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  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics.  Biometrics is an accurate method of authentication that uses the physiological and biological traits of a person to verify and establish their identity.
  • 3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND/OR BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS  Behavioral:  Voice  Keystroke  Signature  Physiological:  Fingerprint  Hand  Eyes (Iris , Retina)  DNA  Face
  • 5. BIOMETRICS: WHY?  Eliminate memorization – ◦ Users don’t have to memorize features of their voice, face, eyes, or fingerprints  Eliminate misplaced tokens – ◦ Users won’t forget to bring fingerprints to work  Can’t be delegated – ◦ Users can’t lend fingers or faces to someone else  Often unique – ◦ Save money and maintain database integrity by eliminating duplicate enrollments
  • 6. WORKING OF BIOMETRICS TECHNOLOGY ALL BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS WORKS IN A FOUR-STAGE PROCESS THAT CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS: • CAPTURE : A Biometric system collects the sample of biometric features like fingerprint, voice etc of the person who wants to login to the system. • EXTRACTION: The data extraction is done uniquely from the sample and a template is created. Unique features are then extracted by the system and converted into a digital biometric code. This sample is then stored as the biometric template for that individual. • COMPARISON: The template is then compared with a new sample. The biometric data are then stored as the biometric template or template or reference template for that person. • MATCH/NON-MATCH: The system then decides whether the features extracted from the new sample are a match or a non-match with the template.
  • 7. SIGNATURE SCAN  Measures speed, pressure, stroke order an image of signature.  Non-repudiation  Mainly used for verification # PROBLEMS:  Forgers could reproduce
  • 8. VOICE VERIFICATION Measures the sound waves of human speech.  pitch, intensity, quality and duration.  user talks to a microphone a passphrase.  voice print is compare to a previous one. #PROBLEMS:  include background noise
  • 9. KEYSTROKE SCAN Measures the time between strokes and duration of key pressed.  Most commonly used in systems where keyboard is already being used.
  • 10. FINGER PRINT RECOGNITION Fingerprint verify the authenticity of the individual. Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method that has been successfully used in numerous applications. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger. # Advantage: Low storage space required compared to other ones.
  • 11. RETINA RECOGNITION  Scan the retina to authenticate the identity of a person.  Unique to each person.  Unique to each eye.  Highly reliable because no two people have the same retinal pattern. # Problems: 1. It has extremely low acceptance rate . 2. Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease 3. Not very user friendly
  • 12. FACIAL RECOGNITION  Location and position of facial features.  Distance between the eyes.  Distance between the eyes and nose ridge.  Angle of a cheek.  Slope of the nose.  Facial temperatures.
  • 13. HAND SCAN Typical systems measure 90 different features:  Overall hand and finger width  Distance between joints  Bone structure Primarily for access control:  Machine rooms  Olympics Strengths:  No negative connotations – non-intrusive  Reasonably robust systems Weaknesses:  Accuracy is limited; can only be used for 1-to-1 verification  Bulky scanner
  • 14. TEMPLATE SIZE Biometric Approx. Template Size Voice 70k – 80k Face 84 bytes – 2k Signature 500 bytes – 1000 bytes Fingerprint 256 bytes – 1.2k Hand Geometry 9 bytes Iris 256 bytes – 512 bytes Retina 96 bytes
  • 15. Advantages :  Biometric attributes are unique and these can’t be faked or interchanged so, this uniqueness imparts a high level security to these systems.  There is no need for remembering passwords, pin’s etc. Disadvantages :  Biometric template data consume more space than the conventional user id/password combinations. Advantages & Disadvantages
  • 16. APPLICATIONS Commercial  Computer login  Electronic payment  ATMS Government  Passport control Forensic  Missing persons  Criminal investigations
  • 18. References  Biometrics.gov. http://www.biometrics.gov/ReferenceRoom/Introduction.aspx  Jain, Anil K., Arun Ross, and Salil Prabhakar. "An Introduction to Biometric Recognition." IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY 14.1 (2004): 4-20. IEEE Xplore. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1262027  Jain, Anil K., Patrick J. Flinn, and Arun A. Ross. Handbook of Biometrics. New York: Springer. http://libcat.clemson.edu/record=b2478857  Phillips, Jonathon P., Alvin Martin, C. L. Wilson, and Mark Przybocki. "An Introduction Evaluating Biometric Systems." Computer 33.2 (2000): 56-63. IEEE Xplore. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=820040  http://bprl.cs.clemson.edu/about.html  http://bprl.cs.clemson.edu/projects.html
  • 19. Thank you