Writing Your Own JSR-Compliant, Domain-Specific Scripting Language
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    Writing Your Own JSR-Compliant, Domain-Specific Scripting Language Writing Your Own JSR-Compliant, Domain-Specific Scripting Language Presentation Transcript

    • Writing Your Own JSR-Compliant, Domain- Specific Scripting Language David Smith, Software Engineer John Colosi, Software Engineer TS-5693
    • Prove the power of Domain Specific Languages to simplify work, communicate ideas, and manipulate space-time 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 2
    • Demonstrate by example some techniques for using Java™ Specification Request (JSR)- 223 to build your own simple, portable Domain Specific Language 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 3
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 4
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 5
    • What is JSR-223? JSR-223 defines certain contracts between the Java Virtual Machine (JVM™) and a scripting language It covers: • Motivations behind its creation • How the JVM tool will discover available scripting languages at runtime • The classes and interfaces that define relationships between a script engine and the JVM tool Scripting support was introduced with Java 6 platform At scripting.dev.java.net you can find a list of JSR- conforming scripting-language implementations 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 6
    • What is a scripting language? A language whose programs control applications rather than exist as applications on their own Scripts ordinarily contain sequences of commands intended for the target application Usually interpreted Definition has become muddled 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 7
    • What is a DSL? Full of terms and jargon particular to the domain Not necessarily a computer language, even though that’s how engineers might think about them Often impenetrable to outsiders The same way design patterns can be referred to by name and connote lots of information to those knowledgeable 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 8
    • Shared context When there are things we all understand, we can factor them out of the communication DSLs assume a shared context between language user and language interpreter The “domain” in DSL signifies that context 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 9
    • What is Domain Specific Language? Spoken languages are imperfect • Rich • Not concise 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 10
    • What is Domain Specific Language? “The way an object in front of a light source appears darker than it really is” • Silhouette 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 11
    • What is Domain Specific Language? “The strange effect of perspective when a large viewing angle is forced into a smaller viewing angle” • Fisheye 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 12
    • Diamonds in the Rough When my wife says: • “What happened to the last batter?” 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 13
    • Diamonds in the Rough There were runners at First… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 14
    • Diamonds in the Rough … and Second base… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 15
    • Diamonds in the Rough … with 1 out… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 16
    • Diamonds in the Rough … when the batter… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 17
    • Diamonds in the Rough … hit a pop fly in the infield… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 18
    • Diamonds in the Rough … The defense could just drop the ball… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 19
    • Diamonds in the Rough … and turn a double play… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 20
    • Diamonds in the Rough … to avoid this, the batter was called out… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 21
    • Diamonds in the Rough … and the runners… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 22
    • Diamonds in the Rough … hold their positions 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 23
    • Diamonds in the Rough That’s a mouthful 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 24
    • Diamonds in the Rough If David asked the same question… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 25
    • Diamonds in the Rough Infield Fly Rule 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 26
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 27
    • Relationship of computer languages Rich languages (e.g., Java) Scripting languages (e.g., Groovy) Domain-specific languages 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 28
    • DSLs vs. rich computer languages Rich languages start by not knowing what you’re talking about • The Java platform doesn’t know what a bank account is Rich languages must allow for all possibilities of application • You can use C to navigate a space shuttle, C++ to run a backend financial system, and a Java platform to make Duke show up in an applet 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 29
    • Duke 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 30
    • Why use a DSL? Deep Blue is a chess playing computer 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 31
    • Why use a DSL? In 1997, it won a match… …against Gary Kasparov, reigning world champion 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 32
    • Why use a DSL? But Deep Blue doesn’t know the rules of chess… It just has a good memory 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 33
    • Why use a DSL? Deep Blue needs something better than the SQL, the “Standard” Query Language CQL is the “Chess” Query Language 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 34
