Meat Inspection In Poultry


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Meat Inspection In Poultry

  1. 1. Inventory of Diseases Important for Meat Inspection in Poultry<br />Muhammad Adnan Ashraf <br />Muhammad Usman Mazhar<br />Muhammad Baqir<br />Muhammad Bilal<br />
  2. 2. Objectives <br />To describe the PM lesions of poultry diseases having zoonotic and economic importance<br />To prepare the addressee to diagnose the particular disease during poultry meat inspection<br />To describe the sensitivity of the causative organism of the particular disease<br />To describe the vulnerable species of poultry with respect to particular disease<br />To decide the fate of judgement of the poultry carcass with respect to particular disease<br />To ensure that consumers are getting the wholesome poultry meat<br />
  3. 3. Inventory of Viral Diseases of Poultry<br />Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)<br />Newcastle Disease (Ranikhet)<br />Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro)<br />Infectious Bronchitis<br />Infectious Laryngeotracheitis <br />Avian Pox (Fowl Pox)<br />Avian Leukosis Complex<br />Lymphoid Leukosis<br />Erythroid Leukosis<br />Myeloid Leukosis<br />Endothelioma <br />Sarcoma <br />Marek’s Disease<br />Reticuloendotheliosis <br />Lymphoproliferation<br />
  4. 4. Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague)<br />Affects domestic fowl although wild birds are natural reservoirs<br />Reportable disease with zoonotic importance<br />Causative Organism: Sensitivity:<br />Orthomyxovirus 56 ˚C for 60 min<br />PM Findings:<br />Inflammation of conjunctivae, trachea and airsacs <br />Edema of the head with congestion, haemorrhages and cyanosis of the combs and wattles<br />Petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages in serosal and mucosal surfaces of heart and small intestine<br />Judgement:<br />Totally condemned<br />
  5. 5. Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague)<br />Dark colored hemorrhages between two ceaca<br />
  6. 6. Newcastle Disease (Ranikhet)<br />The most important disease of poultry with zoonotic importance<br />Disease affects chicken, turkeys, geese, ducks and pheasants<br />Causative Organism: Sensitivity:<br />Avulavirus 60 ˚C for 1 hour<br />PM Findings:<br />Swelling of eyelids and conjunctivitis<br />Hemorrhage in the mucosa of the trachea (upper), large intestine, particularly caecal tonsils <br />Edema of head and neck<br />Edematous or hemorrhagic ovaries<br />Judgement:<br />Totally condemned <br />
  7. 7. Newcastle Disease (Ranikhet)<br />Swelling of lower eyelid and conjunctivitis<br />
  8. 8. Infectious Bursal Disease(Gumboro)<br />Second most important disease of poultry (chicken)<br />Causative Organism: Sensitivity:<br />Birnavirus 71 ˚C for 6 min<br />PM Findings:<br />Petechial hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles<br />Bursa of Fabricius is at first enlarged, inflammed and cheesy and after 4-8 days atrophies<br />Peripheral infarcts of liver with spleen enlarged<br />Judgement:<br />If lesions are localized, it is partially condemned<br />If lesions are generalized, it is totally condemned<br />
  9. 9. Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro)<br />Bursa with decreasing size<br />
  10. 10. Marek’s Disease<br />Usually the disease of chicken<br />Causative Organism: Sensitivity:<br />Herpesvirus 60 ˚C for 3 hours<br />PM Findings:<br />Skin neoplasia<br />Enlargement of sciatic and brachial nerves<br />Enlargement of feather follicles<br />Acute disease is manifested with tumours in the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain <br />Judgement:<br />Localized disease is partially condemned<br />Extensive visceral and skin disease is totally condemned <br />
  11. 11. Marek’s Disease<br />Neoplastic lesions in leg<br />
