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    Semtech2006 Semtech2006 Presentation Transcript

    • Application Semantics via Business Rules in Open Vocabulary English Adrian Walker CTO www.reengineeringllc.com Presentation for the Semantic Technology Conference March 6-9 2006 San Jose, California http://www.semantic-conference.com/program/sessions/S2.html Copyright 2006 Reengineering 1
    • Experience • Author of over 20 papers, and an Addison-Wesley book, on business rule systems and databases • Manager, Internet Development at Eventra (a manufacturing supply chain company) • Manager of Principles and Applications of Logic Programming, IBM Yorktown Research Laboratory • Assistant Professor at Rutgers University Copyright 2006 Reengineering 2
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 3
    • The World Wide Database vision "If HTML and the Web made all the online documents look like one huge book, the Semantic Web will make all the data in the world look like one huge database” -- Tim Berners-Lee What is the Semantic Web? “Data integration across application, organizational boundaries” -- Tim Berners-Lee Copyright 2006 Reengineering 4
    • The World Wide Database vision • New technologies are currently advancing the Semantic Web, based on the data semantics of XML and RDF. • Status -- some uses of RDF (e.g. Vodafone and Nokia) • Although the number of software tools is growing, only experts have the skill to use them fully. • So, progress is dependent on hard work and technical experts. -- http://www.adtmag.com/article.asp?id=17661 Copyright 2006 Reengineering 5
    • The World Wide Database vision • RDF data from diverse sources can, in principle, be freely merged and repurposed • Simply merging previously unseen RDF data under an existing application can be meaningless • The application adds meaning to the data Copyright 2006 Reengineering 6
    • The World Wide Database vision Retailer’s English Manufacturer’s English negotiable semantic distance model of the world model of the world semantic disconnects X X <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://retailer.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> negotiable semantic distance <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://manuf.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> Copyright 2006 Reengineering 7
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 8
    • Only Experts have the Skills to Use the Current Tools Semantic Researcher Web Instance Sub Topic Knowledge Claire Adrian Discovery Text Mining Data Mining Does research on Bob New user asked: how can I use RDF and Owl to find out from the above that “Bob does research into Semantic Web” ? Expert replied: “You can do it by declaring subtopic to be transitive and by using a rule such as ObjectPropertyAtom( worksIn, ?x, ?y) IF ObjectPropertyAtom( worksIn, ?x, ?z) AND ObjectPropertyAtom( subtopic, ?z, ?y) Such rules can be expressed in RuleML or in SWRL, but you would have to find an inference tool for them.” Copyright 2006 Reengineering 9
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 10
    • An Easier Future for Semantic Technology Semantic Researcher Web Instance Sub Topic Knowledge Claire Adrian Discovery Text Mining Data Mining Does research on Bob this-item is a sub topic of this-topic Facts this-person is a researcher =================================== =================== Data Mining Knowledge Discovery Adrian Text Mining Knowledge Discovery Bob Knowledge Discovery Semantic Web Claire this-person does research into this-topic ============================== Adrian Knowledge Discovery Bob Data Mining Claire Text Mining Copyright 2006 Reengineering 11
    • An Easier Future for Semantic Technology Semantic Researcher Web Instance Sub Topic Knowledge Claire Adrian Discovery Text Mining Data Mining Does research on Bob Rules: some-subject is a sub topic of some-subject1 some-person does research into some-subject that-subject1 is a sub topic of some-topic that-subject is a sub topic of some-topic ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------ that-subject is a sub topic of that-topic that-person does research into that-topic -- To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo OwlResearchOnt at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 12
    • An Easier Future for Semantic Technology Semantic Researcher Web Instance Sub Topic Knowledge Claire Adrian Discovery Text Mining Data Mining Does research on Bob Question: Bob does research into some-topic? Bob does research into this-topic Answer: =========================== Data Mining Knowledge Discovery Semantic Web -- To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo OwlResearchOnt at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 13
    • An Easier Future for Semantic Technology Semantic Researcher Web Instance Sub Topic Knowledge Claire Adrian Discovery Text Mining Data Mining Does research on Bob Explanation: Bob does research into Data Mining Data Mining is a sub topic of Semantic Web -------------------------------------------------------- Bob does research into Semantic Web Data Mining is a sub topic of Knowledge Discovery Knowledge Discovery is a sub topic of Semantic Web ------------------------------------------------------------------ Data Mining is a sub topic of Semantic Web Copyright 2006 Reengineering 14
    • An Easier Future for Semantic Technology • Combine, in one system for non-expert authors and users • Semantics1 - Data Semantics • the current technology • Semantics2 -Mathematical Theory of Declarative Knowledge • specifies what a reasoner should do • Semantics3 - Application Semantics • English meanings at the UI Copyright 2006 Reengineering 15
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 16
    • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English Semantics3 Who does research Into the Semantic Web? Writes Business Rules in open vocabulary English Directly into a browser Runs the Rules Using the browser Sees English explanations of the Results End User / Author Copyright 2006 Reengineering 17
    • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English Semantics3 Who does research. Into the Semantic Web? Writes Business Rules Internet in open vocabulary SQL English Directly into a Business browser Logic Semantics1 Runs the Rules Using the browser Sees English Application explanations Independent RDF End User / of the Results Author Semantics2 Theory of Declarative Knowledge Programmer Copyright 2006 Reengineering 18
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 19
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data A retailer orders computers from a manufacturer In the retailer's terminology, a computer is called a PC for Gamers, while in the manufacturer's terminology, it is called a Prof Desktop. The retailer and the manufacturer agree that both belong to the class Worksts/Desktops Use semantic resolution to find out to what extent a Prof Desktop has the required memory, CPU and so forth for a PC for Gamers -- Example based on “Semantic Resolution for E-Commerce”, by Yun Peng, Youyong Zou, Xiaocheng Luan ( UMBC ) and Nenad Ivezic, Michael Gruninger and Albert Jones ( NIST ) Copyright 2006 Reengineering 20
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data Retailer’s English Manufacturer’s English negotiable semantic distance model of the world model of the world semantic disconnects X X <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://retailer.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> negotiable semantic distance <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://manuf.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> Copyright 2006 Reengineering 21
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data A retailer orders computers from a manufacturer -- facts and a rule for the retailer the term PC for Gamers has super-class this-class in the this-ns namespace ================================================================== Computers to order retailer Worksts/Desktops shared Computers shared for the manufacturer the term Prof Desktop has super-class this-class in the this-ns namespace ===================================================================== Desktop manufacturer Worksts/Desktops shared Computer Systems manufacturer Computers shared for the retailer the term some-item1 has super-class some-class in the some-ns namespace for the manufacturer the term some-item2 has super-class that-class in the that-ns namespace ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the retailer term that-item1 and the manufacturer term that-item2 agree - they are of type that-class -- To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo SemanticResolution1 at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 22
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data A retailer orders computers from a manufacturer -- answer table this-result : retailer this-item1 is matched by manufacturer this-item2 on the property this-prop for part this-comp ==================================================================================== NEED PC for Gamers *missing-item* Size Graphics Card OK PC for Gamers Prof Desktop Size CPU OK PC for Gamers Prof Desktop Size Memory OK PC for Gamers Prof Desktop Size Sound Card -- To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo SemanticResolution1 at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 23
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data A retailer orders computers from a manufacturer -- explanation/proof of an answer retailer PC for Gamers is matched by manufacturer Prof Desktop on the property Size for part Memory ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OK : retailer PC for Gamers is matched by manufacturer Prof Desktop on the property Size for part Memory the retailer term PC for Gamers and the manufacturer term Prof Desktop agree - they are of type Worksts/Desktops for the retailer the term PC for Gamers has part Memory with property Size >= 256 in the shared namespace for the manufacturer the term Prof Desktop has part Memory with property Size = 512 in the shared namespace = 512 meets the requirement >= 256 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- retailer PC for Gamers is matched by manufacturer Prof Desktop on the property Size for part Memory for the retailer the term PC for Gamers has super-class Worksts/Desktops in the shared namespace for the manufacturer the term Prof Desktop has super-class Worksts/Desktops in the shared namespace -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the retailer term PC for Gamers and the manufacturer term Prof Desktop agree - they are of type Worksts/Desktops -- To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo SemanticResolution1 at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 24
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data Retailer’s English Manufacturer’s English negotiable semantic distance model of the world model of the world semantic disconnects X X <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://retailer.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> negotiable semantic distance <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://manuf.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> Copyright 2006 Reengineering 25