    • What could this mean? :relation (:missingpiececount A 1) 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 35
    • CQL Syntax CQL syntax Keywords Keywords • K white king k black king • :mate :pattern • N white knight n black knight • :check :relation • B white bishop b black bishop • :wtm (white to move) • P white pawn p black pawn • :terminal (final position) • R white rook r black rook • Q white queen q black queen • A any white piece a any black piece • . empty square U any piece 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 36
    • :relation (:missingpiececount A 1) Find games where White sacrificed a piece to improve his position 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 37
    • CQL CQL was developed by Gady Costeff and Lewis Stiller It is Copyright (c) 2003-2004 and is free 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 38
    • Other DSL examples Wiki markup language SQL • Imagine all the complexity behind this simple command • SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(emp,4) */ COUNT(*) FROM emp ; SPSS – stat *example* Solaris™ Flash technology actionscript – this is pretty rich though AI scripts 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 39
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 40
    • Beginning the implementations JSR-223 defines six classes and six interfaces All can be found in the javax.script package These fall into the categories of: • the scripting engine for a language • the context in which a script is running 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 41
    • JSR-223 API: relations between manager and factories ScriptEngine ScriptEngine Factory Manager (language x) ScriptEngine Factory (language y) Service locator ScriptEngine Factory (language z) language language language x y z 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 42
    • JSR-223 API: the ScriptEngineManager The ScriptEngineManager • Auto-discovers scripting lanugaues • Determines which engine factory to give you based on language name, MIME-type, or extension that you supply It’s a factory of factories 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 43
    • JSR-223 API: relations between factories and engines ScriptEngine ScriptEngine ScriptEngine Factory Manager (language x) (language x) ScriptEngine (language x) scripts (language x) 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 44
    • JSR-223 API: the script engine and its factory ScriptEngineFactory • Produces instances of your engine • Maps MIMEs, extensions, and language names to itself • Provides syntax for method calls and output statements • Provides mechanism for building a script from statements ScriptEngine • Interprets and runs (“evaluates”) your scripts • Requires you to implement overloaded eval() method for script interpretation 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 45
    • Code example: hello world // get Groovy engine from the SEM ScriptEngineManager sem = new ScriptEngineManager(); ScriptEngine groovyEng = sem.getEngineByName( "groovy" ); // run a script groovyEng.eval( "println 'hello world'" ); 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 46
    • JSR-223 API: closer look at ScriptEngine class public Object eval ( ... ) throws ScriptException The ( ... ) can be • String • Reader • String, ScriptContext • Reader, ScriptContext • String, Bindings • Reader, Bindings 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 47
    • JSR-223 API: Interactions between a Java platform application and an engine Java application ScriptEngine Manager ScriptContext { ScriptEngine … Factory Bindings Java code … } Bindings ScriptEngine 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 48
    • JSR-223 API: the script’s runtime context Bindings • Holds name-value pairs • Objects can be bound into, retrieved from, and removed from the Bindings by both the script and the Java platform caller to the script ScriptContext • Context in which scripts run • Provides access to scoped Bindings • Provides reader and two writers (standard, error) for script input and output 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 49
    • JSR-223 API: Bindings hierarchy Bindings have scopes • Global scope – can be set in the ScriptEngineManager or the ScriptEngine before script evaluation • Engine scope – can be set in the ScriptEngine before script evaluation • “Local” scope – can be passed in at script-evaluation time and used for that evaluation only The ScriptEngine will look for a specific binding (property in a Bindings) by going from local to engine to global scope 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 50
    • Code example: round trip with “local” bindings // get the Groovy engine from the SEM ScriptEngineManager sem = new ScriptEngineManager(); ScriptEngine groovyEng = sem.getEngineByName( "groovy" ); // create some bindings for our script run Bindings runBindings = groovyEng.createBindings(); runBindings.put( "greeting", "hello from script" ); // run the script and supply those bindings groovyEng.eval( "println greeting", runBindings ); 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 51
    • JSR-223 API: helper classes SimpleBindings SimpleScriptContex AbstractScriptEngine 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 52
    • JSR-223 API: optional engine facilities Compilable Invocable 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 53
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 54
    • Writing your own language: how and where to start? Sometimes the biggest hurdle is getting started JSR-223 is a friendly, welcoming specification DSLs are only and exactly as difficult to write as you decide they will be 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 55
    • Start at the end What should the eventual script look like? • Syntax • Semantics What features do you want to support? • What are the nouns that will be important? • What verbs – what actions? 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 56
