The heart is a muscular organ a little larger than your fist weighing between 7 and 15 ounces (250 to 300 gm)in female & 300-350gm in male. It is responsible for pumping blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The average heart beats 100,000 times per day pumping about 2,000 gallons (7,571 liters) of blood. The average human heart beating at 72 BPM (beats per minute), will beat approximately 2.5 billion times during a lifetime of 66 years.
The heart is usually situated in the middle of the thorax with the largest part of the heart slightly offset to the left underneath the breastbone or sternum and is surrounded by the lungs. The sac enclosing the heart is known as the pericardium.
Difference between Forward and Backward Heart Failure.
Farward failure is sign and symptom of ischemia due to reduce systolic output
Backward failure is sign of congestion due to inedequate emptying of heart chambers
What is high output failure:
it is charect by a high cardiac out put (high systolic ejection fraction) cause by increase demand typically encounter in Anemia, Thyrotoxicosis, Beriberi and pregnancy. prolong ventricular overload leads ultimately over exhaustion of the heart and heart failure.
KIDNEYS:- small pin pont petechial hemorrhages , appear as flea bitten patteran
Fibrinoid necrosis eosinophilic granular changes in blood vessel wall
In interlobular arteries & arteriole typical onion skin apperance.
BRAIN:- brain is swollen gyri are widende, and sulci are narrow poor demarcation b/w grey & white matter.
HIST. Eiosinophilea of neuron cytoplasm pyknosis & karyorrhexis.
Border zone (“watershed” )infarcts.wedge shape area of infarct that occur in regions of brain & spinal cord.
The vessel walls contain a smudgy, eosinophilic, fibrin-like material. Area of acute hemmorhage in thalamus
CAUSES OF RHF Cause What is it? How does it cause right-sided heart failure? Left-sided heart failure Left ventricle does not pump blood efficiently, leading to pressure buildup behind the left side of the heart that eventually causes the right side of the heart to fail Blood backs up behind the left ventricle into the left atrium, in the lungs, and then eventually in to the right ventricle, which also eventually fails, allowing blood to then back up further into the extremities, the liver, and the other organs. Chronic lung disease Includes emphysema, embolism, and other causes of pulmonary hypertension High blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries increases workload of the right ventricle, eventually causing the RVF
Coronary artery disease Blockage of the arteries that supply blood to your heart CAD can cause left-sided heart failure leading to right-sided heart failure, or can directly cause right-sided heart failure by blocking blood supply to the right ventricle Pulmonic stenosis Narrowing of the pulmonic valve that limits blood flow out of the right ventricle ncreases the work of the right ventricle; similar to chronic lung disease Tricuspid stenosis Narrowing of the tricuspid valve Limits blood flow out of the right atrium, causing enlargement of the right atrium and backup of blood flowing to it Left-to-right shunt An abnormal connection between the left and right side of the heart, usually present from birth Causes a volume overload of the right ventricle, similar to tricuspid regurgitation