Group B:
Ritu Joshi
Sarita Maharjan
Ankur Shrestha
Krishna Chalise
Dipika Shrestha
Pawan Kawan
Sona Shrestha
Introduction


a)

Derivatives are instruments which include:
Security derived from a debt instrument
share, loan, risk i...
Types of Derivative Market


Future contract : is an agreement between two
parties to buy or sell an asset at a certain t...
Cont..


Swaps : are private agreements between
two parties to exchange cash flows in the
future.



Forward : Customize...
History of Derivative Market


As early as the 1650s, dealings resembling
present day derivative market transactions were...
MAJOR COMMODITIES…….












Gold
Silver
Crude oil
Cotton
Copper
Corn
Cocoa
Sugar
Coffee












...
Parties involved….








Client/Investor:
Client or investor is the one who is ready to invest on
commodities of th...
Contd………….




The broker's job is to work with a client to make an
appropriate investment plan and to provide investmen...
Contd….





Clearing houses act as third parties to all futures
and option contracts - as a buyer to every clearing
me...
TYPES OF DERIVATIVE CONTRACTS IN
NEPAL











Over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives
Exchange-traded derivatives
E...
BENEFITS OF THE DERIVATIVE
MARKET (OF NEPAL)






Farmers, traders, exporters, importers can
insure their risk from th...




End users can buy the goods at a predetermined price.
Investors have the advantage to determine the
conditions of th...
Trading process of Derivatives
Market
Invest

Trade

Earn
Role Perform By Parties In Trading
CLEARING MEMBER
Dual Role of Clearing & Settlement(C&S) and Market Making as a
Market M...
– Broker
Plays a role to introduce sub-brokers /clients or can trade
on their own account.
• Providing advisory services t...
Parties involve in commodity trading
MEX
CLEARING MEMBERS

NON CLEARING MEMBERS (Broker) MEMBERS

BANKS

CLIENTS
How to start trading
Trading commodities online is a simple process to
get started, but it is not something that should be...
Matching Principles
When orders and quotes are entered into the central order
book, they are sorted by , price and entry t...
Trading Method
Most of the derivatives markets are fully automated electronic
exchange, where there is no physical trading...
•Daily Price Limit
Daily price limit is the maximum and minimum level that
a price of any contract can reach for that part...
Important Papers
You need to open a saving account in Bank
You must fill up Client Registration Form and
Member Client A...
Drawbacks






Credit risk
Credit risk on account of default by counter party: This
is very low or almost zeros becaus...




Legal risk
Legal risk is that legal objections might be raised;
regulatory framework might not allow some
activities...
Disadvantages


Raises Volatility: Derivatives require a small initial
capital due to leveraging derivatives provide, the...
Regulations







No regulatory body for derivative market.
SEBON has authorized to control derivative market
but not...
The Present Situation of Derivative
Market in Nepal






The Nepalese Derivative Market is very young.
The investors h...










There is no regulating body in the Nepalese derivative
market.
Over 90 percent people want to invest in gol...
List of Derivative Exchange in
Nepal
1)

2)

3)

4)
5)
6)
7)

Commodity and Metal Exchange Nepal
Limited (COMEN) (2006)
Me...
Problems in Nepal




No experts to regulate derivative market.
No regulatory authority.
Lack of awareness among public...
Conclusion
•

The derivatives market is very dynamic and quickly developed into
the most important segment of the financia...
Cont………










The derivatives market functions very well and is constantly
improving. The imperatives for a well ...
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Derivativemarketinnepal 130710115026-phpapp02

