1000% The highs and lows of Entertainment and IT in the home

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Rather than focus on household or appliance level disaggregation of energy use in domestic settings, in our recent work we have begun to explore how energy use supports the services of everyday life. Our 'service based' quantification of energy use helps explain dramatic variations in direct energy impact for similar practices, e.g. 2 orders of magnitude between the lowest and highest consuming ways of achieving 'entertainment and IT'. In this talk we reveal the hidden impacts of IT devices due to their emergent uses and increased interconnectedness, and the challenges these pose for us in creating next generation hardware and software for a lower carbon future.

Talk from Computing for a sustainable future, Royal Society Workshop, 1:30 pm on Monday 30 September 2013
http://royalsociety.org/events/2013/sustainable-computing/

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1000% The highs and lows of Entertainment and IT in the home

  1. 1. 3000% “1000%: HIGHS AND LOWS OF ENTERTAINMENT AND IT IN THE HOME” Adrian Friday Tuesday, 1 October 13
  2. 2. Socio-Digital Sustainability Group Oliver Bates Janine Morley Mike Hazas Adrian Clear Adrian Friday Tuesday, 1 October 13
  3. 3. OUTLINE • Report on our current work studying energy use in the home (specifically, shared student accommodation) • • how they are used in practice (energy lets us do stuff); • • how entertainment/media and IT links to energy; not just energy, but embodied emissions (GhG) due to manufacture Aim to convince you that • we need to design technologies with both of these impacts in mind Tuesday, 1 October 13
  4. 4. Billion&Tonnes&Carbon& THE CURVE What role does CS have in this? Taken from ‘The Burning Question’, Mike Berners-Lee, and Duncan Clark, Profile Books 2013. Tuesday, 1 October 13
  5. 5. WHY MEDIA AND IT AT HOME? • The domestic energy demand of consumer electronics, digital home media and computing devices is on the rise worldwide (Chetty, 2008) • In the UK, these devices comprise about 25% of the total domestic electricity demand (Powering the Nation, Defra, 2012) • Also, something Tuesday, 1 October 13 we’re well placed to help address...
  6. 6. 3 STUDIES, 33 PEOPLE, 23 INTERVIEWS, 191 DEVICES MONITORED (50 NON-IT) Tuesday, 1 October 13
  7. 7. 3 2.5 Yellow Blue Red Green Power (kW) 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 Time of day LARGE VARIATION Whole flat aggregate energy, binned by time of day - yet similar infrastructure - note the baseline Tuesday, 1 October 13
  8. 8. There is significant variation in energy consumption across similar homes (Hackett & Lutzenhiser, 1991, Gram-Hanssen, 2010) - due to the practices WHY IS RED LOW AND BLUE HIGH? Tuesday, 1 October 13
  9. 9. METHOD 1. Single-point (whole flat) sensing (OWL) 2. 200 x Socket-level sensors (Plugwise) 3. Surveys of appliances and devices 4. Interviews about how they’re used 5. Estimates of embodied emissions due to manufacturing and transport life-cycle analyses Tuesday, 1 October 13
  10. 10. Embodied Direct External Router Router Manufacture and Transport (kg CO2e) Indirect Direct Energy (electricity - kWh) Manufacture and Transport (kg CO2e) Direct Energy (electricity kWh) Content Distribution Manufacture and Transport (kg CO2e) Laptop Manufacture and Transport (kg CO2e) Direct Energy (electricity - kWh) Direct Energy (electricity kWh) Data Centre Server Manufacture and Transport (kg CO2e) Direct Energy (electricity kWh) WANT: A TOTAL PICTURE Inclusive of both energy used, indirect emissions and embodied emissions Tuesday, 1 October 13
  11. 11. How is domestic energy composed? Tuesday, 1 October 13
