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  • Wonderful presentation of very beautiful photos. Congratulations and thanks. FernandoPascal
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  • sorry welll Life is only about choices and what we call luck is actually some one’s choice working for us. Since I dont believe in luck, i make my own choices, it is better to choose than to be chosen.
    Life has taught me many lessons and I believe I am a good learner, I don’t repeat my mistakes, well not that often.
    I also believe that If you are not living within the nature, you are no longer driven by the natural flow, you then need to create your own currents, create them so that even if you are not a part of the natural flow, you are atleast parallel to it, never cross or obstruct it.
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Wildlife Health Management Wildlife Health Management Presentation Transcript

  • Wildlife Health Management By Dr A. D. Kholkute
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  • My Guru Hon. & Resp. Shri Shree Bhagawan Saheb I.F.S.
  • Treatment of Elephant wounds
  • Injury
  • Injection
  • Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Estimation of the age of Tiger Dental Formula 2{ I 3/3, C 1 /1, P 3/2 , M ,1/1}= 30
  • Rearing of orphan animals
  • Hyena Cubs
  • Blind Leopard
  • Treatment of Blind Leopard
  • Treatment of Blind Leopard
  • Rearing of Orphaned cub to adulthood
  • Reared in captivity at Bor Sanctuary
  • Nursed and reared well
  • Wild animal behavior
  • Tranquilization of wild animals - Cheetal
  • Full Anesthesia
  • Transportation – From Seminary Hill Zoo to the Bor Sanctuary
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  • Dr A D Kholkute
  • Thank You
  • Healthy and Alert Wildlife Photos
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  • Barsingha at Kanha
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  • General Observations A ] Pug Marks —Tiger Vargakar , Chaukor Female Aayatakar Tiger—Pad [ Gadeli ] – 4 Toes {Ungalia } Tigres—Pad 4 5 th is Due Claw Only on front leg Fore limb is stronger than hind & larger than hind. Pug Marks—Only left hind legs pug marks are taken. Tiger Pug Marks------Rounded toes [ Ungalia ] Tigress Egg Shape. [ Anda kruti ] Pug Marks indicates-----Age of Tiger B ] Faecal Sample -[ Mul , Vista] Carnivores- Scat Nilgai---All defecates at one point.1- 2 Feet height [ Jamun like] Makhar kahate. Chausinga—Makhar & Khudani Black buck- [ Krushna sar] Makhar Wild dogs---deficates & urinate at one place. In Q Spotted Deer—Like Sheep & Goats [ Lendi] Bison------------Cattle Samber---Smaller than Nilgai [ Lendi] Stampping ground 1oo feet area.[ Night halt] Bear------- Faecal sample- seeds [Falo ke big, chilate] Tiger----First scat—Semisolid After eating—Having hairs. Bone pieces Black in colour. Turned white after some time. Offensive odour. Eats Grass to clean Intestine.[ Atadi]
  • C ] Territory Markings D ] Kill Tiger Leopard 1 Eats from back. Genital organs 1 Eats all organs & Skin 2 Open Stomach, Take out all organs 2 Thoracic cavity- Digging of Organs. 3 Good Surgeon. Clean Tiger lives near kill 4 Impression of Canine teeth Depth & distance between bite indicates Predator. So you must keep a diary to note down all observations while moving in Forest.
