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  • 1. FIRST AID
    Prepared by:
    Adnan Masood
    Manager QHSE At
    The Chishtian Goods Transport Co.
    Cell # 0336-2350594
  • 2. WHAT IS FIRST AID?
    It is the immediate assistance or care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly became ill, from the moment of the accident until availability of specialized medical care.
    Note:
    First Aid is not restricted to physical but also involves psychological support as well.
    Who needs First Aid?
    Cardiac and Respiratory Arrest
    Electric Shock
    Wounds
    Bleeding
    Burns
    Fractures and Traumatic Injuries
    Poisoning
    Drowning
    Snake bites
  • 3. 1) Examination of the Pulse
    • Radial Pulse
    • 4. Brachial Pulse
    • 5. Carotid Pulse
    • 6. Feeling Heart Beats on the Chest Wall.
    Note:
    It is not necessary to feel the pulse, you can Start chest compressions.
    If breathing didn’t restart after giving 2 breaths, then starts compressions
    2) Examination of Breathing
    • Normal Breathing
    • 7. Dyspnea
    • 8. Respiratory Arrest
  • First Aid Priorities
    • Save the victim and self
    • 9. Keep breathing and heart beats
    • 10. Control Bleeding
    • 11. Treat Poisoning
    • 12. Prevent Shock
    • 13. Examine the victim carefully
    • 14. Ask for specialized Medical Care
    • 15. Continue first aid measures until arrival of medical care providers
  • Respiratory Arrest
    • Breathing may Stop meanwhile the heart is still beating for few minutes
    • 16. Breathing may stop because of electrical shock, drowning, suffocation, poisoning, chest, abdomen and head trauma.
    Steps:
    • Open the airway
    • 17. Tilt the head back and raise the chin
    Examine breathing for 5 seconds
    a) feel the air
    b) hear the sound of breaths.
    c) See the chest movements
    • If no breathing close the nose and give 2 breaths
    • 18. Examine the pulse every minute and give a breath every 5 seconds.
    • 19. If pulse stopped do CPR
  • CHOKING
    • Choking is usually caused by a piece of food and or a small object in the mouth.
    • 20. Choking cause coughing, dyspnea, but the most important sign to
    see is the victim holding his neck
    FIRST AID
    • If the victim talks or coughs encourage him to continue coughing.
    • 21. If the victim can’t talk or cough do 6-10 Abdominal thrusts.
    • 22. If the victim is unconscious put him on the floor give 2 breaths.
    • 23. Do 6-10 adominal thrusts, clean the mouth by 2 fingers and give 2 breaths.
    • 24. Repeat the abdominal thrusts, if needed.
    If the victim is less than one year
    • Hold the infant face down on your forearm which is resting on your thigh.
    • 25. Thump the back 5 times by the heel of the hand.
    • 26. If not improved put him on your forearm and face upward, head is lower than trunk, and apply 5 chest thrusts by 2 fingers (on the middle of the chest bone).
    • 27. If no response repeat back and chest thrusts as before
    • 28. If no response call for medical help.
    Note:
    Adults and children above one year are given abdominal thrusts only.
  • 29. C.P.R.
    • C.P.R. is a life saving technique
    • 30. It is indicated whenever heart and breathing stop.
    • 31. It is a combination of mouth to mouth breathing and chest compressions.
    • 32. If breathing stops -> brain damage occurs within few minutes but death occurs within 8-10 minutes.
    STEPS BEFORE STARTING C.P.R.
    - Make sure that victim is unconscious (by shaking shoulders and asking loudly are you ok.?)
    - Call 999 before starting C.P.R. but if the victim is a child between 1-8 years start C.P.R. for 2 minutes before calling 999
  • 33. 8
    C.P.R. STEPS ARE CALLED ABC
    1. AIRWAY STEP
    - Put the victim on his back on a firm surface
    - Kneel close to the victim neck or shoulders
    - Tilt the chin upward to open the airway
    - Check breathing for 10 seconds.
    BREATHING STEP
    - Close the nostrile and give 2 breaths (mouth to mouth) and observe the chest rises.
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 34. CIRCULATORY STEP
    - Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest
    between the nipples.
    - Apply the other hand over it.
    - Push the chest down (1.5 – 2 inches) in an average of 2
    compressions per second (100 times)
    - Give 2 breaths after each 30 compressions.
