highly variableComplexity - “lower level” units interpreted in context of the higher levels of description - Arguably “incomplete” without the contextual data.Relations are asserted, e.g. member-of/component-ofBut there is no requirement or expectation that data consumers will follow the links describing the relations
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  • Transcript of "Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives"

    1. 1. Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives<br />Archives 360, Society of American Archivists<br />Chicago, USA<br />26th August 2011<br />Adrian StevensonLOCAH Project Manager<br />UKOLN, University of Bath, UK<br />
    2. 2. The goal of Linked Data is to enable people to share structured data on the Web as easily as they can share documents today.<br />Bizer/Cyganiak/Heath Linked Data Tutorial, linkeddata.org<br />
    3. 3. Linked Data Design Issues<br />URIs<br />LD Design Issues<br />Triples<br />http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html<br />
    4. 4. Triples<br />Triples statements<br />‘Things’ have ‘properties’ with ‘values’<br />Subject – Predicate - Object<br />Triples are the basis of RDF and Linked Data<br />Is Member Of<br />Provides Access To<br />The Rolling Stones<br />ArchivalResource<br />Repository<br />Keith Richards<br />
    5. 5. LOCAH Project<br />Linked Open Copac and Archives Hub<br />Funded by #JiscEXPO 2/10 ‘Expose’ call<br />1 year project. Started August 2010<br />Partners & Consultants:<br />UKOLN, Mimas, Eduserv, Talis, OCLC, Ed Summers<br />http://blogs.ukoln.ac.uk/locah/<br />
    6. 6. What is LOCAH Doing?<br />Part 1: Exposing Archives Hub & Copac data as Linked Data<br />Part 2: Creating a prototype visualisation<br />Part 3: Reporting on opportunities and barriers<br />
    7. 7. Archives Hub Model<br />in<br />Finding Aid<br />Place <br />PostcodeUnit<br />Repository(Agent)<br />administeredBy/administers<br />maintainedBy/maintains<br />encodedAs/encodes<br />hasPart/partOf<br />EAD Document<br />accessProvidedBy/providesAccessTo<br />Level<br />Biographical History<br />topic/page<br />hasBiogHist/isBiogHistFor<br />Language<br />level<br />ArchivalResource<br />language<br />at time<br />topic/page<br />origination<br />hasPart/partOf<br />TemporalEntity<br />Creation<br />product of<br />associatedWith<br />extent<br />inScheme<br />Extent<br />Concept <br />ConceptScheme<br />Agent <br />representedBy<br />Object<br />foaf:focus<br />Is-a<br />Is-a<br />associatedWith<br />Family <br />Person <br />Organisation <br />Place <br />Book<br />participates in<br />Genre <br />Function <br />Birth<br />Death<br />TemporalEntity<br />at time<br />
    8. 8. We’re Linking Data!<br />If something is identified, it can be linked to<br />We take items from our datasets and link them to items from other datasets<br />BBC<br />Copac<br />VIAF<br />DBPedia<br />GeoNames<br />Archives Hub<br />
    9. 9. Enhancing our data<br />Already have some links:<br />Time - reference.data.gov.ukURIs<br />Location - UK Postcodes URIs and Ordnance Survey URIs<br />Names - Virtual International Authority File<br />VIAF matches and links widely-used authority files - http://viaf.org/<br />Names - DBPedia<br />Also looking at:<br />Subjects - Library Congress Subject Headings and DBPedia<br />Open Calais for entity extraction – from ‘bioghist’ field <br />
    10. 10. http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/<br />
    11. 11. http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/id/person/nra/webbmarthabeatrice1858-1943socialreformer<br />
    12. 12. Visualisation Prototype<br />Using Timemap – <br />Googlemaps and Simile<br />http://code.google.com/p/timemap/<br />Early stages with this<br />Will give location and ‘extent’ of archive.<br />Will link through to Archives Hub <br />
    13. 13. Key Benefit of Linked Data<br /><ul><li>API based mashupswork against a fixed set of data sources
    14. 14. Hand crafted by humans
    15. 15. Don’t integrate well
    16. 16. Linked Data promises an unbound global data space
    17. 17. Easy dataset integration
    18. 18. Generic ‘mesh-up’ tools</li></li></ul><li>Linked Open Data<br />Data can be open or closed<br />Linked Data can be open or closed<br />Most benefit gained when data is open<br />
    19. 19. Some challenges<br />
    20. 20. Data Modelling<br />Steep learning curve<br />RDF terminology “confusing”<br />Lack of archival examples<br />Complexity<br />Archival description is hierarchical and multi-level<br />‘Dirty’ Data<br />
    21. 21. Linking Subjects<br />
    22. 22. Linking Places<br />
    23. 23. Sustainability<br />Can you rely on data sources long-term? <br />Ed Summers at the Library of Congress created http://lcsh.info<br />Linked Data interface for LOC subject headings<br />People started using it<br />
    24. 24. Library of Congress Subject Headings<br />
    25. 25. Scalability / Provenance<br /><ul><li>Same issue with attribution
    26. 26. Solutions: Named graphs? Quads?
    27. 27. Best Practice</li></ul>Example by Bradley Allen, Elsevier at <br />LOD LAM Summit, SF, USA, June 2011<br />
    28. 28. Licensing<br /><ul><li>Ownership of data often not clear
    29. 29. Hard to track attribution
    30. 30. CC0 for Archives Hub and Copac data</li></li></ul><li>Is Linked Data the Way?<br />Enables ‘straightforward’ integration of wide variety of data sources<br />Archival data can ‘work harder’<br />New channels into your data<br />Researchers are more likely to discover sources <br />‘Hidden' archives collections of become of the Web<br />
    31. 31. Attribution and CC License <br />Sections of this presentation adapted from materials created by other members of the LOCAH Project<br />This presentation available under creative commonsNon Commercial-Share Alike:<br />http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/<br />
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