Endurance exercise_Padkao T
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Endurance exercise_Padkao T

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เอกสารประกอบการสอนรายวิชา 654121 หัวข้อ "Endurance Exercise" โดย อ.ทัศวิญา พัดเกาะ ...

เอกสารประกอบการสอนรายวิชา 654121 หัวข้อ "Endurance Exercise" โดย อ.ทัศวิญา พัดเกาะ สำหรับนิสิตกายภาพบำบัดชั้นปีที่ 2 วันที่ 02/07/10

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    Endurance exercise_Padkao T Endurance exercise_Padkao T Presentation Transcript

    • วัตถุประสงค์การเรียนรู้ • อธิบายคาจากัดความของ endurance exercise ได้ • อธิบายการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางสรีรวิทยาที่เกิดขึ้นขณะออกกาลังกายและ ปรับตัวเมื่ออกกาลังกายได้ • อธิบายปัจจัยที่มีผลต่อการฝึกการออกกาลังกายแบบ endurance exercise ได้ • ออกแบบวิธีการออกกาลังกายแบบ endurance exercise ได้ Padkao T 2
    • • Fitness is a general term used to describe the ability to perform physical work. • Performing physical work requires – Cardiovascular functioning – Muscular strength and endurance – Musculoskeletal flexibility – Optimum body composition Padkao T 3
    • • Endurance is the ability to work for prolonged periods of time and the ability to resist fatigue • Aerobic or endurance exercise refers to dynamic contractions of large muscle groups at relatively low tensions with sufficient oxygen present to allow continuation of exercise for several minutes or longer Padkao T 4
    • • Endurance exercise performed regularly, at adequate intensities and durations, is referred to as endurance exercise training. Padkao T 5
    • 1. General (total) body endurance The ability of an individual to sustain dynamic exercise over an extended period 2. Muscular endurance The ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension, sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. Padkao T 6
    • Intensity The reversibility Duration principle Determinant s of an exercise program Mode Frequency Padkao T 7
    • Intensity • The overload principle • Conditioning individuals response occur generally at 60 to 90% maximal HR (50-85% VO2max) depending on the individual and initial level of fitness • Sedentary or deconditioning individuals will respond to low exercise intensity, 40 to 50% of VO2max Padkao T 8
    • • Determine HRmax - From multistage test (for young and healthy) - HR achieved in predetermine submaximal exe. Test • Determine exercise HR (HRtarget) - Percentage of Hrmax - Karvonen’s formation (heart rate reserve) Padkao T 9
    • Activity 1. จงคานวณอัตราการเต้นของหัวใจสูงสุดของนักกีฬา จักรยานภูเขา เพศชาย อายุ 20 ปี 2. จงคานวณหาช่วงของอัตราการเต้นของหัวใจ เป้าหมายของนักกีฬาคนดังกล่าว เมื่อนัก กายภาพบาบัดต้องออกแบบโปรแกรมการออกกาลัง กายแบบเพิ่มความอดทนของหัวใจและปอด ด้วยการ ปั่นจักรยาน (Cycling Ergometer) (ข้อมูลเพิ่มเติม อัตราการเต้นของหัวใจขณะพัก = 60 ครั้งต่อนาที) Padkao T 10
    • 1. ∴ HR max = 220 – 20 = 200 beats/min Padkao T 11
    • 2. แทนค่า 60%  HRtarget = ([200-60]x60/100)+60 = 144 beats/min 90%  HRtarget = ([200-60]x90/100)+60 = 186 beats/min Padkao T 12
    • Duration • Dependent on the total work performed, exercise intensity and frequency, and fitness level • *** The greater the intensity of exercise, the shorter the duration needed • A 20-30 minute session is generally optimal at 60-70% HRmax Padkao T 13
    • Frequency • There is no clear-cut information provided on the most effective frequency of exercise for adaptation to occur • Dependent on the health and age of the individual • 3-5 times a week (general) and 6-7 times a week (athlete) Padkao T 14
    • Mode Training benefits are optimized when programs are planned to meet the individual needs and capacities of participants Padkao T 15
    • The reversibility principle • Detraining occurs rapidly when a person stops exercising. • After only 2 weeks detraining, significant reduction in work capacity can be measured, and improvements can be lost within several months. Padkao T 16
    • Padkao T 18
    • A warm-up period • A 10-minute warm-up period of total body movement exercise such as calisthenics, static stretching, and walking slowly. • The attainment of HR within 20 beats per minute of target HR • Purposes of the period is to prevent or decrease: – The susceptibility of the musculoskeletal injury by increase flexibility – The occurrence of ischemic ECG changes and arrhythmias Padkao T 19