  1. 1. Group B: Ritu Joshi Sarita Maharjan Ankur Shrestha Krishna Chalise Dipika Shrestha Pawan Kawan Sona Shrestha
  2. 2. Introduction  a) Derivatives are instruments which include: Security derived from a debt instrument share, loan, risk instrument or contract for differences of any other form of security and, b) A contract that derives its value from the price/index of prices of underlying securities.
  3. 3. Types of Derivative Market  Future contract : is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a certain time in the future, at a certain price.  Options : A contract that gives its buyer the right but not obligation to buy or sell an asset at a fixed price on or before a given date. An option to buy anything is known as a CALL while an option to sell a thing is called a PUT.
  4. 4. Cont..  Swaps : are private agreements between two parties to exchange cash flows in the future.  Forward : Customized contract between two entities ,where settlement takes place on a specific date in the future.
  5. 5. History of Derivative Market  As early as the 1650s, dealings resembling present day derivative market transactions were seen in rise markets in Osaka, Japan.  The first leap towards an organized derivatives market came in 1848, when the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), the largest derivative exchange in the world, was established.
  6. 6. MAJOR COMMODITIES…….          Gold Silver Crude oil Cotton Copper Corn Cocoa Sugar Coffee         Platinum Palladium Heating oil Natural gas Soyabean Soyabean oil Wheat Brent crude
  7. 7. Parties involved….      Client/Investor: Client or investor is the one who is ready to invest on commodities of the derivative market and ready to bear the risk. He is the person who needs to choose his broker carefully and should have knowledge about the derivative market before having entry in it. Broker: A derivatives broker is an investment professional who advises individuals and corporations about how to buy, trade and sell derivatives. Brokers negotiate deals between entities for derivative swaps, research international investment opportunities, counsel individual investors, and analyze corporate asset portfolios to calculate how much a company should risk in the derivatives market. His main job is to present options to a client, help the client make a decision on how to proceed and execute the final choice.
  8. 8. Contd………….   The broker's job is to work with a client to make an appropriate investment plan and to provide investment tips. Because the derivatives broker acts for the client in many aspects of the investment process, it is very important that a client choose a derivatives broker that he or she trusts and works well with.  Clearing House:  It is an agency or separate corporation of a future exchange responsible for settling trading accounts, clearing trades, collecting and maintaining margin money, regulating delivery and reporting trading data.
  9. 9. Contd….    Clearing houses act as third parties to all futures and option contracts - as a buyer to every clearing member seller and a seller to every clearing member buyer. Each futures exchange has its own clearing house. All members of an exchange are required to clear their trades through the clearing house at the end of each trading session and to deposit with the clearing house a sum of money (based on clearinghouse margin requirements) sufficient to cover the member's debit balance.
  10. 10. TYPES OF DERIVATIVE CONTRACTS IN NEPAL         Over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives Exchange-traded derivatives Economic derivatives Energy derivatives Freight derivatives Insurance derivatives Weather derivatives Credit derivatives
  11. 11. BENEFITS OF THE DERIVATIVE MARKET (OF NEPAL)    Farmers, traders, exporters, importers can insure their risk from the fluctuating product prices by taking futures position in the derivative market. Financial institutions can mitigate the interest rate risk by locking their interest rate with derivative exchange. Investors can invest in the products and can get attractive returns.
  12. 12.   End users can buy the goods at a predetermined price. Investors have the advantage to determine the conditions of the contract they wish to enter, develop tailor-made contracts, while they secure a certain degree of confidentiality in respect to their transactions.
  13. 13. Trading process of Derivatives Market
  14. 14. Invest Trade Earn
  15. 15. Role Perform By Parties In Trading CLEARING MEMBER Dual Role of Clearing & Settlement(C&S) and Market Making as a Market Maker(MM) •Clearing & Settlement Role Can introduce market maker, brokers, clients, and responsible for administrative works (provide margin/ commission leverage, creating client profile, Broker and Sub-broker creation, margin call, fund transfer, offline support etc). •Market Making Role Provide frequent bid and ask quotes simultaneously with quantity within the parameter set by the exchange.
  16. 16. – Broker Plays a role to introduce sub-brokers /clients or can trade on their own account. • Providing advisory services to clients, training and customer support etc.
  17. 17. Parties involve in commodity trading MEX CLEARING MEMBERS NON CLEARING MEMBERS (Broker) MEMBERS BANKS CLIENTS
  18. 18. How to start trading Trading commodities online is a simple process to get started, but it is not something that should be entered into lightly. The traditional method of calling your commodity broker to place orders and waiting for a callback to give you a filled order price is quickly ending. Therefore, if you want to trade commodities online, we will cover the process of how to start.
  19. 19. Matching Principles When orders and quotes are entered into the central order book, they are sorted by , price and entry time. Market orders are always given the highest priority for matching purposes. Orders and quotes in the central order book are anonymous: A trader never knows the opposite side on a trade executed through the exchange. Orders and quotes at a given price level are aggregated, although the number of orders and quotes making up the total remains unknown. Participants only see the specific details of their own orders. For all products, the best bid and ask prices, as well as their respective aggregated bid and offer sizes, are always available in real time.
