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# 7.3 series and parallel circuits

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Malaysia SPM syllabus Chapter 7 Part 3: Series and Parallel Circuits

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• These are the most basics of electrical connections which is also the foundations of any connections.

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### 7.3 series and parallel circuits

1. 1. Chapter 7: ElectricityPart 3: Series and Parallel Circuits
2. 2. Series CircuitsTo form a single path for current flow
3. 3. Series Circuits Therefore each bulb glows dimly   
4. 4. Series CircuitsTherefore brightness of each bulb is the same   
5. 5. Series Circuits And the other bulbs go out as well   
6. 6. Parallel CircuitsTo form separate and parallel paths for current flow
7. 7. Parallel Circuits Each bulb is connected directly to the battery   Because each bulb gets the full potential difference 
8. 8. Parallel Circuits   Than each bulb in a series circuit 
9. 9. Parallel CircuitsThe circuit remains unbroken   So the other two bulbs will remain to work 
10. 10. Compare the Circuits’ Current Series Circuit Parallel Circuit A X A1 3Ω X Y Y A1 A2 A2 3Ω 1Ω 1ΩCurrent has only one path to flow Current splits into different paths Reading on A1 = Reading on A2 Reading on A = Reading on A1 + A2Same current flows through each Main current is shared between the resistors two resistors
11. 11. Compare the Circuits’ Potential Difference Series Circuit Parallel Circuit X Y V1 X 3Ω 3Ω 1Ω V1 V2 Y 1Ω V V2 Reading on V = Reading of V1 + V2 Reading on V1 = Reading on V2Potential Difference is shared by the Potential difference is the same two resistors across each resistor
12. 12. Compare the Circuits Series Circuit Parallel Circuit   When one bulb has blown up When one bulb has blown upThe other bulb would not be able to The other bulb can still light up light up
13. 13. Compare the Circuits Series Circuit Parallel Circuit     Dimmer bulbs Brighter bulbs Less voltage across each bulb Higher voltage across each bulbLess current pass through each bulb Larger current pass through each bulb
14. 14. Determining Effective Resistance Series Circuit Parallel Circuit I1 R1 I2 R2 I3 R3I R1 V1 R2 V2 R3 V3 V1 V2 V3 V V I1 I2 I3 I Current Potential Difference Resistance