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  • Evaluation Report Format Name of person------------ Post---- Date of visit----- Compartment no.--- General Health of Wild Life Very Good--------+ + + [Write 3 plus marks] Good- + + Weak- + Accordingly write down the general health of total wild herbivores in a flock. Write about the abnormalities observed if any. Name of Vegetables In The Compartment Grasses---- Fruit trees Trees Distance of water source Near the compartment Away from compartment Presence of Mineral Depot [ Salt Lick ] There are certain areas in the Forest where Minerals are present. Wild animals use to go to that place & licks soil or stones
  • Distance from Village Grazing alone in groups or with Domestic Herbivores Out break of any disease in near by villages If yes, immediately report to Higher authority & also inform to near by Govt. Veterinary Doctor. Names of Wild Carnivores present in the area
  • Names of Wild Carnivores present in the area Write down on all above points & submit your report to higher authority for necessary action. With the help of your report monitoring of wild life heath will be possible. Compartments where heath of wild life is weak, more attention is to be given. The conditions in the healthy area are in the record & are with you. Compare it on following points. 1] Availability of Grasses, Fruit trees in both areas. In healthy & in weak wild life area. Note down the difference between two areas. Take suitable measures accordingly. Introduce the new verity of trees & grasses in weak sector for better results. 2] Other factors like water holes, Common grazing of wild life & domestic animals & mineral depot must be consider on war footage. 3] make the weak wild life area like that of healthy area. This will definitely help in improving general health of wild life. 4] Collect faecal material from all the area. Get it examined. Collect only random samples & not of each wild life, The above measures will definitely improves the general health of wild life in all ranges. Dr. A.D.Kholkute BVSc & AH. R. No. 2266
    • Different Calls
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    • Wild Animal Looking Type of Call
    • Chital Human Once Kruk
    • Wild Carnivores Continuously
    • Kruk,[ Others
    • Accompany ]
    • Samber Human Bhyak
    • Carnivores Continuous
    • Bhyak
    • Monkeys Carnivores Khek Khek
    • Bison human Shuuuuuuu
    • Carnivores Shuuu shuuuuu
    • Shue-------
    • Chinkara Predator Bhyar Bhyar Bhyar
    • Nilgay Bhya Bhya Bhya
  • Classification
  • Domestic Counter Parts Of Wild Animals 1] Cattle---- Deer Family, Wild Bovines 2] Sheep & Goats— Black Buck, Wild Sheep & Goats 3 ]Horse--- Wild Ass, Zebra, Elephant. Tapirs, Rhinoceros. 4] Pigs-- Wild Boar, Hog 5 ]Dogs--- Foxes, Wolves, Hyaena 6] Poultry-- Pea Cock, Gini Fowls. All Birds except Ducks 7] Man---- Primates 8] Cat-- Tiger, Lion. Leopard, Wild Cat
  • Difference between Cervidae & Antelopes Deers [ Mrug Kul ]- Only Males are having antlers & are solid. Shedding of antlers every year. Presence of Canine teeth[ Shwa dant ] In upper jaw. Antilopes Horns are present. No shadding of horns Horns –Two layers ---Outer & Inner [ Solid ] Females may have horns. Annual ring on horns—every year Presence of lachrymal glands below eyes.
  • Information about Temp. Pulse Resp. Rate Name of animal Temp [F.] Pulse Resp. Per Mnt. Per mnt ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1] Elephant 97.50-99.00 30 4-6 2] Rhinoceros 98.60-102.20 70- 140 20-40 3]Bear 99.50-100.94 60-90 15-30 4] Horse 100.4-100.94 40-60 8-12 5] Cattle 100.94-102.20 40-60 12-16 6] Sheep 102.92-104 55- 75 20-30 7]Deer 101 80 18 8] Dog 100.94-102.02 80-100 15-25 9] Cat 99.50-103.82 40-50 10-15 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • Development of Antler Age- 6 months , Appearance of Bud or Pedicle on head region. Velvet cover over it. Complete growth takes 6 months. Removes the velvet by rubbing over smooth tree or branch of a tree.
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  • Age - 3 years
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  • Full grown Antlers after removing velvet – 3 years.
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  • UREA POISONING PANCHNAMA PM Changes Dr.A.D.Kholkute BVSC&AH Nagpur
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    • Common Fertilizer
    • Easily available
    • Available at subsidized rates to farmers
    Urea Poisoning
  • Urea Poisoning
    • Chemical Formula CH 4 N 2 O
    • Diamide of carbonic acid
    • White crystalline powder&odorless
    • Easily soluble in water
    • Liberates ammonia odor
  • Urea Poisoning
    • Poachers use urea to kill wild animals
    • Intake increases bld urea& ammonia level
    • Toxic dose-100gms in cattle -10-25gms in goats
    • Blood ammonia nitrogen level reaches 0.84mg-1.3mg%
    • Rumen content-780mg/100ml