  20. 20. Trading Method Most of the derivatives markets are fully automated electronic exchange, where there is no physical trading floor. The Exchange is controlled through a centralized platform which is connected with different ‘client’ front-ends called MEXN Trader. Initial Margin The initial margin (IM) is levied on all open positions (Buy or sell positions) of the Members and their clients. The IM calculation on each commodity varies depending upon its market volatility. The margin so calculated is reduced from the total margin of the Member available with the exchange and accordingly further exposure is given on the balance amount.
  21. 21. •Daily Price Limit Daily price limit is the maximum and minimum level that a price of any contract can reach for that particular day. It is the maximum amount of gain or loss that can occur on a particular contract/s. If a price of the contracts reaches the daily price limit, trading on that contract shall be suspended for certain time period or may be for the remainder of the day. This is also called locked market. •Trading session The trading session in MEX Nepal is of 23 hours daily from Monday morning to Saturday morning. Market opens at 03:45 on Monday morning and closes at 02:45 Saturday morning during summer and during winter, the market opens and closes one hour later.
  22. 22. Important Papers You need to open a saving account in Bank You must fill up Client Registration Form and Member Client Agreement Read Risk Disclosure Document Identity Certificate and Address Prove. Bank Statement Certificate
  23. 23. Drawbacks    Credit risk Credit risk on account of default by counter party: This is very low or almost zeros because the Exchange takes on the responsibility for the performance of contracts Market risk Market risk is the risk of loss on account of adverse movement of price. Liquidity risk Liquidity risks are the risk that unwinding of transactions may be difficult, if the market is illiquid.
  24. 24.   Legal risk Legal risk is that legal objections might be raised; regulatory framework might not allow some activities. Operational risk Operational risk is the risk arising out of some operational difficulties like, failure of electricity, due to which it becomes difficult to operate in the market.
  25. 25. Disadvantages  Raises Volatility: Derivatives require a small initial capital due to leveraging derivatives provide, therefore a large no. of market participants can take part in derivatives which leads to speculation and raises volatility in the markets.  Higher no. of Bankruptcies: Due to the existence of leveraged in derivatives, participants assume positions which do not match their financial capabilities and eventually lead to bankruptcies.  Increased need of regulation: There a Large no. of participants who take speculative positions. It is necessary to stop these activities and prevent people from getting bankrupt and to stop the chain of defaults.
  26. 26. Regulations     No regulatory body for derivative market. SEBON has authorized to control derivative market but not able to regulate it. Due to lack of expert in Ministry of Finance and other regulated bodies, there is no proper laws. Still derivative market is existed with huge transaction
  27. 27. The Present Situation of Derivative Market in Nepal    The Nepalese Derivative Market is very young. The investors haven’t been able to analyze the situation properly. Nepal has only a recent history of derivative market, which opened with COMEN at the end of 2006 MEX was established in 2007 and NDEX on November 20, 2008.
  28. 28.      There is no regulating body in the Nepalese derivative market. Over 90 percent people want to invest in gold and crude oil Recently MEX and NSE has been merged to grab the new opportunities in the market. After merger MEX has now 120 brokers from 90 brokers earlier. MEX is the leading derivative market in Nepal according to trading volume and trading size.  Software used are MT4, MT5, KAAP, Hybrid Solution, etc.  There are altogether 7 derivative exchange in Nepal.
  29. 29. List of Derivative Exchange in Nepal 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Commodity and Metal Exchange Nepal Limited (COMEN) (2006) Mercantile Exchange Nepal Limited(MEX) (2007) Nepal Derivative Exchange Limited(NDEX) (2008) Nepal Spot Exchange Limited(NSE) (2010) Wealth Exchange Limited (WEX) (2011) National Spot Exchange Limited(NSX) Commodity Future Exchange Nepal
  30. 30. Problems in Nepal    No experts to regulate derivative market. No regulatory authority. Lack of awareness among public.
  31. 31. Conclusion • The derivatives market is very dynamic and quickly developed into the most important segment of the financial market • All in all the derivatives market in Nepal does not have a longer history and thus seems to be still underdeveloped • Derivatives play an important role in the economy but are associated with certain risks. • The crisis has highlighted that these risks are not sufficiently mitigated in the over-the-counter (OTC) part of the market, especially as regards credit default swaps (CDS). Since the beginning of the financial crisis, the Commission has been working to address these risks.
  32. 32. Cont………      The derivatives market functions very well and is constantly improving. The imperatives for a well functioning market are clear fulfilled: The exchange segment in particular has put in place very effective risk mitigation mechanisms mostly through the use of automation For its user, the derivatives market is highly effective transaction costs for exchange traded derivatives are particular low. The derivatives market needs to focus on variety of commodities that can manage the risks of that particular commodity Derivative trading is an excellent way to prove money earns money. It will make our investment portfolio more attractive and secure. It offers a wide range of alternatives, including international opportunities. This is the best way to utilize our money
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