    • Ex 1: English semantics of ontology data Retailer’s English Manufacturer’s English negotiable semantic distance model of the world model of the world English explanations bridge the semantic gap between people and machines the retailer term PC for Gamers and for the manufacturer the term Prof Desktop the manufacturer term Prof Desktop agree - has part Memory with property Size = 512 in they are of type Worksts/Desktops the shared namespace <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://retailer.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> negotiable semantic distance <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"> <rdf:Alt rdf:about="http://manuf.org/node"/> </rdf:RDF> Copyright 2006 Reengineering 26
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 27
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data • A customer needs 1000 gallons of product y in October • Products x and z can be substituted for product y, but only in the Fall • Combine products x, y and z to fill the order • Combination depends on: • How much of each product is available from each refinery • Available transportation from each refinery to the customer area -- Example based on “Oil Industry Supply Chain Management Using English Business Rules Over SQL” by Ted Kowalski and Adrian Walker, www.reengineeringllc.com/Oil_Industry_Supply_Chain_by_Kowalski_and_Walker.pdf Copyright 2006 Reengineering 28
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data Facts: estimated demand this-id in this-region is for this-quantity gallons of this-finished-product in this-month of this-year =================================================================================== 523 NJ 1000 product-y October 2005 in this-season an order for this-product1 can be filled with the alternative this-product2 ============================================================== Fall product-y product-x Fall product-y product-z in this-month the refinery this-name has committed to schedule this-amount gallons of this-product ======================================================================= October Shell Canada One 500 product-y October Shell Canada One 300 product-x October Shell Canada One 800 product-z October Shell Canada One 10000 product-w we have this-method transportation from refinery this-name to region this-region ========================================================== truck Shell Canada One NJ rail Shell Canada One NJ Copyright 2006 Reengineering 29
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data Rules: estimated demand some-id in some-region is for some-quantity gallons of some-finished-product in some-month of some-year for estimated demand that-id some-fraction of the order will be some-product from some-refinery that-quantity * that-fraction = some-amount ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ for demand that-id that-region for that-quantity that-finished-product we use that-amount that-product from that-refinery estimated demand some-id in some-region is for some-quantity gallons of some-finished-product in some-month of some-year for demand that-id for that-finished-product refinery some-refinery can supply some-amount gallons of some-product for demand that-id the refineries have altogether some-total gallons of acceptable base products that-amount / that-total = some-long-fraction that-long-fraction rounded to 2 places after the decimal point is some-fraction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for estimated demand that-id that-fraction of the order will be that-product from that-refinery estimated demand some-id in some-region is for some-amount gallons of some-product in some-month of some-year sum a-num : for demand that-id for that-product refinery some-name can supply some-num gallons of some-product1 = a-total ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for demand that-id the refineries have altogether that-total gallons of acceptable base products Copyright 2006 Reengineering 30
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data An answer table: for demand this-id this-region for this-quantity this-finished-product we use this-amount this-product from this-refinery ====================================================================================== 523 NJ 1000 product-y 190.0 product-x Shell Canada One 523 NJ 1000 product-y 310.0 product-y Shell Canada One 523 NJ 1000 product-y 500.0 product-z Shell Canada One To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo Oil-IndustrySupplyChain1 at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 31
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data An explanation: estimated demand 523 in NJ is for 1000 gallons of product-y in October of 2005 for estimated demand 523 0.19 of the order will be product-x from Shell Canada One 1000 * 0.19 = 190 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ for demand 523 NJ for 1000 product-y we use 190 product-x from Shell Canada One estimated demand 523 in NJ is for 1000 gallons of product-y in October of 2005 for demand 523 for product-y refinery Shell Canada One can supply 300 gallons of product-x for demand 523 the refineries have altogether 1600 gallons of acceptable base products 300 / 1600 = 0.1875 0.1875 rounded to 2 places after the decimal point is 0.19 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ for estimated demand 523 0.19 of the order will be product-x from Shell Canada One estimated demand 523 in NJ is for 1000 gallons of product-y in October of 2005 sum eg-amount : for demand 523 for product-y refinery eg-refinery can supply eg-amount gallons of eg-product1 = 1600 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for demand 523 the refineries have altogether 1600 gallons of acceptable base products To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo Oil-IndustrySupplyChain1 at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 32