  12. 12. Inventory of Bacterial Diseases of Poultry<br />Fowl Cholera (Pasteurellosis)<br />Salmonellosis <br />Pullorum<br />Fowl Typhoid<br />Tuberculosis <br />Pseudotuberculosis <br />Campylobacteriosis <br />Erysipelas <br />Paratyphoid<br />Arizona infection (Paracolon infection)<br />Mycoplasmosis <br />Chronic Respiratory Disease<br />Airsacculitis<br />Infectious Sinusitis<br />Clostridial Diseases<br />Gangreneous Dermatitis<br />Necrotic Enteritis<br />Chalamydiosis <br />Ornithosis <br />Psittacosis <br />
  13. 13. Salmonellosis (Pullorum and Fowl Typhoid)<br />Disease of poultry, ducks and turkeys<br />Causative organism: Sensitivity:<br />Salmonella group 70 ˚C for 5 min<br />PM Findings:<br />Multiple grey nodules in the heart, lung, liver and spleen, gizzard and intestine<br />Swelling of tibiotarsal joint<br />Discolored follicles in the ovary<br />Judgement:<br />Totally condemned <br />
  14. 14. Salmonellosis (Pullorum)<br />Multiple grey nodules in the heart<br />
  15. 15. Fowl Cholera (Pasteurellosis)<br />Mainly affects turkey and water fowl<br />Causative Organism: Sensitivity: <br />Pasteurella multocida 60 ˚C for 2 min<br />PM Findings:<br />Caseous exudate in wattles, sinuses, nasal turbinates and joints<br />Petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart, serous and mucous membranes <br />Darkened breast muscles are frequently noted <br />Liver has small grey areas of necrosis<br />Judgement:<br />If disease is localized, affected parts are condemned<br />If there is septicemia, all of the carcass is condemned<br />
  16. 16. Fowl Cholera (Pasteurellosis)<br />Cheesy exudate in the Infraorbital Sinus<br />
  17. 17. Tuberculosis <br />Disease affects poultry, turkeys, pheasants, pea fowl and guinea fowl<br />Causative Organism: Sensitivity:<br />Mycobacterium avium 62 ˚C for 30 min<br />PM Findings:<br />Greyish white nodules of in the liver, spleen, and intestine <br />In advanced cases, TB nodules are found in the bone marrow <br />TB lesions are enucleated from the surrounding tissue <br />Mineralization is not present in the lesions <br />Judgement:<br />Totally condemned <br />
  18. 18. Tuberculosis <br />Greyish white nodules in the liver <br />
  19. 19. Parasitic, Fungal and other Diseases of Poultry<br />Parasitic Diseases<br />Histomoniasis (Blackhead)<br />Hexamitiasis<br />Leukocytozoonosis <br />Coccidiosis <br />Ceacal coccidiosis<br />Intestinal coccidiosis <br />Fungal Diseases<br /><ul><li>Aspergillosis
  20. 20. Favus (White Comb)
  21. 21. Moniliasis
  22. 22. Mycotoxicosis (Aflatoxicosis)</li></ul>Miscelleneous Diseases<br /><ul><li>Ascites (Congestive Heart Failure)
  23. 23. Neoplasms
  24. 24. Oregon Disease
  25. 25. Overscald
  26. 26. Green Gizzard Syndrome</li></li></ul><li>Coccidiosis <br />Disease affects chicken, domestic turkey, game birds, fowls and geese<br />Causative organism:<br />Eimeria group<br />PM Findings:<br />Fibrinous inflammation of the intestine <br />Whitish blood streaked faeces <br />Haemorrhagic enteritis <br />Intestinal distention, mucoid blood filled exudate <br />Judgement:<br />Degree of approval depends upon degree of emaciation and anemia<br />
  27. 27. Coccidiosis <br />Intestinal distention and mucoid blood filled exudate<br />
  28. 28. Histomoniasis <br />Disease affects turkeys, specially the poults<br />Causative Organism:<br />Histomonas maleagridis<br />PM Findings:<br />The ceca are characterized with a thickened wall, ulcerated mucosa and caseous exudate <br />The liver lesions consist of circular yellow necrotic tissue surrounded with white rings <br />If the caecal wall becomes perforated, inflammation of the peritoneum is observed <br />Judgement: <br />Liver and spleen are condemned<br />Septicemic carcass is totally condemned <br />
  29. 29. Histomoniasis <br />Circular yellow necrotic tissue surrounded with white rings<br />
  30. 30. References:<br />Books: <br />Gracey J. F. (1992) ‘Meat Hygiene’ 9th Edition<br />Vegad J. L. (2007) ‘A Color Atlas of Poultry Diseases’ 1st Edition, Dehli: IBD Company<br />Websites:<br /><br />Accessed on 29th Sep 2009<br /><br />Accessed on 29th Sep 2009<br /><br />Accessed on 30th Sep 2009<br /><br />Accessed on 30th Sep 2009<br />