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Internet working Internet working Document Transcript

  • Report<br />On<br />Introduction to Internet<br />Submitted To:Submitted By:<br />Mrs. Amandeep AroraAman Julka<br />Lect. PCTERuchika Anand<br />Punjab College of Technical Education<br />What is Internet<br />The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks  that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet can also be defined as a worldwide interconnection of computers and computer networks that facilitate the sharing or exchange of information among users. <br />History<br />The Internet began as a Cold War project to create a communications network that was immune to a nuclear attack. In the 1969, the U.S. government created ARPANET, connecting four western universities and allowing researchers to use the mainframes of any of the networked institutions. New connections were soon added to the network, bringing the number of "nodes" up to 23 in 1971, 111 in 1977, and up to almost 4 million in 1994. As the size of the network grew so did its capabilities: In its first 25 years, the Internet added features such as file transfer, email, Usenet news, and eventually HTML. Now, new developments come to the Net one right after the other. It is this explosive growth in recent years that has captured the imagination of computer users the world over. The first message sent across the network was supposed to be "Login", but reportedly, the link between the two colleges crashed on the letter "g".<br />Positive impacts of Internet<br />
    • Promote your product: Internet is one of the best and cheapest ways to promote your business or product. Starting from 10$, you can already have your own website and start reaching your potential customers. You can also use Multiply or Blogger if you don't want to spend money for your website. 
    • Services: Internet is making our life a lot easier by offering different services like online banking, online booking, hotel reservations, online shopping, and many more! 
    • Communication: The foremost target of internet has always been the communication. And internet has excelled beyond the expectations .Still; innovations are going on to make it faster, more reliable. By the advent of computer’s Internet, our earth has reduced and has attained the form of a global village.Now we can communicate in a fraction of second with a person who is sitting in the other part of the world. Today for better communication, we can avail the facilities of e-mail; we can chat for hours with our loved ones. There are plenty messenger services in offering. With help of such services, it has become very easy to establish a kind of global friendship where you can share your thoughts, can explore other cultures of different ethnicity.
    • Information: Information is probably the biggest advantage internet is offering. The Internet is a virtual treasure trove of information. Any kind of information on any topic under the sun is available on the Internet. The search engines like Google, yahoo is at your service on the Internet. You can almost find any type of data on almost any kind of subject that you are looking for. There is a huge amount of information available on the internet for just about every subject known to man, ranging from government law and services, trade fairs and conferences, market information, new ideas and technical support, the list is end less. Students and children are among the top users who surf the Internet for research.
    • Entertainment: Entertainment is another popular reason why many people prefer to surf the Internet. In fact, media of internet has become quite successful in trapping multifaceted entertainment factor. Downloading games, visiting chat rooms or just surfing the Web are some of the uses people have discovered. There are numerous games that may be downloaded from the Internet for free. The industry of online gaming has tasted dramatic and phenomenal attention by game lovers. Chat rooms are popular because users can meet new and interesting people. In fact, the Internet has been successfully used by people to find life long partners. When people surf the Web, there are numerous things that can be found. Music, hobbies, news and more can be found and shared on the Internet.
    • E-Commerce: Ecommerce is the concept used for any type of commercial maneuvering, or business deals that involves the transfer of information across the globe via Internet. It has become a phenomenon associated with any kind of shopping, almost anything. You name it and Ecommerce with its giant tentacles engulfing every single product and service will make you available at your door steps. It has got a real amazing and wide range of products from household needs, technology to entertainment.
    Negative Impacts of Internet<br />
    • Theft of Personal information: If you use the Internet, you may be facing grave danger as your personal information such as name, address, credit card number etc. can be accessed by other culprits to make your problems worse.
    • Spamming: Spamming refers to sending unwanted e-mails in bulk, which provide no purpose and needlessly obstruct the entire system. Such illegal activities can be very frustrating for you, and so instead of just ignoring it, you should make an effort to try and stop these activities so that using the Internet can become that much safer.
    • Virus threat: Virus is nothing but a program which disrupts the normal functioning of your computer systems. Computers attached to internet are more prone to virus attacks and they can end up into crashing your whole hard disk, causing you considerable headache.