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data Rules for finding SQL data on the Internet: A data table we have this-method transportation from refinery this-name to region this-region ========================================================== truck Shell Canada One NJ rail Shell Canada One NJ A rule that says how to find the table on the internet url:www.example.com dbms:9i dbname:ibldb tablename:T1 port:1521 id:anonymous password:oracle ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- we have this-method transportation from refinery this-name to region this-region To run or change this example, please point IE6, Netscape7 or Mozilla to the demo Oil-IndustrySupplyChain1 at www.reengineeringllc.com Copyright 2006 Reengineering 33
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data Semantics3 Who does research. Into the Semantic Web? Writes Business Rules Internet SQL in open vocabulary English Directly into a Business browser Logic Semantics1 Runs the Rules Using the browser Application Sees English Independent explanations RDF End User / of the Results Author Semantics2 Theory of Declarative Knowledge Programmer Copyright 2006 Reengineering 34
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data A SQL query generated automatically from the business rules: select distinct x6,T2.PRODUCT,T1.NAME,T2.AMOUNT,x5 from T6 tt1,T6 tt2,T5,T4,T3,T2,T1,T6, (select x3 x6,T6.FINISHED_PRODUCT x7,T6.ID x8,tt1.ID x9,tt2.ID x10,sum(x4) x5 from T6,T6 tt1,T6 tt2, ((select T6.ID x3,T3.PRODUCT1,T1.NAME,T2.AMOUNT x4,T2.PRODUCT from T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T6 tt1,T6 tt2 where T1.NAME=T2.NAME and T1.REGION=T6.REGION and T2.MONTH1=T4.MONTH1 and T2.MONTH1=T6.MONTH1 and T2.PRODUCT=T3.PRODUCT2 and T4.MONTH1=T6.MONTH1 and T3.PRODUCT1=T6.FINISHED_PRODUCT and T3.SEASON=T4.SEASON and T3.SEASON=T5.SEASON and T4.SEASON=T5.SEASON and T6.ID=tt1.ID and T6.ID=tt2.ID and tt1.ID=tt2.ID) union (select T6.ID x3,T2.PRODUCT,T1.NAME,T2.AMOUNT x4,T2.PRODUCT from T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T6 tt1,T6 tt2 where T1.NAME=T2.NAME and T1.REGION=T6.REGION and T2.MONTH1=T6.MONTH1 and T2.PRODUCT=T6.FINISHED_PRODUCT and T6.ID=tt1.ID and T6.ID=tt2.ID and tt1.ID=tt2.ID) ) group by T6.FINISHED_PRODUCT,T6.ID,tt1.ID,tt2.ID,x3) where T6.ID=tt2.ID and tt1.ID=T6.ID and T6.FINISHED_PRODUCT=x7 and T6.ID=x8 and tt1.ID=x8 and tt2.ID=x8 and T1.NAME=T2.NAME and T1.REGION=tt2.REGION and T2.MONTH1=T4.MONTH1 and T2.MONTH1=tt2.MONTH1 and T2.PRODUCT=T3.PRODUCT2 and T3.PRODUCT1=tt1.FINISHED_PRODUCT and T3.PRODUCT1=tt2.FINISHED_PRODUCT and T3.SEASON=T4.SEASON and T3.SEASON=T5.SEASON and T4.MONTH1=tt2.MONTH1 and T4.SEASON=T5.SEASON and T6.ID=x6 and tt1.FINISHED_PRODUCT=tt2.FINISHED_PRODUCT and tt1.ID=tt2.ID and tt1.ID=x6 and tt2.ID=x6 order by x6,T2.PRODUCT,T1.NAME,T2.AMOUNT,x5; Copyright 2006 Reengineering 35
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data • It would be difficult to • write the SQL query reliably by hand • manually reconcile it with the business knowledge specified in the rules. • Yet this is a simple example! • How do we know that the automatically generated SQL yields results that are correct with respect to the business rules ? • We can get step-by-step business level English explanations Copyright 2006 Reengineering 36
    • Ex 2: English semantics of oil-industry SQL data • Could a programmer write more readable SQL by hand ? • Yes, but we would need to add comments in English to help people to reconcile the hand-written query with the business knowledge • By their nature, the comments would not be used during machine processing • Correctness of the hand written-SQL would rely on lengthy, and error prone manual verification • Comments are sometimes not kept up to date with the code! Copyright 2006 Reengineering 37
    • Agenda • The World Wide Database vision • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English • Summary Copyright 2006 Reengineering 38
    • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English Search: for estimated demand that-id fraction of the order Search: for estimated demand that-id fraction of the order Result: The executable English rules and facts that define the application A paper that describes the application Copyright 2006 Reengineering 39
    • Summary • The World Wide Database vision – all the data in the world as one database • Only experts have the skills to use the current tools – OwlResearchOnt -- Bob does research into Semantic Web • An easier future for Semantic Technology -- combine: – Semantics1 - Data Semantics = the current technology – Semantics2 - what a reasoner should do – Semantics3 - Application Semantics = English meanings at the UI • A browser-based system for writing and running applications in English • Examples : Semantics of ontology data, and of oil-industry SQL data • Google indexes and searches applications that are written in English Copyright 2006 Reengineering 40
    • Links 1. The NIST / UMBC paper listed in the presentation can be downloaded from : http://www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/publications.html 2. What a reasoner should do: Backchain Iteration: Towards a Practical Inference Method that is Simple Enough to be Proved Terminating, Sound and Complete. Journal of Automated Reasoning, 11:1-22. 3. The English inferencing examples OwlResearchOnt SemanticResolution1 Oil-IndustrySupplyChain1 Oil-IndustrySupplyChain1MySql1 (and many other examples provided) can be run, changed, and re-run as follows: 1. Point Internet Explorer 6, Netscape 7, Firefox or Mozilla to www.reengineeringllc.com 2. Click on Internet Business Logic 3. Click on the GO button 4. Click on the Help button to see how to navigate through the pages 5. Select OwlResearchOnt 4. You are cordially invited to write and run your own examples. Shared use of the system is free. Copyright 2006 Reengineering 41