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Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives
 

Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives

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A presentation given at Archives 360, Society of American Archivists conference, Chicago, USA.

A presentation given at Archives 360, Society of American Archivists conference, Chicago, USA.
26th August 2011

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  • Has been described as a ‘data commons’, or more usually a Web of Data.
  • http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • In hypertext web sites it is considered generally rather bad etiquette not to link to related external material. The value of your own information is very much a function of what it links to, as well as the inherent value of the information within the web page.  So it is also in the Semantic Web.Remember, this is about machines linking – machines need identifiers; humans generally know when something is a place or when it is a person. BBC + DBPedia + GeoNames + Archives Hub + Copac + VIAF = the Web as an exploratory spaceUsers very interested in related materials acc to Terry Catapano at SAA 2011. LD can really help with this.
  • Can get XSLT stylesheet here too!
  • Note that it is machine readable interface as well as the human interfaceCurrently have a few hundred in Locah. There are 25,000 EAD records on theHub srevice. We’re Intending to put about 2,000 up for Linking Lives Project.
  • Data can be integrated from many diff sourcesUsers very interested in related materials acc to Terry Catapano at SAA 2011. LD can really help with this.
  • Steep learning curve: - RDF Linked Data modelingterminology - Lack of archive domain examples – though you now have LOCAH! - Certain level of expertise neededDirty Data - Joe Bloggs and others’ rather than just a name, or where the access points do not have rules or a source associated with them. - Extent data highly variableComplexity - “lower level” units interpreted in context of the higher levels of description - Arguably “incomplete” without the contextual data.Relations are asserted, e.g. member-of/component-ofBut there is no requirement or expectation that data consumers will follow the links describing the relations
  • Ex

Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives Presentation Transcript

  • Linked Open Data: Opportunities & Barriers for Archives
    Archives 360, Society of American Archivists
    Chicago, USA
    26th August 2011
    Adrian StevensonLOCAH Project Manager
    UKOLN, University of Bath, UK
  • The goal of Linked Data is to enable people to share structured data on the Web as easily as they can share documents today.
    Bizer/Cyganiak/Heath Linked Data Tutorial, linkeddata.org
  • Linked Data Design Issues
    URIs
    LD Design Issues
    Triples
    http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • Triples
    Triples statements
    ‘Things’ have ‘properties’ with ‘values’
    Subject – Predicate - Object
    Triples are the basis of RDF and Linked Data
    Is Member Of
    Provides Access To
    The Rolling Stones
    ArchivalResource
    Repository
    Keith Richards
  • LOCAH Project
    Linked Open Copac and Archives Hub
    Funded by #JiscEXPO 2/10 ‘Expose’ call
    1 year project. Started August 2010
    Partners & Consultants:
    UKOLN, Mimas, Eduserv, Talis, OCLC, Ed Summers
    http://blogs.ukoln.ac.uk/locah/
  • What is LOCAH Doing?
    Part 1: Exposing Archives Hub & Copac data as Linked Data
    Part 2: Creating a prototype visualisation
    Part 3: Reporting on opportunities and barriers
  • Archives Hub Model
    in
    Finding Aid
    Place
    PostcodeUnit
    Repository(Agent)
    administeredBy/administers
    maintainedBy/maintains
    encodedAs/encodes
    hasPart/partOf
    EAD Document
    accessProvidedBy/providesAccessTo
    Level
    Biographical History
    topic/page
    hasBiogHist/isBiogHistFor
    Language
    level
    ArchivalResource
    language
    at time
    topic/page
    origination
    hasPart/partOf
    TemporalEntity
    Creation
    product of
    associatedWith
    extent
    inScheme
    Extent
    Concept
    ConceptScheme
    Agent
    representedBy
    Object
    foaf:focus
    Is-a
    Is-a
    associatedWith
    Family
    Person
    Organisation
    Place
    Book
    participates in
    Genre
    Function
    Birth
    Death
    TemporalEntity
    at time
  • We’re Linking Data!
    If something is identified, it can be linked to
    We take items from our datasets and link them to items from other datasets
    BBC
    Copac
    VIAF
    DBPedia
    GeoNames
    Archives Hub
  • Enhancing our data
    Already have some links:
    Time - reference.data.gov.ukURIs
    Location - UK Postcodes URIs and Ordnance Survey URIs
    Names - Virtual International Authority File
    VIAF matches and links widely-used authority files - http://viaf.org/
    Names - DBPedia
    Also looking at:
    Subjects - Library Congress Subject Headings and DBPedia
    Open Calais for entity extraction – from ‘bioghist’ field
  • http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/
  • http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/id/person/nra/webbmarthabeatrice1858-1943socialreformer
  • Visualisation Prototype
    Using Timemap –
    Googlemaps and Simile
    http://code.google.com/p/timemap/
    Early stages with this
    Will give location and ‘extent’ of archive.
    Will link through to Archives Hub
  • Key Benefit of Linked Data
    • API based mashupswork against a fixed set of data sources
    • Hand crafted by humans
    • Don’t integrate well
    • Linked Data promises an unbound global data space
    • Easy dataset integration
    • Generic ‘mesh-up’ tools
  • Linked Open Data
    Data can be open or closed
    Linked Data can be open or closed
    Most benefit gained when data is open
  • Some challenges
  • Data Modelling
    Steep learning curve
    RDF terminology “confusing”
    Lack of archival examples
    Complexity
    Archival description is hierarchical and multi-level
    ‘Dirty’ Data
  • Linking Subjects
  • Linking Places
  • Sustainability
    Can you rely on data sources long-term?
    Ed Summers at the Library of Congress created http://lcsh.info
    Linked Data interface for LOC subject headings
    People started using it
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings
  • Scalability / Provenance
    • Same issue with attribution
    • Solutions: Named graphs? Quads?
    • Best Practice
    Example by Bradley Allen, Elsevier at
    LOD LAM Summit, SF, USA, June 2011
  • Licensing
    • Ownership of data often not clear
    • Hard to track attribution
    • CC0 for Archives Hub and Copac data
  • Is Linked Data the Way?
    Enables ‘straightforward’ integration of wide variety of data sources
    Archival data can ‘work harder’
    New channels into your data
    Researchers are more likely to discover sources
    ‘Hidden' archives collections of become of the Web
  • Attribution and CC License
    Sections of this presentation adapted from materials created by other members of the LOCAH Project
    This presentation available under creative commonsNon Commercial-Share Alike:
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/