FIRST AID Prepared by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE At The Chishtian Goods Transport Co. Cell # 0336-2350594
WHAT IS FIRST AID? It is the immediate assistance or care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly became ill, from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care. Note: First Aid is not restricted to physical but also involves psychological support as well. Who needs First Aid? Cardiac and Respiratory Arrest Electric Shock Wounds Bleeding Burns Fractures and Traumatic Injuries Poisoning Drowning Snake bites
It is indicated whenever heart and breathing stop.
It is a combination of mouth to mouth breathing and chest compressions.
If breathing stops -> brain damage occurs within few minutes but death occurs within 8-10 minutes.
STEPS BEFORE STARTING C.P.R. - Make sure that victim is unconscious (by shaking shoulders and asking loudly are you ok.?) - Call 999 before starting C.P.R. but if the victim is a child between 1-8 years start C.P.R. for 2 minutes before calling 999
8 C.P.R. STEPS ARE CALLED ABC 1. AIRWAY STEP - Put the victim on his back on a firm surface - Kneel close to the victim neck or shoulders - Tilt the chin upward to open the airway - Check breathing for 10 seconds. BREATHING STEP - Close the nostrile and give 2 breaths (mouth to mouth) and observe the chest rises. Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
CIRCULATORY STEP - Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest between the nipples. - Apply the other hand over it. - Push the chest down (1.5 – 2 inches) in an average of 2 compressions per second (100 times) - Give 2 breaths after each 30 compressions.
If the victim didn’t breath after 5 cycles (2 minutes) we can use Automatic External Defibrillator (if available) otherwise, we continue C.P.R., however this device is not recommended for infants less than one year.
NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR CHILDREN - For children 1-8 years we start C.P.R. before calling 999 for 5 cycles (minutes) - We use one hand only for chest compressions.
Rate of chest compressions to breathing is the same as adults 30/2.
NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR INFANTS LESS THAN 1 YEAR. - Start C.P.R. 5 cycles (2 minutes) before calling 999. - No need for deep breath. - Use 2 fingers of one hand for chest compressions - Compressions should compress the chest from 1/3 – ½ its depth.
10 WOUNDS First Aid - Bleeding stops on its own, but pressure with a clean cloth or bandage can be applied for 20-30 minutes. - Use water if the wound needs cleaning but don’t use antiseptics (iodine or others) FIRST AID FOR CUTS - Apply direct pressure by a piece of cloth and raise the limb above the level of the trunk. - Add more pieces of cloth and apply pressure on the major artery that supply the limb, if needed. - Minimize Movement by fixing the wounded limb on the body. - Transfer the victim to Medical Facility. Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
11 EPISTAXIS (Nose Bleeding) - Tilt head down to prevent bleeding to the throat. - Close the victim’s nostrils with the tips of 2 fingers. - Ask victim to breath through mouth - We may apply a gauze packing to the bleeding nose. - If bleeding didn’t stop after 20 minutes we ask Medical Care Provider. Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
12 SHOCK It is a state characterized by low blood pressure, rapid pulse, and decrease blood supply to brain and other vital organs. CAUSES Fluid loss (as in severe vomiting, severe diarrhea, major burns, sun strokes….) and severe bleeding. FIRST AID Call Ambulance Restore breathing Try to stop bleeding Assurance Transfer the victim to the hospital with lower limbs elevated and the victim is lying on his back (if there is no neck injury) In case of suspected neck injury don’t move the victims during transfer Keep the victim warm. Continue observation and give mouth breathing if needed and put him on his side if he vomits. If you are not sure of correct position keep victim on his back. Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
13 POISONINGFIRST AID MEASURES Conscious Victim Give water or milk Recognize the poisonous substance if possible Call Doctor or Poison Center Induce Vomiting Observe for breathing Unconscious Victim Observe for cardiac and respiratory arrest. Keep him on his side and transfer him. Do not induce vomiting. NOTE; NEVER INDUCE VOMITING IN CASE OF: kerosene, petroleum and its derivatives, strong alkalies and acids. Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
14 BURNS DEGREES OF BURNS 1st degree – Skin only 2nd degree – Vesicles 3rd degree – Deep tissues FIRST AID MEASURES 1st degree – Cold water + Sterile gauze 2nd & 3rd degree – Don’t use water - Apply sterile gauze - Prevent shock - Call for assistance - Don’t remove clothes - Don’t apply oil or salt EYE BURNS Heat Burns – Same as above Chemical Burns – Eye wash for 15 minutes Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
15 ANIMAL BITES AnimalsDogs/CatsMouse Rats First aid1. Clean wound with water and soap2. Cover with guaze3. Try to catch the animal or kill it. Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
16 DROWNING Remove the victim from water Clean the mouth from sands and other foreign bodies Put him on the floor and raise his body Start C.P.R. Call for Medical Help Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
17 ELECTRIC SHOCK Avoid direct contact with the victim Before touching the victim wear plastic gloves stand on dry wooden chair push the victim with a wooden ladder or chair or wooden stick Disconnect power if possible Do C.P.R. if needed Treat burns Call for Medical Help Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE