By Dan DeFoe, JD MS

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Personality Type and
the Legal Profession:
Introduction to Normal
P...
2

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
Agenda

• ―Normal Personality‖

• Myers-Briggs (MBTI®)
• References

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

• Link – Type and E...
Daily experience has several
factors:
- personality
- emotional intelligence
- performance

And these are interdependent.
...
Intrapersonal
• Self-awareness
• Self-confidence
• Self-regulation
of moods,
impulses
• Flexibility
• Stress
management

I...
Link – Type & Emotional
Intelligence
Type understanding concerns

external – interpersonal

processes that make up emotion...
Link – Type & Emotional
Intelligence

make up the “engine of personality”, the
source of:
analysis, reaction, adjustment, ...
―When you have an expanded
emotional intelligence and a
balanced personality, you have a
healthier lifestyle, stronger
rel...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

“Normal
Personality”
9
Foundational Concepts – Normal
Personality – “Type”
• Jung & Myers

• Trait vs. Type
• Assessment v. Sorting: MBTI® - Step...
Normal Personality - The MBTI
Instrument
Developed by Katharine C. Briggs and her
daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.
Based on t...
Jung’s Theory – Preferences……

• Preferences interact with and are
shaped by environmental influences:
• Family
• Country
...
Jung’s Theory of preferences (cont)
• Four pairs of opposites—e.g right and left hands
- use both, but one is our natural ...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Myers-Briggs
(MBTI®)
14
"The purpose of the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator® is to make the theory of
psychological types described by C. G.
Jung (192...
Myers-Briggs (MBTI®)

• Judgment involves all the ways of coming to
conclusions about what has been perceived.
• If people...
Myers-Briggs (MBTI®)
The aim of the MBTI instrument is to identify,
from self self-report of easily recognized
regard to p...
18

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
• Four pairs of opposites—like our right and left
hands. We all use both sides of each pair, but
one is our natural prefer...
The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument

E Extraversion or
I Introversion
Affects Choices as to
Whether to direct perc...
The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument

S Sensing perception or
N Intuitive perception
Affects Choices as to

Which k...
The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument

T Thinking judgment or
F feeling judgment
Affects Choices as to

Which kind o...
The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument

J Judgment or
P Perception
Affects Choices as to
Whether to deal with the out...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Jungian Theory

24
Myers-Briggs (MBTI®)
The 16 Types

ISTJ

ISFJ

INFJ

INTJ

ISTP

ISFP

INFP

INTP

ESTP

ESFP

ENFP

ENTP

ESTJ

ESFJ

ENF...
•is innate
•can be influenced
•is observable
•is not a box
•is not an excuse
•indicates preferences, not
skills

Dan DeFoe...
Extraversion or Introversion

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Energy

27
The direction in which
we focus our attention
and energy
Introduction to Type®, p. 9

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Ex...
Energy
Introversion
[I]

• Energized through
contact with other
people or through
engaging in
activities

• Being energize...
E–I

People who prefer Introversion:
• Focus their energy and attention inward
• Are interested in the inner world of thou...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Extraversion or Introversion

Introduction to Type® and Change, pp. 4–5

31
•
•
•
•
•
•

Extraverted Types
External
environment
Talking
Work through
Broad interests
Sociable/expressive
Initiative in...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Extraversion-Introversion

33
Source: Work It Out (p. 7) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane...
Some Key Words Associated with

Action

Introversion
Reflection

Outward

Inward

People

Privacy

Interaction
Many
Expres...
We Have a Preference

But we usually do not do them
with equal comfort.

Most of us have a preference for one
over the oth...
Self-Assessment
Given the choice, which do you prefer:
Extraversion or Introversion?

?
Very

Fairly

Clear

Clear

Slight...
Sensing or Intuition

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Information

37
The way we take in
information and the kind of
information we like and trust

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Sensing or...
How people take in information | S–N

People who prefer Intuition:
• Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on
meani...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Sensing [S]or Intuition [N]

40
How Do You Take In Information?
INTUITION
 Future possibilities
 What could be

 Practical

 Theoretical

 Facts
 Pe...
Sensing [S]
Paying attention to
what you perceive
through the five
senses: seeing,
hearing, touching,
smelling, and tastin...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Sensing-Intuition

43
Source: Work It Out (p. 8) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G. K...
We Have a Preference

But we usually do not use them
with equal trust.
Most of us have a preference for one
over the other...
Self-Assessment
Given the choice, which do you prefer:
Sensing or Intuition?

?
Very

Fairly

Clear

Clear

Slight

Slight...
Thinking or Feeling
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Decisions

46
The way we make decisions
Introduction to Type®, p. 10

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Thinking or Feeling

47
T–F

People who prefer Feeling:
• Make their decisions with a person-centered,
values-based process
Both processes are rat...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Thinking or Feeling

49
Decisions

Making decisions
based on impartial
criteria—causeeffect reasoning,
constant principles
or truths, and logic

F...
Thinking
Head
Distant
Things
Objective
Critique
Analyze
Firm but fair

Feeling
Heart
Personal
People
Subjective
Praise
Und...
Thinking
[T]
• Logical system
• Head
• Objective
• Justice
• Critique
• Principles
• Reason
• Firm but fair

Feeling
[F]
•...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Thinking-Feeling

53
Source: Work It Out (p. 9) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G. Ki...
Thinking Types [T]
• Analytical
• Cause & Effect
• Logical
• Objective standard
• Reasonable
• ―Toughminded….‖
• Fair + Eq...
Thinking
Head
Distant
Things
Objective
Critique
Analyze
Firm but fair

Feeling
Heart
Personal
People
Subjective
Praise
Und...
We Have a Preference

But we usually do not use them
with equal ease.
Most of us have a preference for one
over the other....
Self-Assessment
Given the choice, which do you prefer:
Thinking or Feeling?

?
Very

Fairly

Clear

Clear

Slight

Slight
...
Judging or Perceiving

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Outer World

58
Our attitude toward the
external world and how we
orient ourselves to it
Introduction to Type®, p. 10

Dan DeFoe JD MS - C...
J–P

People who prefer Perceiving:
• Seek to experience the world, not organize it
• Look at the world and see options tha...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Judging or Perceiving

61
Approach to Life
Perceiving

[J]

[P]

Want to live an
ordered life, with
goals and structure,
making decisions so
you can...
How Do You Approach Life?
PERCEIVING
 Attend to, gather
information











Regulate
Control
Settled
Run one’s...
Judging
Organized
Decision
Control
Now
Closure
Deliberate
Plan

Perceiving
Flexible
Information
Experience
Later
Options
S...
We Have a Preference

But we usually do not use them
with equal comfort.
Most of us have a preference for one
over the oth...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Judging-Perceiving

66
Source: Work It Out (p. 11) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G....
Self-Assessment
Given the choice, which do you prefer:
Judging or Perceiving?

?
Very

Fairly

Clear

Clear

Slight

Sligh...
Personality Type

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

When combined, your preferences indicate
your personality type.

68
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Type Application
Examples
69
• All functions contribute to effective
practice
• Tend to use dominant and auxiliary
• Z model – all 4 functions used
• O...
Z Problem Solving Model
• Sensing – specifics?

• Thinking – objective evaluation?
• Feeling – subjective evaluation

Dan ...
Z Problem Solving Model
• Gather specific information
• What are the details?
• Applicable rules, law?
• Make the situatio...
Z Problem Solving Model
• Patterns & relationships
• Central themes or stories
• Broad sweep – then relate
• Progressions,...
Z Problem Solving Model
• Objective judgments
• Precedent
• Sequential analysis
• Examine judicial reasoning
• Arguments f...
Z Problem Solving Model
• Subjective understanding
• Who are the people?
• Values, interests, needs
• Relational considera...
76

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
S–N Splitting Exercise

Then, be prepared to share with
the group what you have
perceived.

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 20...
78

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
79

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
80

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
People with a Preference for
Sensing
• Physical attributes of the picture
(color, shapes, artist’s name, size)
• Then try ...
People with a Preference for
Intuition

• Often make up a story about the
picture

• May come up with a big-picture
interp...
•When we all look at the same
image, we see different
things.
•Who sees it correctly?

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

W...
S–N Splitting Exercise

• We must remember that we all trust
our own perceptions, while
knowing that there are many other
...
Constructive Use of Differences
®

Isabel Myers’ goal for type and the MBTI
instrument:

• Acknowledging the value of diff...
About the MBTI Instrument
• An indicator—not a test
• Looks only at normal behavior
• Forced-choice questions
• Takes abou...
About the MBTI Instrument
®

(cont.)

• There are no good or bad types.

• The instrument gives practical results
you can ...
• Reliable, valid, cost-effective, easy to use
• Logical model of consistent human behavior
• Reduce conflict….objective, ...
• Leadership development
• Team building
• Career development
• Communication
• Conflict management

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Cop...
90

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
91

Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
Kummerow, J.M., Barger, N.J., Kirby, L.K. (1997).
WorkTypes: Understand your work personality – how it helps
you and holds...
Web References – Myers-Briggs &

www.aptinternational.org Association for Psychological Type
International
www.capt.org – ...
Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011

Thank you very much.

94
Conclusion & Thank You!
• This presentation has provided just a brief
introduction and overview of ―Normal
Personality‖ as...
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Personality type and lawyers implications for practice and professionalism

  1. 1. By Dan DeFoe, JD MS Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Personality Type and the Legal Profession: Introduction to Normal Personality -Implications for Practice and Professionalism 1
  2. 2. 2 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  3. 3. Agenda • ―Normal Personality‖ • Myers-Briggs (MBTI®) • References Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Link – Type and Emotional Intelligence 3
  4. 4. Daily experience has several factors: - personality - emotional intelligence - performance And these are interdependent. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Link – Type & Emotional Intelligence 4
  5. 5. Intrapersonal • Self-awareness • Self-confidence • Self-regulation of moods, impulses • Flexibility • Stress management Interpersonal • Empathy • Assertiveness • Energy management • Social skills • Persuasion • Leadership Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Link – Type & Emotional Intelligence – EI competencies 5
  6. 6. Link – Type & Emotional Intelligence Type understanding concerns external – interpersonal processes that make up emotional intelligence. Type is an ideal model for exploring and developing emotional intelligence. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 internal – intrapersonal 6
  7. 7. Link – Type & Emotional Intelligence make up the “engine of personality”, the source of: analysis, reaction, adjustment, and stability For our dynamic relationship with the world. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 The mental functions of Type Perception – Sensing / Intuition Judging – Thinking / Feeling 7
  8. 8. ―When you have an expanded emotional intelligence and a balanced personality, you have a healthier lifestyle, stronger relationships, and overall greater satisfaction and performance in your chosen work.‖ Roger Pearman, Introduction to Type and Emotional Intelligence Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Link – Type & Emotional Intelligence 8
  9. 9. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 “Normal Personality” 9
  10. 10. Foundational Concepts – Normal Personality – “Type” • Jung & Myers • Trait vs. Type • Assessment v. Sorting: MBTI® - Steps I, II, III • Type in Organizations Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • ―Normal‖ – ―Gifts Differing‖ 10
  11. 11. Normal Personality - The MBTI Instrument Developed by Katharine C. Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. Based on the work of Swiss psychologist C. G. Jung, who presented his psychological type theory in his book Psychological Types (published 1921, translated into English 1923). Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 ® 11
  12. 12. Jung’s Theory – Preferences…… • Preferences interact with and are shaped by environmental influences: • Family • Country • Education • and many others Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Preferences – innate, ―inborn predispositions.‖ 12
  13. 13. Jung’s Theory of preferences (cont) • Four pairs of opposites—e.g right and left hands - use both, but one is our natural preference. • But, how we use our preferences and often the accuracy with which we can measure the preferences may change. • Confounding variable—environment! Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Preference basics do not change—they stay the same over our lifetime, e.g. always a RT hand 13
  14. 14. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Myers-Briggs (MBTI®) 14
  15. 15. "The purpose of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® is to make the theory of psychological types described by C. G. Jung (1921/1971) understandable and useful in people's lives. The essence of the theory is that much seemingly random variation in behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the way individuals prefer to use their perception and judgment." Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Myers-Briggs (MBTI®) 15
  16. 16. Myers-Briggs (MBTI®) • Judgment involves all the ways of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. • If people differ systematically in what they perceive and in how they reach conclusions, then it is only reasonable for them to differ correspondingly in their interests, reactions, values, motivations, and skills. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Perception involves all the ways of becoming aware of things, people, happenings, or ideas. 16
  17. 17. Myers-Briggs (MBTI®) The aim of the MBTI instrument is to identify, from self self-report of easily recognized regard to perception and judgment, so that the effects of each preference, singly and in combination, can be established by research and put into practical use. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 reactions, the basic preferences of people in 17
  18. 18. 18 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  19. 19. • Four pairs of opposites—like our right and left hands. We all use both sides of each pair, but one is our natural preference. • Jung believed that our preferences do not change—they stay the same over our lifetime. • What changes is how we use our preferences and often the accuracy with which we can measure the preferences. • The confounding variable—environment! Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 MBTI® & Jung’s Theory 19
  20. 20. The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument E Extraversion or I Introversion Affects Choices as to Whether to direct perception judgment mainly on the outer world (E) or mainly on the inner world of ideas. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Index Preferences Between E–I 20
  21. 21. The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument S Sensing perception or N Intuitive perception Affects Choices as to Which kind of perception is preferred when one needs or wishes to perceive. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Index Preferences Between S–N 21
  22. 22. The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument T Thinking judgment or F feeling judgment Affects Choices as to Which kind of judgment to trust when one needs or wishes to make a decision. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Index Preferences Between T–F 22
  23. 23. The Four Preferences of the MBTI instrument J Judgment or P Perception Affects Choices as to Whether to deal with the outer world in judgment (J) attitude (using T or F) or in the perceptive (P) attitude (using S or N). Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Index Preferences Between J - P 23
  24. 24. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Jungian Theory 24
  25. 25. Myers-Briggs (MBTI®) The 16 Types ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 As located on the Type Table 25
  26. 26. •is innate •can be influenced •is observable •is not a box •is not an excuse •indicates preferences, not skills Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Key Type Concepts…..Type 26
  27. 27. Extraversion or Introversion Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Energy 27
  28. 28. The direction in which we focus our attention and energy Introduction to Type®, p. 9 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Extraversion or Introversion 28
  29. 29. Energy Introversion [I] • Energized through contact with other people or through engaging in activities • Being energized through ideas, quiet times, or solitude • The outer world • The inner world Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Extraversion [E] 29
  30. 30. E–I People who prefer Introversion: • Focus their energy and attention inward • Are interested in the inner world of thoughts and reflections We all use both preferences, but usually not with equal comfort. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 People who prefer Extraversion: • Focus their energy and attention outward • Are interested in the world of people and things 30
  31. 31. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Extraversion or Introversion Introduction to Type® and Change, pp. 4–5 31
  32. 32. • • • • • • Extraverted Types External environment Talking Work through Broad interests Sociable/expressive Initiative in relationships • • • • • • Introverted Types Inner world Writing Reflecting / Mental practice Deep interests Private/contained Initiative when important Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Where People Focus Attention 32
  33. 33. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Extraversion-Introversion 33 Source: Work It Out (p. 7) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G. Kise. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black® Publishing, 1996. Reprinted with permission. Using the MBTI ® Tool in Organizations (3rd ed.) © 2001 by CPP, Inc. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this overhead master for workshop use. Duplication for any other use, including resale, is a violation of copyright law. MBTI is a registered trademark of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries.Davies-Black is a registered trademark of CPP, Inc. RM 3-13
  34. 34. Some Key Words Associated with Action Introversion Reflection Outward Inward People Privacy Interaction Many Expressive Do-Think-Do Concentration Few Quiet Think-Do-Think Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Extraversion 34
  35. 35. We Have a Preference But we usually do not do them with equal comfort. Most of us have a preference for one over the other. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 We all do Extraverted and Introverted things. 35
  36. 36. Self-Assessment Given the choice, which do you prefer: Extraversion or Introversion? ? Very Fairly Clear Clear Slight Slight Fairly Very Clear Clear Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 How clear are you about your preference? 36
  37. 37. Sensing or Intuition Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Information 37
  38. 38. The way we take in information and the kind of information we like and trust Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Sensing or Intuition Introduction to Type®, p. 9 38
  39. 39. How people take in information | S–N People who prefer Intuition: • Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on meaning, associations, and relationships We all use both ways of perceiving, but we typically prefer and trust one more. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 People who prefer Sensing: • Prefer to take in information using their five senses— sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste 39
  40. 40. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Sensing [S]or Intuition [N] 40
  41. 41. How Do You Take In Information? INTUITION  Future possibilities  What could be  Practical  Theoretical  Facts  Perfecting established skills  Inspirations  Learning new skills  Novelty  Utility  Step-by-step  The five senses  Insight-by-insight  The sixth sense, a hunch Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 SENSING  Present orientation  What is real 41 Source: Introduction to Type® in Organizations (3rd ed.) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh and Jean M. Kummerow. Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc., 1998. Reprinted with permission. Using the MBTI ® Tool in Organizations (3rd ed.) © 2001 by CPP, Inc. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this overhead master for workshop use. Duplication for any other use, including resale, is a violation of copyright law. MBTI is a trademark or registered trademark of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries. RM 3-17
  42. 42. Sensing [S] Paying attention to what you perceive through the five senses: seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting Intuition [N] Paying attention to what might be described as the sixth sense—the unseen world of meanings, inferences, hunches, insights, and connections Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Information – S or N 42
  43. 43. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Sensing-Intuition 43 Source: Work It Out (p. 8) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G. Kise. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black® Publishing, 1996. Reprinted with permission. Using the MBTI ® Tool in Organizations (3rd ed.) © 2001 by CPP, Inc. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this overhead master for workshop use. Duplication for any other use, including resale, is a violation of copyright law. MBTI is a registered trademark of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries.Davies-Black is a registered trademark of CPP, Inc. RM 3-18
  44. 44. We Have a Preference But we usually do not use them with equal trust. Most of us have a preference for one over the other. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 We all use Sensing and Intuition when making our observations about the world. 44
  45. 45. Self-Assessment Given the choice, which do you prefer: Sensing or Intuition? ? Very Fairly Clear Clear Slight Slight Fairly Very Clear Clear Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 How clear are you about your preference? 45
  46. 46. Thinking or Feeling Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Decisions 46
  47. 47. The way we make decisions Introduction to Type®, p. 10 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Thinking or Feeling 47
  48. 48. T–F People who prefer Feeling: • Make their decisions with a person-centered, values-based process Both processes are rational and we use both often, but usually not equally easily. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 People who prefer Thinking: • Make their decisions based on impersonal, objective logic 48
  49. 49. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Thinking or Feeling 49
  50. 50. Decisions Making decisions based on impartial criteria—causeeffect reasoning, constant principles or truths, and logic Feeling Making decisions based on valuesbased, personcentered criteria, seeking harmony Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Thinking 50
  51. 51. Thinking Head Distant Things Objective Critique Analyze Firm but fair Feeling Heart Personal People Subjective Praise Understand Merciful Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Some Key Words Associated with 51
  52. 52. Thinking [T] • Logical system • Head • Objective • Justice • Critique • Principles • Reason • Firm but fair Feeling [F] • Values system • Heart • Subjective • Mercy • Compliment • Harmony • Empathy • Compassionate Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 How Do You Make Decisions? 52
  53. 53. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Thinking-Feeling 53 Source: Work It Out (p. 9) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G. Kise. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black® Publishing, 1996. Reprinted with permission. Using the MBTI ® Tool in Organizations (3rd ed.) © 2001 by CPP, Inc. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this overhead master for workshop use. Duplication for any other use, including resale, is a violation of copyright law. MBTI is a registered trademark of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries.Davies-Black is a registered trademark of CPP, Inc. RM 3-21
  54. 54. Thinking Types [T] • Analytical • Cause & Effect • Logical • Objective standard • Reasonable • ―Toughminded….‖ • Fair + Equal Feeling [F] • Empathetic • Guided by values • Impact to people? • Harmony • Compassionate • ―Tenderhearted…‖ • Fair + Individual Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 How People Make Decisions 54
  55. 55. Thinking Head Distant Things Objective Critique Analyze Firm but fair Feeling Heart Personal People Subjective Praise Understand Merciful Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Some Key Words Associated with 55
  56. 56. We Have a Preference But we usually do not use them with equal ease. Most of us have a preference for one over the other. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 We all use Thinking and Feeling when making decisions. 56
  57. 57. Self-Assessment Given the choice, which do you prefer: Thinking or Feeling? ? Very Fairly Clear Clear Slight Slight Fairly Very Clear Clear Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 How clear are you about your preference? 57
  58. 58. Judging or Perceiving Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Outer World 58
  59. 59. Our attitude toward the external world and how we orient ourselves to it Introduction to Type®, p. 10 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Judging or Perceiving 59
  60. 60. J–P People who prefer Perceiving: • Seek to experience the world, not organize it • Look at the world and see options that need to be explored We all use both attitudes, but usually not with equal comfort. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 People who prefer Judging: • Want the external world to be organized and orderly • Look at the world and see decisions that need to be made 60
  61. 61. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Judging or Perceiving 61
  62. 62. Approach to Life Perceiving [J] [P] Want to live an ordered life, with goals and structure, making decisions so you can move on Want to live a spontaneous life with flexibility, staying open to new information and possibilities Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Judging 62
  63. 63. How Do You Approach Life? PERCEIVING  Attend to, gather information         Regulate Control Settled Run one’s life  Set goals  Closing off  Organized Flow Adapt Tentative Let life happen  Seek options  Opening up  Flexible Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 JUDGING  Decide about information 63 Source: Introduction to Type® in Organizations (3rd ed.) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh and Jean M. Kummerow, Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc., 1998.Reprinted with permission. Using the MBTI ® Tool in Organizations (3rd ed.) © 2001 by CPP, Inc. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this overhead master for workshop use. Duplication for any other use, including resale, is a violation of copyright law. MBTI is a trademark or registered trademark of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries. RM 3-23
  64. 64. Judging Organized Decision Control Now Closure Deliberate Plan Perceiving Flexible Information Experience Later Options Spontaneous Wait Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Some Key Words Associated with 64
  65. 65. We Have a Preference But we usually do not use them with equal comfort. Most of us have a preference for one over the other. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 We all use Judging and Perceiving as part of our lifestyle. 65
  66. 66. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Judging-Perceiving 66 Source: Work It Out (p. 11) by Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A. G. Kise. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black® Publishing, 1996. Reprinted with permission. Using the MBTI ® Tool in Organizations (3rd ed.) © 2001 by CPP, Inc. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this overhead master for workshop use. Duplication for any other use, including resale, is a violation of copyright law. MBTI is a registered trademark of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries. Davies-Black is a registered trademark of CPP, Inc. RM 3-24
  67. 67. Self-Assessment Given the choice, which do you prefer: Judging or Perceiving? ? Very Fairly Clear Clear Slight Slight Fairly Very Clear Clear Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 How clear are you about your preference? 67
  68. 68. Personality Type Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 When combined, your preferences indicate your personality type. 68
  69. 69. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Type Application Examples 69
  70. 70. • All functions contribute to effective practice • Tend to use dominant and auxiliary • Z model – all 4 functions used • Order of the ―Z‖ process…. • Sensing to • Intuition to • Thinking to • Feeling Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 “Z” Problem Solving Model 70
  71. 71. Z Problem Solving Model • Sensing – specifics? • Thinking – objective evaluation? • Feeling – subjective evaluation Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Intuition – important meanings? 71
  72. 72. Z Problem Solving Model • Gather specific information • What are the details? • Applicable rules, law? • Make the situation ―real‖ • Challenge using facts Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Sensing (S) 72
  73. 73. Z Problem Solving Model • Patterns & relationships • Central themes or stories • Broad sweep – then relate • Progressions, assumptions • Strategize to make themes • Openness to creative solutions Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Intuition (N) 73
  74. 74. Z Problem Solving Model • Objective judgments • Precedent • Sequential analysis • Examine judicial reasoning • Arguments for all sides • Step by step legal analysis skills Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Thinking (T) 74