    • A warm-up period During warm-up period there are - ↑muscle temperature, ↓muscle viscosity - ↑rate of nerve conduction - ↑O2 extraction from Hb (facilitating the oxidative processes) - Dilatation of capillaries - Minimizing the formation of lactic acid - Adaptation in sensitivity of neural respiratory center - ↑Venous return Padkao T 20
    • An exercise period • Continuous training • Interval training is a type of physical training that involves bursts of high intensity work. This high intensity work is alternated with periods of rest or low activity (the intervals in interval training). – 3 - 5 minutes warm-up (light jog, low intensity, gradually increasing at the end of the warm up period) – 1 minute moderate or high intensity followed by 1 minute low intensity (repeat 6-8 times) – 3 - 5 minutes cool down (light jog, low intensity, gradually decreasing by the end of the cool down period) Padkao T 21
    • An exercise period • Circuit training • Circuit-interval training Padkao T 22
    • A cool-down period • The period is necessary following the exercise period. • Total-body exercises such as calisthenics are appropriate. • The period should last 5 to 10 minutes Padkao T 23
    • A cool-down period Purposes of the period are - To prevent pooling of the blood in extremities by maintain venous return - To prevent fainting by increasing the return of blood to heart and brain - To enhance the recovery period with the oxidation of metabolic waste - To prevent myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, or other cardiovascular complications Padkao T 24
    • Long-duration / Moderate-intensity Training – Continuous exercise 30 minutes – 2 hours – 75 – 85% HRmax or 60 – 70% VO2max Moderate-duration / High-intensity Training (Tempo) – Continuous exercise 30 – 60 minutes – 85 – 90% HRmax Short-duration / Very high-intensity Training (Interval) Sprint 50 m + Jog 60 mPadkao T continuous miles = 3-4 26
    • Table: Training Progression for the Sedentary Low-Risk Participants Exercise Exercise Intensity Exercise Duration Program stage Week Frequency (%HRR) (min) (session·wk-1) Initial stage 1 3 40-50 15-20 2 3-4 40-50 20-25 3 3-4 50-60 20-25 4 3-4 50-60 25-30 Improvement 5-7 3-4 60-70 25-30 stage 8-10 3-4 60-70 30-35 11-13 3-4 65-75 30-35 14-16 3-5 65-75 30-35 17-20 3-5 70-85 35-40 21-24 3-5 70-85 35-40 Maintain stage 24+ 3-5 Padkao T 70-85 20-6027
    • 1. Intensity, Duration and Frequency of exercise (ACSM 1990) Optimal increase in VO2max result from training programs that are • 20 – 60 minutes/session • 3 – 5 times/week • 50% - 85% VO2max Londeree (1997) Exercise intensity near lactate threshold is necessary to improve the threshold intensity among sedentary people Padkao T 29
    • 2. Initial level of fitness The extent of adaptations to training is greater among individuals who are less conditioned at beginning of the training program. Padkao T 30
    • 3. Age VO2max typically peaks at 15 to 20 years of age, with women being at the lower end of this range. Padkao T 31
    • 4. Genetics Differences in mitochondrial DNA might be responsible for individual differences in VO2max and the response to training. Padkao T 32
    • 5. Gender Male > Female (lower Hb) 6. Specificity of training Training adaptations are most evident with the activity used in training. 7. Active muscle mass involved in the exercise training 8. Mode of exercise training 9. Simultaneous strength and endurance exercise training Padkao T 33
    • เอกสารอ้างอิง • American college of sports medicine. ACSM’s resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. • American college of sports medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. • Kisner C and Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques. 5th ed. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis Company, 2002. • Pryor JA and Prasad SA. Physiotherapy for respiratory and cardiac problems: adults and pediatrics. 3rd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2002. Padkao T 34
    • สิ่งที่ได้ยิน มักลืม สิ่งที่ได้เห็น มักจำ สิ่งที่ได้ทำ มักเข้ำใจ (ขงจื้อ)