  • Urea Poisoning-Symptoms
    • Ammonia gas &strong soln of ammonia act as CAUSTIC ALKALI
    • Severe colic
    • Staggering gait
    • Shivering
    • Forced rapid breathing
    • Marked jugular pulse
    • DEATH after violent struggling &bellowing
  • Urea Poisoning-PM finding
    • Mm of stomach&intestine-Hemorrhagic patches,oedema&ulceration
    • Liver-enlarged,pale&friable
    • Skin –petechiae(numerous)
    • Heart thymus &lungs-General passive hyperemia&petechiae in muscles
    • Kidney-cloudy swelling&necrotic foci
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  • Urea Poisoning-Diagnosis&Lab test
    • Examine stomach content
    • Ph of water-7.0&urea-7.2(I.e alkaline)
    • Ph paper test of ruminal fluid
    • Chemical Test - Heat 5ml water sample, NH 3 gas liberates & liquid turns turbid-allow it to cool. Add 10ml of water, 1ml 10%NaOH & 0.5ml CuSO 4 - Reddish violet colour develops
    • 1ml sample+1mlHNO 3 - WHITE CRYST.ppt
  • Urea Poisoning-Treatment
    • ½-1gallon 5%acetic acid(vinegar)
    • CNS Depressant-Ergotamines,Barbiturates
    • I/V Glucose or Cal borogluconate
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  • Panchanama Report & Examination of Carcass
    • Attend the site as early as possible
    • Isolate the area
    • Draw map of the area
    • Show directions i.e. East,West
    • Use hand gloves
    • Collect samples & doubtful material
    • Write down every finding on a paper
  • Examination Of Carcass
    • First examine the size of eyes
    • A] Pupil looks rounded, Change in colour of eyes, Diameter of eyes– 15-16mm
    • Time of death —30 min to 2 hours
    • B] Decrease in size of pupil, Diameter of eyes becomes—14-15mm
    • Time of death ------3 hrs
  • Examination Of Carcass
    • C] pupil becomes smaller in size- wrinkles on eyes, Diameter of eyes—11-12 mm
    • Time of death ----6 hrs
    • D] Colour of eyes becomes ash, Pupil looks much smaller, Diameter of eyes—6-7 mm
    • Time of death —11 hr
    • E] Eyes go deep in the orbit, Eyes bluish
    • Time of death —30 hrs.
  • Flies & Eggs
    • 1] Numerous flies & eggs on natural opening & on wound.----Just after death
    • 2] Maggots-----------------After 8-12 hrs.
    • 3] Pupae -----------------After 4 – 5 days.
    • 4] Complete fly------------After 5 days.
  • Post Mortem changes
    • 1] Colour of skin becomes greenish—12-18 hrs
    • 2] Skin colorless,green & blue colour spots on the body -36-48 hrs.
    • 3] Prolapse of uterus & anus -2-3 days.
    • 4] loss of hair, nails &teeth -3-6 days
    • 5] All organs turn blackish & soft -6-10days
    • 6] Muscles detached from bones- 6-10days
    • 7] Rupture of rumen & intestine - 6-10days
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  • Putali[ Pupil]
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  • Material Needed At Time Of Post Mortem A] Formalin----------------10% , 40% Common salt Glycerin Saline 50% Thermo cools Square & Round Ice Ethyl Alcohol Sprit B] Wide Mouth Bottles [ Pearl Pet] 250 gr. 500gr. 1 Kg, 2 Kg. [ 6 Each] Empty Air Tight Plastic Bags 1 to 2 Doz. Sharp Knife Scissor Forceps B.P. Handles & Blades Glass Slides Sprit Lamp Spatula Pipette Empty Injection Vials, 10 ml., 30 ml. 50ml. Absorbent Cotton Cloth for Packing Thread bundle & needles Hand gloves
    • C]
    • Metal seal of office
    • Resin steak [ Lakh]
    • Candles
    • Match box
    • Note book
    • Pencil
    • Stickers
    • Measuring tape
    • Sticking tape
    • Camera & colour role
    • Vernier calliper
  • QUANTITY OF VISCERA
    • 600-800 GRAMS
    • USE WIDE MOUTH PLASTIC BOTTLE ONLY
    • USE HAND GLOVES
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  • Bacterial Diseases Use Wide Mouth Bottles Only. 1 ] Liver, Spleen. Kidneys, Lymph Nodes, Lungs & Brain With out preservatives if distance is short. [ Only On ICE. ] 2] In Delay — 25% Glycerin Saline. Send Larger Pieces. Toxicological Purpose To Forensic Laboratory Use Wide Mouth Bottles Only. Only on ICE or DRY ICE Use Thermo Cool Boxes. Put Sample bottles & Put sufficient Ice around the bottles. Stomach with contents, Ileum & Colon tie their ends tightly. 0.5 Kg. Liver One or both Kidneys Adipose tissue. Contents of Urinary Bladder. Vomits, Hairs etc.
  • Guide- Lines For Submitting Samples In Out breaks & for Forensic Work USE HAND GLOVES WHILE COLLECTING SAMPLES 1] Viral Material Samples collected must be SEND ON ICE ONLY. Sterile 50% Glycerol Soln.[ 5-10 volume]is added in the WIDE MOUTH Sample bottle. Dispatch on Ice, Dry Ice or Ice Bags Heart Blood, Blood Serum & Cerebrospinal fluid is to be forwarded in Refrigerated Sterile Vials. Rabies- Entire Head in Water tight Metal container on Ice or Dry Ice. Brain- Divide Brain in two parts between Cerebral Hemispheres. One part-In undiluted Neutral. Other Hemisphere- 10% Formalin Small Dead Birds Immersed in 5 % Lysol Soln. Wrapped in Lysol soaked cheese cloth on Dry Ice.
  • Parasites 70% Ethyl alcohol Or 5% Formalin H.P.Work 0.5 cm. block in 10% Formalin 1 Part commercial Formaldehyde
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  • TRANQUILISATION
    • WHY ?
    • FOR VETERINARY WORK.
    • RESEARCH WORK
    • TRANSPORTATION
    • PROBLEMATIC CASES
    • OTHER WORK
  • ADVANTAGES
    • EASY TO HANDLE THE WILD ANIMAL
    • SAFE TO BOTH
    • MINIMUM CHANCE OF DANGER
    • CONDITION
    • LIMITED MAN POWER
    • MEDECINE DOSE –SMALL QUANTITY
  • ESSENTIAL INFRASTUCTURE
    • MAN POWER
    • TRANQUILISATION GUN
    • MEDECINE & ANTIDOTE
    • TRANSPORTATION CAGES
    • STRETURE, GUNNY BAGS & GRASS
    • GOOD VEHICLE
  • PRECAUTIONS PRIOR TO TRANQUILISATION
    • CHEK ALL NECESSARY INFRASTUCTURE
    • MEDICINE & ANTIDOTE
    • AVOID TRANQUILISATION NEAR WATER SOURCE , IN HOT ATMOSPHERE, IN NIGHT HOURS, LAME ANIMAL, PREGNANT ANIMAL, MOTHER WITH CUB, WILD ANIMAL ON TREE
    • SPECIAL TROOP TO CONTROL MOB
    • PRESENCE OF VETERINARIAN WITH ESSENTIAL LIFE SAVING MEDECINE & INSTRUMENT
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  • SELECTION OF MEDECINE
    • MINIMUM DOSE,MAX.CONCENTRATION & MAXIMUM EFFECT
    • HARMLESS
    • ANTIDOTE
    • HARMLESS TO HUMAN
  • C.N.S. DEPRESENT TERMINOLOGY
    • TRANQUILISER
    • CALMNESS REDUCE TENSION
    • LOSS OF AGGRESSION
    • FOR TRANSPORTATION
    • ANALGESIC
    • PAIN RELIEVER
    • SEDATION
    • MAKE THEM SLEEP, TO CALM CNS DEPRESSION
    • FEELINGS OF UNHAPPINESS, HOPELESSNESS
    • LOSS OF COORDINATION
    • HYPNOTICS
    • RELAXED OR DROWSY STATE
    • PRODUCING SLEEP
    • NARCOTICS
    • DROWSINESS, UNCONSCIOUSNESS
    • ADDICTIVE DRUG WHICH AFFECTS MOOD OR BEHAVIOUR
  • DISSOCIATIVE
    • Ex. -------------------- Ketamine
    • Phencyclidine
    • Animal remains conscious, Unable to walk. Eye lids remain open. Marked Salivation, Convulsions
    • Atropine can be use to decrease salivation
  • TRAN. MEDECINES
    • TRANQUILISER----- ACEPROMAZINE,VALLIUM, DIZEPAM, PROMAZINE, AZAPERONE
    • HYPNOTICS& SEDATIVES ----CHLORAL HYDRATE, BARBITURATES, MAG. SUPH.
    • NARCOTICS & ANALGESIC -------OPIUM,ETORPHINE,M-99, IMMOBILON INNOVER VET.
    • DISSOCIATIVE -------Ketamine
  • FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ACTION OF DRUG
    • INNOCULATION SITE
    • DRUG COMBINATION
    • KIND OF ANIMAL ----PROMAZINE NOT USED IN CARNIVORES, ETORPHINE HCL NOT USED IN FELIDAE
    • SEX & SEASON
    • WEIGHT OF ANIMAL
    • MENTAL STATE OF ANIMAL
    • FEEDING
    • HEALTH OF ANIMAL
  • SIGNS OF ANAESTHESIA
    • CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR
    • CLOSING OF EYELIDS
    • UNABLE TO Walk.