    • If the victim didn’t breath after 5 cycles (2 minutes) we can use Automatic External Defibrillator (if available) otherwise, we continue C.P.R., however this device is not recommended for infants less than one year.
    NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR CHILDREN
    - For children 1-8 years we start C.P.R. before calling 999
    for 5 cycles (minutes)
    - We use one hand only for chest compressions.
    • Rate of chest compressions to breathing is the same as adults 30/2.
    NOTES ON C.P.R. FOR INFANTS LESS THAN 1 YEAR.
    - Start C.P.R. 5 cycles (2 minutes) before calling 999.
    - No need for deep breath.
    - Use 2 fingers of one hand for chest compressions
    - Compressions should compress the chest from 1/3 – ½ its depth.
  • 35. 10
    WOUNDS
    First Aid
    - Bleeding stops on its own, but pressure with a clean
    cloth or bandage can be applied for 20-30 minutes.
    - Use water if the wound needs cleaning but don’t
    use antiseptics (iodine or others)
    FIRST AID FOR CUTS
    - Apply direct pressure by a piece of cloth and raise the limb above the level of the trunk.
    - Add more pieces of cloth and apply pressure on the major artery that supply the limb, if needed.
    - Minimize Movement by fixing the wounded limb on the body.
    - Transfer the victim to Medical Facility.
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 36. 11
    EPISTAXIS (Nose Bleeding)
    - Tilt head down to prevent bleeding to the throat.
    - Close the victim’s nostrils with the tips of 2 fingers.
    - Ask victim to breath through mouth
    - We may apply a gauze packing to the bleeding nose.
    - If bleeding didn’t stop after 20 minutes we ask Medical Care Provider.
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 37. 12
    SHOCK
    It is a state characterized by low blood pressure, rapid pulse, and decrease blood supply to brain and other vital organs.
    CAUSES
    Fluid loss (as in severe vomiting, severe diarrhea, major burns, sun strokes….) and severe bleeding.
    FIRST AID
    Call Ambulance
    Restore breathing
    Try to stop bleeding
    Assurance
    Transfer the victim to the hospital with lower limbs elevated and the victim is lying on his back (if there is no neck injury)
    In case of suspected neck injury don’t move the victims during transfer
    Keep the victim warm.
    Continue observation and give mouth breathing if needed and put him on his side if he vomits.
    If you are not sure of correct position keep victim on his back.
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 38. 13
    POISONINGFIRST AID MEASURES
    Conscious Victim
    Give water or milk
    Recognize the poisonous substance if possible
    Call Doctor or Poison Center
    Induce Vomiting
    Observe for breathing
    Unconscious Victim
    Observe for cardiac and respiratory arrest.
    Keep him on his side and transfer him.
    Do not induce vomiting.
    NOTE; NEVER INDUCE VOMITING IN CASE OF:
    kerosene, petroleum and its derivatives, strong alkalies and acids.
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 39. 14
    BURNS
    DEGREES OF BURNS
    1st degree – Skin only
    2nd degree – Vesicles
    3rd degree – Deep tissues
    FIRST AID MEASURES
    1st degree – Cold water + Sterile gauze
    2nd & 3rd degree – Don’t use water
    - Apply sterile gauze
    - Prevent shock
    - Call for assistance
    - Don’t remove clothes
    - Don’t apply oil or salt
    EYE BURNS
    Heat Burns – Same as above
    Chemical Burns – Eye wash for 15 minutes
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 40. 15
    ANIMAL BITES
    AnimalsDogs/CatsMouse Rats
    First aid1. Clean wound with water and soap2. Cover with guaze3. Try to catch the animal or kill it.
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 41. 16
    DROWNING
    Remove the victim from water
    Clean the mouth from sands and other foreign bodies
    Put him on the floor and raise his body
    Start C.P.R.
    Call for Medical Help
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE
  • 42. 17
    ELECTRIC SHOCK
    Avoid direct contact with the victim
    Before touching the victim
    wear plastic gloves
    stand on dry wooden chair
    push the victim with a wooden ladder or chair or wooden stick
    Disconnect power if possible
    Do C.P.R. if needed
    Treat burns
    Call for Medical Help
    Prepare by: Adnan Masood Manager QHSE