    • An example script showMap zipcode=22207 setZoomLevel 15 showIcons schools showIcons libraries plotRoute mySavedRoute 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 57
    • Begin implementation with AbstractScriptEngine Have createBindings() return a new SimpleBindings Consolidate the two remaining eval() methods • private Object eval(final Reader reader, final Bindings bindings, final ScriptContext context) throws ScriptException Implement the new eval() method • Start with “Hello World” • Write a test that calls all of the different public eval() methods 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 58
    • Write your ScriptEngineFactory None of its methods require any computation! Two of its methods deal with your script’s syntax • getMethodCallSyntax(…) requires some thought, but not much • getProgram(…) requires even less thought Write a test to grab the engine from the factory and execute a script 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 59
    • Package it properly Use the service-provider convention for auto discovery • META-INF • /services • /javax.script.ScriptEngineFactory • com.my.script.MyScriptEngineFactory Write a test to get your ScriptEngineFactory via the ScriptEngineManager 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 60
    • Ummm… you’re now JSR-compliant! You’re almost done! You now have to change your new ScriptEngine’s private eval() method to do more than “Hello World” • Unless your intention was to have a HelloWorldScriptEngine • There’s nothing wrong with that, by the way 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 61
    • Advanced parsing If your language is complex, separate/encapsulate the parse and the execute concerns • Try ANTLR for parsing • Consider implementing Invocable and Compilable if you have a compilation step separate from the execution However, a complicated language means fewer users 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 62
    • Extending your interpreter Want to get fancy? • Support variables • Allow output redirection • Allow input redirection • Provide extensive error messages (ScriptException supports line- number support) • …what else…? What implicit procedures and variables will you expose to all scripts? • Unique ID generator? • Logging? 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 63
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 64
    • Case studies John & David are Java platform programmers John’s into video games David’s into music They understand the basics of the JSR 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 65
    • David’s MP3 player filter band=Wolfhounds shuffle on repeat on play 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 66
    • The Gaming Revolution The Next Big Thing 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 67
    • The Old School 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 68
    • The New School 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 69
    • The Gaming Revolution I want to make a language that asserts the basic principles of game play I wish I could cheat and write something like this: • Jump once • If I’m near the top of my jump, then assert that I can jump again • If I’m not, then assert that I can’t jump Can’t we all just get along If I need a test case for my test case, it’s too complicated 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 70
    • Enter Gameplan: The Gameplay Description Language Do • Simple commands like “JUMP” • Assignments like Health=25 Wait – {} • Simple commands like “{Standing}” • Assignments like {Height<300} • Comparisons like {ShotsInTheAir=0} • Sleep like {2000} Assert – [] • Simple commands like “[JUMPING]” • Assignments like [Ammo = 100] • Comparisons like [Lives > 0] 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 71
    • Example Gameplan file # Double jump jump {nearpeak} jump [height>300] # Can’t jump when you’re rolling roll [rolling] {200} jump [height=0] # Shooting maxshotsintheair=1 shoot [shotsintheair=1] shoot shoot [shotsintheair=1] # Upgrade maxshotsintheair=4 shotsintheair=0 shoot [shotsintheair=1] shoot shoot [shotsintheair=3] 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 72
    • Verisign Gameplan Implementation (VGI) One object method • GamplanScriptEngine.eval(String, context) One properties file • Gameplan.definition.txt One Registration file • javax.script.ScriptEngineFactory 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 73
    • GamplanScriptEngine.eval(String, context) public Object eval(String script, ScriptContext context) throws ScriptException { // Start the Game object // Foreach line of input // If it looks like [***] // Assert the condition inside // If it looks like {***} // Wait on the condition inside // Otherwise // Change the state of the Game object // Stop the Game object } 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 74
    • Gameplan.definition.txt script.extensions = .game .gp script.mimetypes = text/plain application/gameplan script.name.short = Gameplan script.name.long = Gameplan - Gameplay Description Language script.name.list = Gameplan gpln gp GDL script.version = 1.0 engine.name = Verisign Gameplan Interpreter engine.class = com.vrsn.script.GameplanScriptEngine engine.version = 2.3 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 75
    • javax.script.ScriptEngineFactory /META-INF/services/javax.script.ScriptEngineFactory • com.vrsn.script.gameplan.GameplanScriptEngineFactory 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 76
    • VeriSign Gameplan Interpreter 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 77
    • The Gaming Revolution Don’t worry, we’ve slowed down the game for demonstration purposes. The real version will run almost 10% faster! 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 78
