VISHWAJEET & ADOTHU RAMBABU
ROLL NO – 467/11 & 537/11
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JAMSHEDPUR, INDIA – 831014
Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a
person based on his or her physiological or behavioral
Biometrics is an accurate method of authentication that
uses the physiological and biological traits of a person to
verify and establish their identity.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND/OR BEHAVIORAL
Eyes (Iris , Retina)
Eliminate memorization –
◦ Users don’t have to memorize features of their voice, face, eyes, or fingerprints
Eliminate misplaced tokens –
◦ Users won’t forget to bring fingerprints to work
Can’t be delegated –
◦ Users can’t lend fingers or faces to someone else
Often unique –
◦ Save money and maintain database integrity by eliminating duplicate enrollments
WORKING OF BIOMETRICS TECHNOLOGY
ALL BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS WORKS IN A FOUR-STAGE PROCESS THAT CONSISTS OF
THE FOLLOWING STEPS:
• CAPTURE : A Biometric system collects the sample of biometric features like
fingerprint, voice etc of the person who wants to login to the system.
• EXTRACTION: The data extraction is done uniquely from the sample and a template is
created. Unique features are then extracted by the system and converted into a digital
biometric code. This sample is then stored as the biometric template for that individual.
• COMPARISON: The template is then compared with a new sample. The biometric data
are then stored as the biometric template or template or reference template for that
• MATCH/NON-MATCH: The system then decides whether the features extracted from the
new sample are a match or a non-match with the template.
Measures speed, pressure, stroke order an image of signature.
Mainly used for verification
Forgers could reproduce
Measures the sound waves of human speech.
pitch, intensity, quality and duration.
user talks to a microphone a passphrase.
voice print is compare to a previous one.
include background noise
Measures the time between strokes and duration of key pressed.
Most commonly used in systems where
keyboard is already being used.
FINGER PRINT RECOGNITION
Fingerprint verify the authenticity of the individual.
Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest
method that has been successfully used in numerous applications.
Everyone is known to have unique, immutable
fingerprints. A fingerprint is made of a series of
ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger.
Low storage space required compared to
Scan the retina to authenticate the identity of a person.
Unique to each person.
Unique to each eye.
Highly reliable because no two people have
the same retinal pattern.
1. It has extremely low acceptance rate .
2. Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease
3. Not very user friendly
Location and position of facial features.
Distance between the eyes.
Distance between the eyes and nose ridge.
Angle of a cheek.
Slope of the nose.
Typical systems measure 90 different features:
Overall hand and finger width
Distance between joints
Primarily for access control:
No negative connotations – non-intrusive
Reasonably robust systems
Accuracy is limited; can only be used for 1-to-1 verification
Biometric attributes are unique and these can’t be faked or interchanged so,
this uniqueness imparts a high level security to these systems.
There is no need for remembering passwords, pin’s etc.
Biometric template data consume more space than the conventional user
Advantages & Disadvantages
Jain, Anil K., Arun Ross, and Salil Prabhakar. "An Introduction to Biometric Recognition."
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY 14.1
(2004): 4-20. IEEE Xplore.
Jain, Anil K., Patrick J. Flinn, and Arun A. Ross. Handbook of Biometrics. New York: Springer.
Phillips, Jonathon P., Alvin Martin, C. L. Wilson, and Mark Przybocki. "An Introduction
Evaluating Biometric Systems." Computer 33.2 (2000): 56-63. IEEE Xplore.