History Of CANCER Anatomy of HEAD & NECK LYMPH NODE levels Staging of CANCER NECK DISSECTIONS COMPLICATIONS
1880 Kocher advocates wide marginlymphadenectomy 1881 Kocher and Packard recommenddissection of submandibular trianglefor lingual cancer 1885 Butlin questions RND for oral N0disease 1888 Jawdynski describes en blocresection with resection of carotid,IJV, SCM.Ferlito, A et al. Neck Dissection: past, present and future? J. Laryngol Otol. 2005 (1) 1-6.
1901 Solis-Cohen advocatelymphadenectomy for N0 laryngealCA 1905 -1906 Crile describes enbloc resection in JAMA 1926 Bartlett and Callanderadvocate preservation of XI, IJV,SCM, platysma, stylohyoid, digastric 1933 Blair and Brown advocateremoval of XI.Ferlito, A et al. Neck Dissection: past, present and future? J. Laryngol Otol. 2005 (1) 1-6.
1951 Martin advocates Radical Neck Dissection after analysis of1450 cases› Advocated RND for N+ cases. 1952 – Suarez describes a functional neck dissection› Preservation of SCM, omohyoid, submandibular gland, IJV, XI.› Enables protection of carotid. 1960’s – MD Anderson advocate selective ND of highest risk nodalbasins 1967 - Bocca and Pignataro describe the “functional neckdissection” 1975 – Bocca establishes oncologic safety of the FND compared tothe RNDFerlito, A et al. Neck Dissection: past, present and future? J. Laryngol Otol. 2005 (1) 1-6.
The region of theThe region of thebody that liesbody that liesbetween:between: TheThe LOWER BORDERLOWER BORDEROF THE MANDIBLEOF THE MANDIBLE&& TheThe SUPRASTERNALSUPRASTERNALNOTCHNOTCH and theand theUPPER BORDER OFUPPER BORDER OFCLAVICLE.CLAVICLE.
• Origin – fascia overlying the pectoralismajor and deltoid muscle• Insertion – 1) depression muscles of thecorner of the mouth, 2) the mandible, and3) the SMAS layer of the face• Function –1) wrinkles the the neck2) depresses the corner of the mouth3) increases the diameter of the neck4) assists in venous return
Surgical considerations – Increases blood supply to skin flaps – Absent in the midline of the neck – Fibers run in an opposite direction to the SCM
PrevertebrallayerTrapeziusInvestinglayerPretracheal layerBuccopharyngeal fasciaCarotid sheathesophaguss.c.mscalenustracheathyroidInfrahyoid m.Internal jugularveinCommon carotida.Vagus n.pretracheal fascia
• Origin – 1) medial third of the clavicle(clavicular head)2) manubrium (sternal head) • Insertion – mastoid process • Nerve supply – spinal accessory nerve (CNXI) • Blood supply –1) occipital a. or direct from ECA2) superior thyroid a.3) transverse cervical a.
Function – turns head toward opposite sideand tilts head toward the ipsilateral shoulder • Surgical considerations– Leave overlying fascia (superficial layer of deepcervical fascia down)– Lateral retraction exposes the submuscular recess
• Origin – upper border of the scapula• Insertion –1) via the intermediate tendon onto the clavicle andfirst rib2) hyoid bone lateral to the sternohyoid muscle • Blood supply – Inferior thyroid a. • Function –1) depress the hyoid2) tense the deep cervical fascia
Surgical considerations – Absent in 10% of individuals – Landmark demarcating level III from IV – Inferior belly lies superficial to• The brachial plexus• Phrenic nerve• Transverse cervical vessels – Superior belly lies superficial to• IJV
• Origin –1) medial 1/3 of the sup. Nuchal line2) external occipital protuberance3) ligamentum nuchae4) spinous process of C7 and T1-T12 • Insertion –1) lateral 1/3 of the clavicle2) acromion process3) spine of the scapula • Function – elevate and rotate the scapula andstabilize the shoulder
Surgical considerations – Posterior limit of Level V neck dissection – Denervation results in shoulder drop and wingedscapula
• Origin – digastric fossa of the mandible (at thesymphyseal border• Insertion –1) hyoid bone via the intermediate tendon2) mastoid process• Function –1) elevate the hyoid bone2) depress the mandible (assists lateral pterygoid)
– Posterior belly is superficial to:• ECA• Hypoglossal nerve• ICA• IJV – Anterior belly• Landmark for identification of mylohyoid fordissection of the submandibular triangle
Division of the neckAnterior triangleSuprahyoid region: submental trianglesubmandibular triangleInfrahyoid region: muscular trianglecarotid trianglePosterior triangle
Submental triangle Lies below the chin and isbounded laterally byanterior bellies of digastric,and inferiorly by the bodyof hyoid bone Covered by skin,superficial fascia andinvesting fascia Floor － mylohyoid muscles Contents － submentallymph nodes
Submandibular triangle Bounded by anterior and posterior bellies of digastricand lower border of the body of the mandible Covered by skin, superficial fascia, platysma andinvesting fascia Floor － mylohyoid, hyoglossus and middleconstrictor of pharynx Contents － submandibular gland, faciala., v., hypoglossal n. and v., lingual n.,submandibular ganglion and submandibular lymphnodes
Carotid trianglesternocleidomastoid,superior belly of omohyoidand posterior belly ofdigastic muscles Covered by skin, superficialfascia, platysma andinvesting fascia Floor － prevertebral fasciaand lateral wall of pharynx Contents － commoncarotid a. and its branches,internal jugular v. and itstributaries, hypoglossal n.with its descendingbranches, the accessoryand vagus nerves, and partof the chain of deepcervical lymph nodes
Muscular triangle Bounded by midline of theneck, superior belly of theomohyoid and anteriorborder of thesternocleidomastoid. Covered by skin, superficialfascia, platysma, anteriorjugular v., coutaneous n. andinvesting fascia Floor － prevertebral fascia Contents － sternohyoid,sternothyroid, thyrohyoid,thyroid gland, parathyroidgland, cervical part oftrachea and esophagus
Bounded byposterior border ofsternocleidomastoid,anterior border oftrapezius and middlethird of clavicle Divided by inferiorbelly of omohyoidinto occipital andsupraclaviculartriangles
Arteries:Arteries: SubclavianSubclavian (3(3rdrdpart)part) Superficial cervical &Superficial cervical &suprascapularsuprascapular(branches of(branches ofthyrocervical trunkthyrocervical trunk, a, abranch ofbranch of 11ststpart ofpart ofsubclavian arterysubclavian artery OccipitalOccipital, a, a branchbranchof external carotidof external carotidarteryartery
Nerves:Nerves: Branches ofBranches ofcervicalcervicalplexusplexus Spinal part ofSpinal part ofaccessoryaccessorynervenerve BrachialBrachialplexusplexus
Occipital triangle Bounded by posteriorborder ofsternocleidomastoid,anterior border oftrapezius and superiorborder of inferior belly ofomohyoid Covered by skin,superficial fascia, andinvesting fascia Floor － prevertebralfascia and scalenusanterior, scalenus medius,scalenus posterior,splenius capitis andlevator scapulae
Contents› Accessory n. － emerges above the middle ofthe posterior border of sternocleidomastoid andcrosses the occipital triangle to trapezius› Cervical and brachial PLEXUS
Supraclavicular triangle Bounded by posteriorborder ofsternocleidomastoid,inferior belly of omohyoidand middle third ofclavicle Covered by skin,superficial fascia, andinvesting fascia Floor － prevertebralfascia and inferior parts ofscalenus Contents› Subclavian v. andvenous angle› Subclavian a.› Brachial plexus
Most commonly injurydissection level Ib Landmarks:› 1cm anterior and inferior toangle of mandible› Mandibular notch Subplatysmal Deep to fascia of thesubmandibular gland Superficial to facial vein
Motor nerve to thetongue • Cell bodies are in theHypoglossal nucleus ofthe Medulla oblongata • Exits the skull via thehypoglossal canal • Lies deep to the IJV,ICA, CN IX, X, and XI
• Curves 90 degrees and passes between the IJVand ICA– Surrounded by venous plexus • Extends upward along hyoglossus muscle andinto the genioglossus to the tip of the tongue. Iatrogenic injury – Most common site - floor of the submandibulartriangle, just deep to the duct
Penetrates deep surface ofthe SCM Exits posterior surface ofSCM deep to Erb’s point Traverses the posteriortriangle on the levatorscapulae Enters the trapezius about 5cm above the clavicleAnsa cervicalisHypoglossal n. (XII)Accessory n. (XI)Phrenic n.Vagus n. (X)
Crosses the IJV • Crosses lateral to the transverse process ofthe atlas • Occipital artery crosses the nerve • Descends obliquely in level II (forms Level IIa andIIb
Developed by Memorial Sloan-KetteringCancer Center Ease and uniformity in describingregional nodal involvement in cancer ofthe head and neck
LYMPH NODES acts as a barrier to thespread of the disease .Virchow in 1860
CAN BE DIVIDED INTO;a) SUPERFICIAL CHAIN OF LYMPH NODES…..b) VERTICAL DEEP CHAIN OF LYMPH NODESThis consists of nodes lying in relation tocarotid sheath.These lie along thevessels,trachea,oesophagusand extend frombase of skull to root of neck.
Face and Scalp Anterior Facial, IbLateral ParotidPosterior Occipital, VEyelids Medial IbLateral Parotid, IIChin Ia, Ib, IIExternal Ear Anterior Parotid, IIPosterior Post auricular, II, VMiddle Ear Parotid, IIFloor of mouth Anterior Ia, Ib, IIa > IIbLower incisors Ia, Ib, IIa > IIbLateral Ib, IIa > IIb, IIITeeth except incisors Ib, IIa > IIb, IIINasal Cavity Anterior IbPosterior Retropharyngeal, II, V
Nasal Cavity Posterior Retropharyngeal, II, VNasopharynx Retropharyngeal, II, III, VOropharynx IIb > IIa, III, IV, VLarynx Supraglottic IIa > IIb, III, IVSubglottic VI, IVCervicalesophagus IV, VIThyroid VI, IV, V, MediastinalTongue Tip Ia, Ib, IIa > IIb, III, IVLateral Ib, IIa > IIb, III, IV
• “N” classification – AJCC (1997) • Consistent for all mucosal sites except thenasopharynx • Thyroid and nasopharynx have different stagingbased on tumor behavior and prognosis • Based on extent of disease prior to first treatment
Nx: Regional lymph nodes cannot beassessed. N0: No regional lymph node metastases. N1: Single ipsilateral lymph node, < 3 cm
N2a: Single ipsilateral lymph node 3 to 6cm N2b: Multiple ipsilateral lymph nodes > 6cm N2c: Bilateral or contralateral nodes >6cm N3: Metastases > 6 cm
• Standardized until 1991 • Academy’s Committee for Head andNeck Surgery and Oncology publicizedstandard classification system
Academy’s classification – Based on 4 concepts• 1) RND is the standard basic procedure for cervicallymphadenectomy against which all othermodifications are compared• 2) Modifications of the RND which includepreservation of any non-lymphatic structures arereferred to as modified radical neck dissection(MRND)
Academy’s classification• 3) Any neck dissection that preserves one or moregroups or levels of lymph nodes is referred to as aselective neck dissection (SND)• 4) An extended neck dissection refers to theremoval of additional lymph node groups or non-lymphatic structures relative to the RND
Removes› Nodal groups I-V Preserves› SCM, IJV, XI (anycombination)› TYPE A MRND
Three types (Medina 1989) commonly referred tonot specifically named by committee.• Type I: Preservation of SAN• Type II: Preservation of SAN and IJV• Type III: Preservation of SAN, IJV, and SCM( “Functional neck dissection”)
• Indications– Clinically obvious lymph node metastases– SAN not involved by tumor–Intraoperative decision
• Indications– Rarely planned– Intraoperative tumor found adherent to theSCM, but not IJV and SAN
• Rationale– Suarez (1963) – necropsy and surgery specimens oflarynx and hypopharynx – lymph nodes do notshare the same adventitia as adjacent BV’s– Nodes not within muscular aponeurosis or glandularcapsule (submandibular gland)– Sharpe (1981) showed ) 0% involvement of the SCMin 98 RND specimens despite 73 have nodalmetastases – Survival approximates MRND Type I assuming IJV,and SCM not involved Widely accepted in Europe• Neck dissection of choice for N0 neck
Definition– Cervical lymphadenectomy withpreservation of one or more lymph nodegroups– Four common subtypes: • Supraomohyoid neck dissection • Posterolateral neck dissection • Lateral neck dissection • Anterior neck dissection
Also known as an elective neck dissection• Rate of occult metastasis in clinically negative neck20-30%• Indication: primary lesion with 20% or greater risk ofoccult metastasis• Studies by Fisch and Sigel (1964) demonstratedpredictable routes of lymphatic spread frommucosal surfaces of the H&N• Need for post-op RT