    • The Gaming Revolution I know what you’re thinking, does this game really revolutionize gaming… 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 79
    • John & David write their DSLs, get traction MP3-player users love scripting their players Videogame users love scripting their players Because they’re so easy to use, others besides intended users pick up on them • QA for MP3 player want to start using it • {…some people besides users…} for videogame wanna use it 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 80
    • Allow plugins Allow for people to add to the language dynamically via plugins Plugins implement callback for handling script commands public interface ScriptPlugin { handleLine (String scriptLine) } Plugins register their triggering keywords with scripts. Interpreter routes triggered commands to plugins 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 81
    • Registration mechanism # register ‘assert’ plugin with engine plugin assert com.verisign.mp3.qa.Assertions # validate that plugin is working assert activeSongCount=0 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 82
    • QA script # validate filter features filter genre=downtempo assert activeSongCount=33 assert activeGenre=downtempo saveFilter myTestFilter clearFilter assert activeSongCount=0 loadFilter myTestFilter assert activeSongCount=33 assert activeGenre=downtempo 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 83
    • Videogame marketing folks you can have your Java platform code generate and execute such scripts while running you can save yourself compilation, build, packaging, and deployment cycles by separating the dynamic logic from the application proper 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 84
    • Synergy between music fans and gamers What gamer doesn’t want to control the game’s soundtrack? Gamers want to use their own music Gamers want the right music for the right moment 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 85
    • The beauty of JSR-223 compliance Because the scripting languages share common interfaces… Because the JSR specifies a discovery mechanism… Because the calling program doesn’t need to know anything about the language… The languages become interoperable 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 86
    • Combination script {{ some Gameplan stuff }} [[[ mp3 filter band=Wolfhounds shuffle on repeat on play ]]] {{ more Gameplan }} 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 87
    • Agenda Background on JSR-223, scripting, and DSLs Domain Specific Languages in detail Walk-through of JSR-223 Writing your own DSL DSL Case Studies Jumpstart your development 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 88
    • Introducing ScriptBlend Non-intrusive means of embedding different languages in the same script Scripts can share variables with one another Foreign script snippets can be inserted into flows midstream 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 89
    • ScriptBlend: Midstream insertion echo “hello” [[[ groovy for ( i in 1..5 ) { ... ]]] echo “hi from native script” [[[ ... } def groovyHi = "hi from groovy"; scriptGlue.publish("groovyHi", groovyHi); ]]] echo ${groovyHi} 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 90
    • More on ScriptBlend Supports nesting of foreign scripts (e.g., JavaScript™ technology snippet inside a Groovy snippet inside a Beanshell snippet) Provides a simple way to enable the ScriptEngineManager, individual ScriptEngineFactories, and individual ScriptEngines to interpret blended scripts Possible Eclipse plugin for creating and editing blended scripts More to follow…? 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 91
    • Excited to get started scripting? We have a starter kit to get you going Simplifies an already-friendly API 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 92
    • Starter Kit Implementations of JSR-223 must provide a factory and engine, but some common functionality can be assumed • VerisignScriptEngineProperties • Loads properties from a resource • VerisignScriptEngineFactory • Loads Engine specified in the properties • VerisignScriptEngine • Reads input scripts intelligently • Funnels all eval methods into one which you implement All that’s left is to dream up the language 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 93
    • Presentation Map John and David’s JSR-223 Simple Framework Gameplan Gameplay DSL Music Description VGI Language Interaction VeriSign Gameplan Language Interpreter Advanced Techniques Gameplan Examples Where to go from here 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 94
    • Summary Domain Specific Languages provide portable power in a simple box that even the business guys can understand Build a rocket ship with a one page manual that your customers can operate 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 95
    • For More Information List • Cross-references to other sessions • BOFs • URLs • Related books, etc. 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 96
    • Image Attributions Creative Commons License • First Base Flickr user timailius • Second Base Flickr user billaday • 1 out Flickr user newyork808 • Batter Flickr user pingnews • Fly ball Flickr user foreverdigital • Dropped ball Flickr user hobbes8calvin • Double play Flickr user Michael (mx5tx) • Umpire Flickr user Tom Clifton • Deep Blue Flickr user davespilbrow • Chess Pieces Flickr user Shefaet • Earth Flickr user susemueller • Silhouette Flickr user jekkyl • Fisheye Flickr user ValterJacinto • Baseball Flickr user B Tal Stock Xchng, Public License • Thunderbirds2 Rocketship 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 97
    • David Smith, Software Engineer John Colosi, Software Engineer TS-5693 2008 JavaOneSM Conference | java.sun.com/javaone | 98