  75. 75. Z Problem Solving Model • Subjective understanding • Who are the people? • Values, interests, needs • Relational considerations • Consider all sides • Personal values not ―best‖ always Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Feeling (F) 75
  76. 76. 76 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  77. 77. S–N Splitting Exercise Then, be prepared to share with the group what you have perceived. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Look at the following pictures for a few moments, in silence. 77
  78. 78. 78 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  79. 79. 79 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  80. 80. 80 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  81. 81. People with a Preference for Sensing • Physical attributes of the picture (color, shapes, artist’s name, size) • Then try to make sense out of the shapes—object sense • Others can usually agree with the interpretations of the shapes Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Describe what they literally see: 81
  82. 82. People with a Preference for Intuition • Often make up a story about the picture • May come up with a big-picture interpretation of the meaning Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Interpret the picture, seeing possibilities and meanings that are highly personalized 82
  83. 83. •When we all look at the same image, we see different things. •Who sees it correctly? Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 What Can We Conclude? 83
  84. 84. S–N Splitting Exercise • We must remember that we all trust our own perceptions, while knowing that there are many other ways of seeing the same object/situation. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 What are the implications and applications of this exercise? 84
  85. 85. Constructive Use of Differences ® Isabel Myers’ goal for type and the MBTI instrument: • Acknowledging the value of differences • Practicing new behaviours, seeking out others with differences • Incorporating different perspectives into our own processes Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Becoming aware of differences 85
  86. 86. About the MBTI Instrument • An indicator—not a test • Looks only at normal behavior • Forced-choice questions • Takes about 20–40 minutes to complete • No right or wrong answers—answer as you see fit • Your results are confidential Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 ® 86
  87. 87. About the MBTI Instrument ® (cont.) • There are no good or bad types. • The instrument gives practical results you can use: • In teamwork • In communication • In decision making Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • All types have some natural strengths and some possible pitfalls or blind spots. 87
  88. 88. • Reliable, valid, cost-effective, easy to use • Logical model of consistent human behavior • Reduce conflict….objective, rational framework • Emphasizes value of diversity • Identify assets/blind spots: persons/teams • Understand organizational character • Clarify fit – people & jobs • Ethical guidelines support use Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 MBTI® Benefits to Lawyers & Firms 88
  89. 89. • Leadership development • Team building • Career development • Communication • Conflict management Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 MBTI® Benefits to Lawyers & Firms 89
  90. 90. 90 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  91. 91. 91 Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011
  92. 92. Kummerow, J.M., Barger, N.J., Kirby, L.K. (1997). WorkTypes: Understand your work personality – how it helps you and holds you back, and what you can do to understand it. New York: Business Plus. Myers, I.B., (1980). Gifts differing. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist’s Press. Pearman, R. (2002). Introduction to type and emotional intelligence. Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc. Pearman, R., Albritton, S. (2010). I’m not crazy, I’m just not you: the real meaning of the 16 personality types: secrets to how we can be so alike when we’re so different (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealy. Peters, M. & Peters, D. (2007) Juris Types: Learning law through self-understanding. Gainesville FL: Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc. Peters, D. (1993). Forever Jung: Psychological type theory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and learning negotiation. Drake Law Review 42, no. 1:1-121. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 References– Myers-Briggs & MBTI® 92
  93. 93. Web References – Myers-Briggs & www.aptinternational.org Association for Psychological Type International www.capt.org – Center for Applications of Psychological Type www.cpp.com – CPP, Inc. f/k/a Consulting Psychologist Press www.myersbriggs.org – Myers Briggs Foundation Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 MBTI® 93
  94. 94. Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 Thank you very much. 94
  95. 95. Conclusion & Thank You! • This presentation has provided just a brief introduction and overview of ―Normal Personality‖ as defined by Carl Jung and MyersBriggs and the MBTI® Type Indicator. Thank you very much. Dan DeFoe, JD MS dan@adlitemsolutions.com MBTI® Type Indicator, Steps I,II,III, Certified Administrator Dan DeFoe JD MS - Copyright 2011 • Please check out the references noted above and also the web sites if you have interest. 95
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