• Most commonly performed SND• Definition – En bloc removal of cervical lymph node groups I-III– Posterior limit is the cervical plexus and posteriorborder of the SCM– Inferior limit is the omohyoid muscle overlying theIJV
Indications– Oral cavity carcinoma with N0 neck • Boundaries – Vermillion border of lips tojunction of hard and soft palate,circumvallate papillae• Subsites - Lips, buccal mucosa, upper andloweralveolar ridges, retromolar trigone, hardpalate, and anterior 2/3s of the tongue andFOM– Medina recommends SOHND with T2-T4 NOor TX N1 (palpable node is <3cm, mobile,and in levels I or II)
Bilateral SOHND • Anterior tongue • Oral tongue and FOM that approach the midline– SOHND + parotidectomy • Cutaneous SCCA of the cheek • Melanoma (Stage I – 1.5 to 4mm) of the cheek• Byers does not advocate elective neck dissectionfor buccal carcinoma – Adjuvant RT given to patients with > 2- 4 positivenodes +/- ECS.
• Definition – En bloc removal of the jugular lymphnodes including Levels II-IV. Indications – N0 neck in carcinomas of the oropharynx,hypopharynx, supraglottis, and larynx
• Definition– En bloc excision of lymph bearing tissues inLevels II-IV and additional node groups –suboccipital and postauricular. Indications– Cutaneous malignancies• Melanoma• Squamous cell carcinoma• Merkel cell carcinoma– Soft tissue sarcomas of the scalp and neck
• Definition – En bloc removal of lymph structures inLevel VI • Perithyroidal nodes • Pretracheal nodes • Precricoid nodes (Delphian) • Paratracheal nodes along recurrentnerves – Limits of the dissection are the hyoidbone, suprasternal notch and carotidsheaths
Indications – Selected cases of thyroid carcinoma – Parathyroid carcinoma – Subglottic carcinoma – Laryngeal carcinoma with subglotticextension– CA of the cervical esophagus
• Definition – Any previous dissection which includes removalof one or more additional lymph node groupsand/or non-lymphatic structures. – Usually performed with N+ necks in MRND or RNDwhen metastases invade structures usuallypreserved
Indications – Carotid artery invasion – Other examples: • Resection of the hypoglossal nerve resection ordigastric muscle, • dissection of mediastinal nodes and centralcompartment for subglottic involvement, and • removal of retropharyngeal lymph nodes fortumors originating in the pharyngeal walls.
SUPERSELECTIVE NECK DISSECTION OFHEAD AND NECK cancer –Yet to come
4 TYPES- INTRA OP- IMMEDIATE POST OP- LATE POST OP- DELAYED COMPLICATIONS
Haemorrhage: Needs evaluation of theextent of bleeding and occasionallymay need re-exploration. Lymph leak: When the drainage is ofmilky fluid and is persistently high>100ml /day after 2days.A possibility oflymph leak has to be considered.
Carotid blow out: A dreadedcomplication that occurs secondary towound break down. If exposed thecarotids have to be covered usingvascularised flaps. Facial oedema: A common occurrenceusually settles down in 4-6 weeks.
Wound infection Fistulae Devitalisation of the reconstructed flap
• Cervical metastasis in SCCA of the upperaerodigestive tract continues to portend a poorprognosis • Staging will help determine what type neckdissection should be performed • Unified classification of neck nodal levels andclassification of neck dissection has to understoodwell. • Indications for neck dissection and type of neckdissection, especially in the N0 neck, is a stillcontroversial