  12. 12. A TYPICAL DAY IN BLUE Electric power (Watts) 5000 Lighting Refrigeration Entertainment & IT Other cooking appliances Oven 4000 3000 2000 1000 06:00 12:00 18:00 Timestamp 00:00 Repeated patterns of use / habits constitute energy, need ‘area under the curve’, (c.f. Costanza, 2012); P.S. IHDs focus on instantaneous load (Strengers, 2011) Tuesday, 1 October 13
  13. 13. LAPTOPS AS SWISS ARMY KNIFE • Laptops (32)/desktops (3)/phones(34!) are commonly used for multiple simultaneous tasks, often related to different practices • Activities often intertwined. For example, instant messaging, email, social media (both personal & work) • laptops Tuesday, 1 October 13 reported as being on ‘most of the time I’m awake’
  14. 14. SIMILAR PRACTICES WITH SIMILAR MEANINGS • Quite often, participants reported watching movies and TV on their laptops, using DVD, downloads and increasingly VoD “We got a free download thing so now we watch a lot” •3 participants watched media using a DVD player, Xbox 360 and USB drive (respectively) attached to a ‘large screen TV’ • Laptops Tuesday, 1 October 13 used also as MP3 players (with optional speakers)
  15. 15. MEDIA & CONNECTEDNESS SPAN DEVICES • Miranda’s laptop provided her with the opportunity to stream content whilst getting ready for a night out; • boredom • Chloe • Connectedness likes to have her laptop running whilst watching video on her TV so she can see any new messages on Facebook Tuesday, 1 October 13 and filling time has resource implications (“first year I used to play lots of games”) and the opportunities that it provides, seems to increase their direct energy consumption
  16. 16. Media & IT was 3.5% to 34% of the whole flat energy (low 164 to high 4935 Wh, i.e. 30x!) - can we now explain this? Tuesday, 1 October 13
  17. 17. 3095 Wh 4935 Wh Henry Desktop (no laptop) Audio Receiver 2 x Monitors 2 x Hardrives Router Matt Monitor TV Stereo Speakers Xbox Video Receiver Mac mini Router USB Hub 2 x External HDD Airport Express 618 Wh Ian - 50 inch monitor, Xbox 360, Speakers 263 Wh Miranda 505 Wh Callum - Monitor, Valve Amp (audio receiver) 467 Wh Feng 241 Wh Rachel - Printer, Phone Charger - TV, Playstation 3, Speakers, 329 Wh 368 Wh 208 Wh Chloe - TV, DVD Player, Printer, Ellie Phone Charger Leah - TV, Wii, Phone Charger Jack - Speakers Tuesday, 1 October 13 164 Wh
  18. 18. Henry Router, HDD x2 (24h) Desktop PC, Audio Receiver (11.9 h) Matt Mac Mini Server, HDD (2), USB Hub, Router, Airport Express 24(h) TV (10) Monitor Desktop Router, HDD (2) (10.2h) Xbox TV (4h) Monitor (8 h) Laptop Monitor (10h) ON TIME & CONSTELLATIONS Satellite devices often on ‘just in case’; hub devices on to enable practices Tuesday, 1 October 13
  19. 19. But what about the embodied GhG emissions? Tuesday, 1 October 13
  20. 20. ConstellaRon"(See"Table"2.)"."(Henry)" Monitor"(50","30kg),"Xbox"360"."(Ian)" PS3,"TV"32""."(Feng)" Xbox"360,"TV"19"."(Kate)" Laptop" Mac"Mini"Server"."(Ma6)" Smart"Phone" Direct"Energy"Converted"to"Carbon"(kg"CO2e)" Embodied"Emissions"(kg"CO2e)" Router"."(Henry,"Ma6)" 0" 200" 400" 600" 800" 1000" 1200" LAPTOPS, TABLETS & PHONES ARE RELATIVELY LOW IMPACT In direct energy terms; especially if not in a constellation (see top row) Tuesday, 1 October 13
  21. 21. But... Tuesday, 1 October 13
  22. 22. THE CLOUD BEGINS WITH COAL, DIGITAL POWER GROUP, AUGUST 2013. http://bit.ly/17xDQqD Tuesday, 1 October 13
  23. 23. # participants Direct savings Improving power management strategies (Chetty, 2008) 33 2.5% Longer use and more reuse of mobile phones etc. (Hanks, 2008), (Huang,2008) 33 Replace desktops with laptops or low-energy servers 3 9.3% Replace large constellations with laptops 2 40% Longer life systems (e.g. cloud enabled?) 33 Strategy Embodied savings 1.8% 16.0% ? And the technologies we create get folded in and enable new practices... Tuesday, 1 October 13
  24. 24. Questions? a.friday@lancaster.ac.uk Tuesday, 1 October 13 Funded by the UKRC (grants EP/G008523/1 and EP/I00033X/1). http://wp.lancs.ac.uk/sds

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