Philosophy report

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Philosophy report

  1. 1. JEWISH PHILOSOPHY
  2. 2. IS PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY INFORMED BY THE TEXTS, TRADITIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE. Jewish Philosophy
  3. 3.  . The philosophy of Judaism is inquiry into the nature and meaning of Jewish existence.  The philosophy of Judaism wants to understand Zionism, the Holocaust, the Jewish Diaspora and the historical vicissitudes that gave shape to Jewish experience over the millennia, from the age of the biblical patriarchs to the destruction of the first and second temples in Jerusalem, to the exile of the Jewish people and the return of many, after a hundred generations, to the land they had been promised and in which they had prospered, a land which some had never left but which most, for centuries, had pictured only through the sublimating lenses of sacred history, apocalypse and philosophy.
  4. 4. CONCERN OF JEWISH PHILOSOPHY  The concerns of the philosophy of Judaism touch every aspect of Jewish experience, just as the concerns of philosophy at large touch every aspect of experience in general. But the concerns of Jewish philosophy, like those of general philosophy, do not confine themselves to Jewish experience. They are, in fact, the same concerns as those of general philosophy, rendered distinctively Jewish by their steady recourse to the resources of the tradition, and sustained as philosophical by an insistence on critical receptivity, responsible but creative appropriation of ideas and values that withstand the scrutiny of reason and indeed grow and give fruit in its light.
  5. 5. NATURE OF PHILOSOPHY  The confidence of the practitioners of Jewish philosophy in the conceptual vitality and continually renewed moral and spiritual relevance of the tradition is typically the reflex of an existential commitment to that tradition and to the people who are its bearers. That confidence, and its repeated vindication by the richness of the tradition itself, is also a wellspring of renewal and encouragement for the commitment that energizes it – even, and especially, in times of historical crisis and external pressures, which have rarely confined themselves to sheerly intellectual challenges.
  6. 6. STRENGHTS AND WEAKNESSES  One is a tendency to historicism, that is, the equivocal equation of norm with facticity and facticity with norm that leads to an resignation of philosophical engagement for a detached clinical posture or an equally unwholesome surrender of judgment to the flow of events. Historicism-is a natural by-product of respect for tradition, or of expectation of progress.
  7. 7.  The second weakness is a narrowing of the gaze, a tendency to substitute philosophy of Judaism for the wider discourse of Jewish philosophy, as though the resources of the tradition had nothing (or nothing more) to contribute to ethics, or natural theology, or metaphysics and logic, for that matter.
  8. 8. JEWISH PHILOSOPHERS  The first exponent of Jewish philosophy was Philo of Alexandria, a major contributor to the synthesis of Stoicism, Middle Platonism and monotheistic ideas that helped forge the tradition of scriptural philosophy in the West.
  9. 9.  Philo Judaeus, also called Philo of Alexandria (born 15–10 BC, Alexandria— died AD 45–50, Alexandria), Greek-speaking Jewish philosopher, the most important representative of Hellenistic Judaism. His writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora. As the first to attempt to synthesize revealed faith and philosophic reason, he occupies a unique position in the history of philosophy. He is also regarded by Christians as a forerunner of Christian theology.
  10. 10. PHILO JUDAEUS
  11. 11.  Abraham ibn Daud (c.1110–80), a historian as well as a philosopher, used his historiography to argue for the providential continuity of the Jewish intellectual and religious tradition. His philosophical work laid the technical foundations that made possible the philosophical achievement of:  Moses Maimonides (1138–1204), the greatest of the philosophers committed to the Jewish tradition.
  12. 12. ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY….
  13. 13. Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies on the Quran. It is the continuous search for Hikma(.Arabic: ), meaning wisdom, in the light of the Islamic view of life, the universe, ethics, society,
  14. 14. ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY  Refers to philosophy produced in an Islamic society. It is not necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor exclusively produced by Muslims.  It’s a generic term can be defined and used in different ways, it is the perception of Islam, so that philosophy is derived from the Islamic texts used in the creation of the universe and the life of the Creator- term vision can be offered.
  15. 15. EARLY ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY Refers to philosophy during the ―Islamic Golden Age‖, traditionally dated between the 8th and 12th centuries, it can be distinguished by two main currents:
  16. 16. #1. KALAM Is the philosophy that seeks Islamic theological principles through dialect. In Arabic, the word literally means “speech”. Kalam means duties of the heart as opposed to (or inconjuction with) fikh duties of the body.
  17. 17. MUTAZILITE- COMPELLED TO DEFEND THEIR PRINCIPLES AGAINST THE SUNNI ISLAM OF THEIR DAY, LOOK FOR SUPPORT IN PHILOSOPHY, AND ARE ONE OF THE FIRST TO PURSUE A RATIONAL THEOLOGY CALLED “ILM-AL-KALAM” (SCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY)  Scholastic Theology are the one’s that professing it were called Mutakallamin.
  18. 18. #2. FALSAFA Falsafa is a greek word meaning “philosophy” ( the Greek pronunciation philosophia became falsafa.)
  19. 19. CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877- 1938), a notable Muslim philosopher, poet and scholar from Pakistan (then British India)
  20. 20.  The tradition of Islamic Philosophy is still very much alive today despite the belief in many Western circles that this tradition ceased after the golden ages of Suhrawardi‖s Hikmat al- Ishraq(Illumination Philosophy) or, at the latest, Mulla Sadra‖s Hikmat-e-Mota'aliye or Transcendent (Exalted) Philosophy. Another unavoidable name is Allama Muhammad Iqbal, who reshaped and revitalized Islamic philosophy amongst the Muslims of the Indian sub-continent in the early 20th century. Beside his Urdu and Persian poetical work, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a milestone in the modern political philosophy of Islam.
