Definition: A sheet material used as both a vapor retarder and an air barrier. What it’s doing: Here it is serving as a barrier against weather elements while renovations are completed. Air Barrier Paper
Attic Ventilation Gable Vent Attics are ventilated to allow water vapor to escape, and to keep the house cooler during the summer by preventing the buildup of solar heat conducted through the roofing and roof sheathing. It is advantageous to have both low and high vents. Ridge Vent Roof Turbine Soffit Vent Soffit vents are used for the required intake ventilation. Gable vents are used to create a cross draft in a wind, and ridge vents are used to ventilate continuously along an entire roof. The roof turbine is another form of high-ventilation.
Backhoe A backhoe is a piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. Backhoes are used to pick up and move fill. The bucket of the one shown is 17” wide.
Batter Boards Batter Boards are a temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation. They are used to mark the outline of the house for excavation purposes.
The above arch is a segmental/parabolic arch. The arch to the left is an elliptical arch. Brick Arches Centering- Temporary framework for an arch, dome, or vault. ‘ Arch with a keystone’. The arch below is a Roman arch. Here is its keystone
Brick Bonds Flemish Bond- Each course of brick consists of alternating headers and stretchers, with the headers centered over the stretchers in intervening courses. Running Bond- All stretchers. This one is laid in ½ bond. Soldier Rowlock Header Sailor Rowlock Stretcher
Brick Sizes The brick to the left is w x 1 ½” x 9”. The closest description in the book is that of the Roman brick. The width should be between 3 ½” and 3 5/8”. The Brick to the right is w x 2 ¼”. x 7 ½” This brick is a modular brick and the width should be between 3 ½” and 3 5/8”.
Bulldozer A bulldozer is a crawler equipped with a substantial metal plate, used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc. during construction work.
Cladding Wood Boards Stone (random rubble) Brick Wood Shingles Wood shingles are thin, tapered slabs of wood sawn from short pieces of tree trunk. Wood shakes are split from the wood rather than sawn, and are thicker with a much more irregular face texture. EIFS
Code Requirements My window opens to approximately 22 ½” x 34 ¾” and 9 ½” AFF. The area of opening is almost 5 ½’ , which is well over the required 5’ of opening for bedrooms on the first floor. However, the minimum height opening in 24”, so my window does not meet IRC standards. The sill height is adequate, however, because IRC prescribes a 44” max AFF sill. The IRC regulates that tread depth should be no less that 10”, and risers should be no more than 7 ¾”. The treads shown are 11 ½” and the risers are 7 ½” so they meet the building codes. 11 ½” 7 ½” 34 ¾” 71” 9 ½”
A control joint is an intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure. Crack Control Joint Concrete Joints An isolation joint is an intentional discontinuity in a concrete component which separates it from another building component to prevent cracking around the component. Here the control joint is separating a concrete slab from a brick column.
Concrete Masonry Units Concrete Masonry Units, or CMUs, are blocks of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as brick or stone; a concrete block. Generally their dimensions are 8” x 8” x 16” The CMU I am holding in the picture to the left measures 2” x 4” x 8”. The CMU in the picture to the left is 8” x 4” x 6”
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units Split Block Ribbed Blocks
Doors Sidelight- A tall, narrow window alongside a door. Transom-A small window directly above a door. Panel Door: Top Rail Panel Lock Rail Stile Bottom Rail Flush Exterior Door
Electrical Components Power pole with transformer which converts voltage of several thousand volts to 110/220-volt alternating current Duplex receptacle: Power outlet which transfers electricity for wires to appliances. A service meter registers how much electricity is used in a building for billing purposes A service panel distributes the electricity from wires to receptacles throughout the house. The service head is where the three wires (two hot, one neutral) enter the building.
Front End Loader A piece of excavating equipment with a large, broad scoop on the front. Primarily used to "load" material into or onto another type of machinery (dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hooper, rail-car, etc.).
Gypsum Board An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces; also called drywall, plasterboard .
Heat Pump Advantage: Rapid Response time. Disadvantage: Relatively Noisy Compressor: Contains the fan which moves air across coils which contain refrigerant to change the temperature of the refrigerant. Air Handling Unit: A device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system.
Insulation A material with a low thermal conductivity that is included in a building assembly for the purpose of reducing heat flow through the assembly. Helps keep energy efficiency. Loose Fill Foaming Rigid Board Batt/ Blanket
Lintel A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door. Steel lintel above door.
Mortar These two right hand pictures are of the same wall. The mortar joint used is a concave mortar joint. It is approximately ½” thick and is a tooled joint. This joint is on the outside of a retail store and may be type S The mortar joint below is beaded. It is a little under ½” thick and is tooled. It is found on the a column at a bank. The mortar type is most likely type S.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) A nonveneered panel product composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure. The layers of OSB are laid so that the two outer layers have grains running in the same direction, and the inner layers run perpendicular. These layers are then dried, glued, and pressed together. Manufacturing Process:
Plumbing Drop-in sink Lavatory- A basin, or bowl used for washing. Typical piping size of 1 ½” diameter. Plumbing Vent: When wastewater is released form the fixture, it displaces water held in the trap. The vent supplies air so that draining water cannot create a suction to pull water out of the trap. Water Closet Typically a 3” diameter pipe
Plywood Plywood is a wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure. The wood is rotary sliced off the tree, then dried to remove moisture, cut to size, glued in layers, and the pressed into boards. Veneer- A thin layer, sheet, or facing.
Rebar ½” diameter rebar. Referred to as #4 because it is 4 eigths of an inch. The Deformations on the surface of the rebar are to give it more surface space to adhere to concrete and grout, and to prevent slippage within the concrete.
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter: A channel that collects rainwater and snow melt at the eave of a roof. Downspout: A vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level Splashblock: A cement block located at the bottom of a downspout which prevents soil erosion at the opening.
Steep Roof Materials Underlayment: A layer of waterproof material between roof sheathing and roofing. It protects from leakage and weather which may penetrate the roofing material. Clay Tile Roof Shingle: A small unit of water resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other such units to render a wall or sloping roof watertight. The ones to the left are metal. Metal Panel Roof: Typically made of enamel-coated galvanized steel, copper, lead-coated copper, stainless steel, terne, and terne-coated stainless steel.
Steep Roof Terms Eave: Level, low edge of a roof. Rake: sloping edge of a roof Ridge: The level intersection of roof planes at their highest point. Valley: The sloping intersection of two roof planes. Fascia: Board nailed to the lower ends of the rafters Soffit: Encloses rafter tails. House without a fascia board ( same house as on framing terms page, I am in the picture there) Fascia Ridge Eave Soffit Rake
Stone Coursed Ashlar Random Rubble Random Ashlar Coursed Rubble
Vapor Retarder A layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly. This one is attached to insulation. Generally, it is put on the warmer (warm in winter) side of the insulation.
Waterproofing The waterproofing on this building is protecting it from penetration by water that may seep through the soil. As you can tell by the level of the windows, this building has a story almost entirely built underground. The waterproofing used here is liquid applied and resembles black paint. Liquid-applied membranes that cure in place are relatively easy to detail around penetrations and other transitions, since in liquid state, the membrane can easily form itself to any shape.
A small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly. Weep Hole
Welded Wire Fabric A group of steel rods welded together, used to reinforce concrete slabs. Here it will be reinforcing a sidewalk. The dimensions of the grid are approximately 4” x 4”.
Windows The window to the right is an outswinging casement because it is hinged on the side and opens out. The window below is a double hung window because it slides into an open position. The pictures to the left and right are of the same window. It is an awning window because it is hinged at the top and opens at the bottom.