    • Pornography: This is perhaps the biggest threat related to your children’s healthy mental life. A very serious issue concerning the Internet. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the Internet that can be easily found and can be a detrimental factor to letting children use the Internet.
    • Internet Addiction: These days children are getting addicted to internet which can be seen in their behaviour with their family. Youth is getting more involved in bad online activities, get involved in wrong companies and thus ruins their lives.
    Future of Internet<br />
    • Computation moves into the cloud : Obvious but important. This is the key to the future which will provoke massive social change. No longer will we be tied to our desks or fortified corporate networks. Work anywhere on any device with the same access to all the same resources.
    • Interfaces are revolutionised: keyboards and mice will seem quaint. Touch, eye, voice and possibly even brain controllers will be commonplace. If you think the iPhone is cool you haven’t seen anything yet. Understanding semantic context will make manipulating complex data childs play.
    • Viruses are no more : with the majority of software provided as a service (SaaS) viruses which plagued Windows users will be a thing of the past. However, new even more dangerous and sophisticated threats will emerge with personal data stored in the cloud a prime target.
    • Online Video / Internet TV: This is a trend that has already exploded on the Web - but you still get the sense there's a lot more to come yet. In October 2006 Google acquired the hottest online video property on the planet, YouTube. Later on that same month, news came out that the founders of Skype were building an Internet TV service In 2007, YouTube continues to dominate. Meanwhile Internet TV services are slowly getting off the ground. It's fair to say that in 10 years time, Internet TV will be totally different to what it is today. Higher quality pictures, more powerful streaming, personalization, sharing, and much more - it's all coming over the next decade.
    • Customized Reality: In the next ten years you can choose what kind of information that you want. You can choose news and information base on you preference. So maybe, if you irritating to watch topic about catastrophic around the world, you can just listen to what ever good thing that relieve your mind. Reality can become something that we can choose and in the end...there is no reality. Every information is base on your needs. Why bother to watch news that just make you un-happy?! You decide the reality yourself.
    • Zetta Flood: By 2015, one zettabyte of data will flow over the internet – If one normal cup of coffee is equal to 1 Gigabyte, then 1 zettabyte is equal to great wall of China! Stack of books from earth to Pluto 20 times is equivalent to a zettabyte.
    • There will be 50 Billion connected devices by 2020, which is nearly 7 device for every person on the earth!
    IAB<br />The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) is the committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC). It oversees a number of Task Forces, of which the most important are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). The body which eventually became the IAB was created originally by the United States Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency with the name Internet Configuration Control Board during 1979; it eventually became the Internet Advisory Board during September, 1984, and then the Internet Activities Board during May, 1986 (the name was changed, while keeping the same acronym). It finally became the Internet Architecture Board, under ISOC, during January, 1992, as part of the Internet's transition from a U.S.-government entity to an international, public entity.<br />The IAB's current responsibilities include<br />Architectural Oversight: The IAB provides oversight of, and occasional commentary on, aspects of the architecture for the network protocols and procedures used by the Internet.<br />Standards Process Oversight and Appeal: The IAB provides oversight of the process used to create Internet Standards. The IAB serves as an appeal board for complaints of improper execution of the standards process, through acting as an appeal body in respect of an Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) standards decision.<br />Request for Comments series: The IAB is responsible for editorial management and publication of the Request for Comments (RFC) document series.<br />Internet Assigned Numbers Authority: In conjunction with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the IAB is responsible for administration of the assignment of IETF protocol parameter values by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).<br />External Liaison: The IAB acts as representative of the interests of the IETF in liaison relationships with other organizations concerned with standards and other technical and organizational issues relevant to the worldwide Internet.<br />Advice to the Internet Society: The IAB acts as a source of advice and guidance to the Board of Trustees and Officers of ISOC concerning technical, architectural, procedural, and (where appropriate) policy matters pertaining to the Internet and its enabling technologies.<br />Internet Engineering Steering Group Confirmation: The IAB confirms the IETF Chair and IESG Area Directors, from nominations provided by the IETF Nominating Committee.<br />Internet Research Task Force Chair: The IAB selects a chair of the IRTF for a renewable two year term.<br /> Internet Connections<br />
    • Dial-up connections : Dial-up connections are one type of internet connection available from ISPs, they are the slowest and (usually) the most inexpensive. A dial-up connection allows you to connect to the internet via a local server using a standard 56k modem. Your PC literally dials (hence the name) a phone number (provided by your ISP) and connects to the server and therefore the internet. Once connected you can utilise all aspects of the internet, the drawback with a dial-up connection is the speed. A standard 56k modem can  theoretically transfer 56 Kilobits of data a second, this means that you can (again theoretically) transfer up to 7 Kilobytes a second.