  21. 21. OTHER ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHERS  Ruhollah Khomeini, founder of the Islamic Rebublic of Iran, was a famous teacher of the philosophical school of Hikmat-ul- Mutaliya. Before the Islamic Revolution, he was one of the few who formally taught philosophy at the Religious Seminary at Qum.  , Allameh Tabatabaei, the author of numerous works including the 27-volume Quranic commentary al-Mizan ( ),
  22. 22. Name: Al Khindi (Abū Yūsuf Yaʻqūbibn Isḥāq al- Kindī) Lattinization: Alkindus Born/ Died: 801-873 Madh’hab: Mutazilite School of Philosophy: Peripatetic Name: Ibn Sina (Abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Sina Balkhi) Lattinization: Avicenna Born// Died: 980-1037 Madh’hab: Twelver Shia(disputed) Sschool of Philosophy: Avecinnism
  23. 23. THANK YOU  REPORTERS: Jordan Paul Figuroa Maria Gracia Almero Ma. Criselda Valdevarona
  24. 24. CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY  Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
  25. 25. HELLENISTIC CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY  Hellenism is the traditional designation for the Greek culture of the Roman Empire in the days of Jesus, Paul, and for centuries after. Classical philosophies of the Greeks had already expired and diluted beyond recognition except for small bands of continuators of the traditions of the Pythagoreans, of Plato, and Aristotle (whose library was lost for centuries).
  26. 26. HERE ARE SOME OF THOSE THINKERS MOST CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH HELLENISTIC CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHIES, LISTED MORE OR LESS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER:  Justin Martyr: Christian apologist and philosopher whose work often focused on the doctrine of the Logos and argued that many Stoic and Platonic philosophical ideas were similar to ideas in the Old Testament  Clement of Alexandria: Theologian and apologist who wrote on Greek philosophy, using ideas from pagan literature, Stoic and Platonic philosophy, and Gnosticism to argue for Christianity
  27. 27.  Augustine of Hippo: Augustine developed classical Christian philosophy, and the whole of Western thought, largely by synthesizing Hebrew and Greek thought. He drew particularly from Plato, the Neoplatonism of Plotinus, and Stoicism, which he altered and refined in light of divine revelation of Christian teaching and the Scriptures. Augustine wrote extensively on many religious and philosophical topics; he employed an allegorical method of reading the Bible, further developed the doctrine of hell as endless punishment, original sin as inherited guilt, divine grace as the necessary remedy for original sin, baptismal regeneration and consequently infant baptism, inner experience and the concept of "self”, the moral necessity of humanfree will, and individual election to salvation by eternal predestination. He has been a major influence in the development of Western theology and his thought, and in particular his works, City of God andConfessions, laid the foundations for Western Philosophy, influencing many of philosophers and making him one of the most influential figures in the history of philosophy.
  28. 28. MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY  Peter Abelard: Abelard was a leading 12th- century philosopher and theologian, best known for his association with conceptualism and his development of the moral influence theory of atonement.
  29. 29.  Thomas Aquinas: Aquinas was the student of Albert the Great, a brilliant Dominican experimentalist, much like the Franciscan, Roger Bacon, of Oxford in the 13th century. Aquinas synthesized Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity. He believed that there was no contradiction between faith and secular reason, but that they complemented each other epistemically. He thought Aristotle had achieved the pinnacle of human striving for truth apart from divine revelation and thus adopted Aristotle's philosophy as a framework in constructing his theological and philosophical outlook. Thomas Aquinas was a professor at the prestigious University of Paris, a contemporary of Bonaventure, a Franciscan Professor at the University of Paris whose approach differed significantly from Aquinas' in favor of the more traditional Augustinian Platonism. Widely- accepted as one of the most influential figures in the history of philosophy, his philosophy is the foundation for Thomism. His most famous work is Summa Theologica
  30. 30. MODERN CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY 17th Century: Thomas Browne (1605–1682) English philosopher and scientist who also made contributions to the field of medicine  René Descartes (1596–1650) French philosopher and mathematician sometimes labelled "The Father of Modern Philosophy" who was a leading exponent of rationalism; most famous for his concept Cogito ergo sum (I Think Therefore I Am)  Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian philosopher, physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who played a central role in the Scientific Revolution, controversially advocating heliocentrism, leading to the Galileo Affair, he also wrote about the relationship between science and religion; often labelled "The Father of Modern Science"
  31. 31. 18TH CENTURY  George Berkeley Influential Anglo-Irish philosopher who developed the theory of subjective idealism and who wrote prolifically in a number of areas, such as metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mathematics  Johann Gottfried Herder, German philosopher, theologian, and literary critics who was associated with theSturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism  Francis Hutcheson, Scottish philosopher who was an important figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and is associated with empiricism
  32. 32. 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Preeminent German philosopher who was a leading figure in German Idealism and whose thought created the philosophical school known as Hegelianism, his philosophy was influenced greatly by his Lutheran religious beliefs; also wrote a number of works regarding the philosophy of religion  C. S. Lewis, a massively influential literary critic and medievalist, and mythologist, a mythographer in his children's fantasies, and an apologist for the Christian faith to which he adhered in the latter half of his life. He claimed not to be a philosopher, but his apologetics are foundational to the formation of a Christian worldview for many modern readers.

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