    On top of this, most (though not all) internet service providers charge by the minute for your dial-up connection, so the longer it takes to load the pages you visit, the more you pay for your connection. The cost is usually the same as you would pay for a local phone call, so as long as they are used sensibly they can be a very cost effective internet connection. <br />Dial-up connection Pros<br />Dial-up connections can be very economic and are widely available, the cost per minute is comparable to that of a local phone call, or priced as a monthly plan which will include a certain amount of time. As these connections use a standard modem the hardware costs are minimal, most modern laptops have a built-in 56K modem. The fact that you only need a standard phone line to connect makes dial-up connections great for when you are on the move, especially if you find yourself in a location without a WIFI connection point. <br />Dial-up connection Cons<br />Dial-up connections are very slow compared to other connection types. When connected to the internet the same phone line cannot be used for phone calls, so if anyone phones you when you are connected they will get the busy signal. Dial-up connections transfer data over an analogue line so before the data is sent it has to be converted from digital to analogue, likewise when data is received it has to be converted from analogue to digital (this is what the modem does), this adds a performance overhead which affects the speed of the connection.<br />
    • ADSL connections : ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line) connections are becoming more and more widely available and can provide an excellent internet connection. The connections work by splitting your phone line into two separate channels, one for data (internet) and one for voice (phone calls), which means you can talk on the phone and be connected to the internet at the same time. DSL offers incredible performance compared to standard dial-up connections and is becoming the first choice of broadband for most internet subscribers. Most ISPs that offer ADSL packages charge a flat monthly fee, which normally includes a certain amount of bandwidth each month. The bandwidth refers to how much data (web pages, music, videos, etc) you can download per month without incurring additional charges from your internet service provider. 
    ADSL connection Pros<br />Apart from the obvious speed advantages that ADSL connections offer, ADSL technology eliminates the need for a second phone line by allowing voice and data transfer at the same time (you can use the phone as normal while connected to the internet). Because ADSL transfers data digitally it eliminates the usual performance overhead associated with standard dial-up connections, in other words ADSL doesn't need to convert the data from digital to analogue and back again. ADSL connections are Always on, which makes the usual long wait to connect a thing of the past. <br />ADSL connection Cons<br />ADSL connections are not available to everyone, you should always ensure that you have ADSL coverage in your area (an ISP will check for you). The hardware costs can be quite significant as you will need a special ADSL modem and ADSL filters to use the service. Most ISPs allow you to hire these items which can reduce the initial cost. Because ADSL connections are Always on you will need a firewall to protect your PC<br />
    • Cable connections : Cable connections are considered one of the best types of internet connection available to the home user, they offer very fast and reliable connections with a fixed monthly fee. Cable companies usually offer different packages to suit different internet subscribers, your choice of package, as with all internet connections, will depend on how you intend to use the internet. The different packages will offer different speed specifications and bandwidth limits. Because a cable connection uses a totally separate medium to transfer data it doesn't affect your ability to make/receive phone calls. 
    Cable connection Pros<br />Speed is a major reason for having a cable connection, with very high speed packages available it is an excellent choice for those who don't like to wait around tapping their fingers when downloading big files such as music or large attachments. Like ADSL connections, cable connections transfer data digitally, eliminating any digital/analogue conversion overhead. Cable connections are Always on, eliminating long waits to make a connection. <br />Cable connection Cons<br />Cable connections are not available in every area, you will need to contact the cable company of your choice to ensure that you have coverage. Because cable connections are Always on you will need a firewall to protect your PC<br />Wireless Internet Connections<br />Wireless Internet, or wireless broadband is one of the newest Internet connection types. Instead of using telephone or cable networks for your Internet connection, you use radio frequency bands. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which can be accessed from anywhere — as long as you geographically within a network coverage area. Wireless access is still considered to be relatively new, and it may be difficult to find a wireless service provider in some areas. It is typically more expensive and mainly available in metropolitan areas.<br />
    • ISDN
    • ISDN Connection is one of the most widely used wired Internet options in the global market. ISDN connection is the abbreviated version of Integrated Service Digital Network. The data service of ISDN Connection is similar to that of ordinary telephone connection. ISDN Connection comes with cutting-edge technology. Due to its customer-friendly features, ISDN Internet connection is extensively used in e-commerce industry and web collaborations. ISDN Internet connection allows both way symmetric data communication. The call setup associated with Integrated Service Digital Network comes with very high speed. With ISDN Connection, caller ID requires no extra charge. Data speed of ISDN connection is more stable than that of any other wired Internet connection.
    • Leased Line
    A permanent telephone connection between two points set up by a telecommunications common carrier. Typically, leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices. Unlike normal dial-up connections, a leased line is always active. The fee for the connection is a fixed monthly rate. The primary factors affecting the monthly fee are distance between end points and the speed of the circuit. Because the connection doesn't carry anybody else's communications, the carrier can assure a given level of quality. Increasingly, leased lines are being used by companies, and even individuals, for Internet access because they afford faster data transfer rates and are cost-effective if the Internet is used heavily. The information sent through a leased line travels along dedicated secure channels, eliminating the congestion that occurs in shared networks. Leased lines do not have telephone numbers because each side of the line is always connected to the other.<br />ISP<br />An Internet Service Provider (ISP) -- also known as an Internet Access Provider (IAP) -- is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol datagrams, such as dial-up, DSL, cable modem or dedicated high-speed interconnects. ISP is sometimes used as an abbreviation for independent service provider to distinguish a service provider that is an independent, separate company from a telephone company.<br />List of some Indian ISPs :<br />Airtel <br />Aircel <br />Hathway <br />Idea <br />MTS India <br />O-Zone Networks Private Limited <br />Reliance Communications <br />Reliance Industries<br />Sify <br />Spectranet <br />Tata DoCoMo <br />Tata Indicom <br />Tikona Digital Networks <br />Vodafone <br />YOU Broadband & Cable India Limited (formerly YOU Telecom) <br />Internet Protocols<br />
    • SLIP
    Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) is a TCP/IP protocol used for communication between two machines that are previously configured for communication with each other. For example, the Internet server provider may provide the user with a SLIP connection so that the provider's server can respond to requests, pass them on to the Internet and forwards requested Internet responses back to the user. The dial-up connection to the server is typically on a slower serial line rather than on the parallel or multiplex lines such as a line of the network the user is hooking up to. It is commonly used on dedicated serial links and dial-up connections that operate at speeds between 1200bps and 56Kbps. A SLIP connection needs to have its IP address configuration set each time before it is established. The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is a mostly obsolete encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. SLIP has been largely replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is better engineered, has more features and does not require its IP address configuration to be set before it is established. Data transmission with SLIP is very simple: this protocol sends a frame composed only of data to be sent followed by an end of transmission character (the END character, the ASCII code of which is 192). A SLIP frame looks like this:<br />Data to be transmittedEND<br />
    • PPP
    PPP means Point to Point Protocol. It is a much more developed protocol than SLIP (which is why it is replacing it), insofar as it transfers additional data, better suited to data transmission over the Internet (the addition of data in a frame is mainly due to the increase in bandwidth). PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider's server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer's TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet. PPP is usually preferred over the earlier de facto standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) because it can handle synchronous as well as asynchronous communication. PPP can share a line with other users and it has error detection that SLIP lacks. Where a choice is possible, PPP is preferred.<br />