    • Salivation
    • Goes away from group
    • Fall down on ground
    • Numbness of tail
  • Precautions after immobilisation Note down Date & Time of Darting. Time taken for effect of Medicine Name of Veterinarian & staff
    • Shift the animal in a cage
    • Keep head in elevated position I.e. on a gunny bag filled with grass
    • Sternum recumbence position
    • Keep calmness, Avoid direct sun light
    • put cloth on eyes & on cage
    • Give antidote
  • Name of drugs
    • Tranquilizer —Acepromazine
    • Diazepam [ Valium]
    • Sedative- --- Chloral hydrate
    • Xylazine
    • Dissociatives- --Ketamine Hcl
    • Phencyclidine
    • Narcotics- ----- Etorphine, Morphine
    • H.B.M. Combination of sedative & Dissociatives
  • COMMON DRUGS & DOSES
    • DIAZEPAM-- 1—3.5 mg/ kg b.w.
    • ACEPROMAZINE MALE—1-2 mg/kg b.w.
    • XYLAZINE HCL-----1-2mg/kg b.w.
    • Anti dote------YOHIMBINE HCL- ANTAGOGIL
    • KETAMINE HCL—2-50mg/kg b.w. -to check salivation- ATROPIN SUL .-0.05ml/kg b.w.
  • HELLABRUNN MIX.-----H.B.M.
    • COMBINATION OF KETAMINE & XYLAL.
    • CONCENTRATION—1ml=100mg
    • DOSE—SUCCESFULY IMMOBILISED LEOPARD, TIGRESS,SPOTTED DEER
    • DR.A.D.KHOLKUTE,DR.S.V.UPADHE.DR.V.M.DHOOT & SHRI KISHOR MISHRIKOTKAR
    • LEOPARD—M,WT.-50 kg.—X-150mg+K- 100 mg.
    • On 15-10-2000
    • Leopard [80-90 Kg.] K-150mg+ xya.-150 mg
    • Date-27-11-2000
    • SPOTTED DEER—X-100mg+K-100mg
    • Leopards 4 in number----- X-125mg + K 125 mg
    • Date-27-09-2007
    • Tigress-----{ At Bor Sanctuary ] KCL-150mg + XCL-150mg
  • -DOSES
    • TIGRESS ADULT—X-250mg+K-200mg
    • SOME CASES OF IMMOB. IN CARN. SPECIES WITH H.B.M.—DR.B.M.ARORA
    • LEOPARD— 1.5ml
    • SLOTH BEAR-- 2-3.5ml
    • WOLF------------ 1-1.5ml
    • HYAENA-------- 1-1.5ml
    • CIVET CAT----- 0.25ml
  • DOSES
    • WILD HERBIVORES
    • CHITAL---- 3.5ml
    • BARSINGA- 4ml
    • SAMBER------ 6-7ml
    • BLACK BUCK---------2.75ml
  • Other essential drugs
    • ATROPIN SUL.--- CHECKS EXCESSIVE SALIVATION
    • HYALURONIDASE-- ENZYME PREP. FOR RAPID ABSORPTION
    • DEXAMETHY SULFOXIDE-INCREASES DRUG ABSOR.
    • VIT.E-------------------PROTECT MUSCLES FROM OXIDATIVE DAMAGE
    • DOXAPRAM HCL-----RES. STIMULANT
    • YOHIMBINE------------C.N.S. STIMULANT
    • ADRENALINE----------HEART STIMULANT
    • DEXAMETHASONE—ANTI INFLAMMAT. ANTI SHOCK,ANTI SHOCK
    • SOD. BI CARB.------ ADJUST BLOOD ACID BALANCE
    • BALANCED I/V FLUID—RINGERS LACTATED RINGER SOLN INCREASES RENAL PERFUSION TO COMBAT SHOCK
  • DARTING EQUIPMENT
    • BLOW PIPE---- 1-8 M PNEUMATIC BLOWPIPE MOD. 45- 20 m GAS PISTOL 35 N-------------- 40 M
    • Dist Inject
    • GAS RIFLE MODEL 50N-[Air Pressure]
    • Left Side- Bar [Air meter] Screw indicating – to +Sign
    • Rt. Side- Gas Chamber [Carbon di oxide gas cylinder], Safety lock.
    • Projecter 60 N
    • No air pressure . Colored cartridge are used.[ Cartridge holder is used for this purpose.]
    • MODEL 30 [SMALL CARTRIGE]----25 M
  • CARTRIDGE TYPE & DISTANCE
    • BLUE - [2012 ] ------------1-12 mtr.
    • Red-- [2014]--------------10-20
    • YELLOW [2013]-------------5-25
    • BROWN [2019]--------------20-25 WHITE [2015]---------------30-50 BLACK [Orange] [2017]----45-70
  • CANULA [ NEEDLES]
    • 1, SMOOTH
    • 2,BARB
    • 3, COLLAR
  • SELECTION OF CANULA
    • 16 mm---------SPOTTED DEER,MONKEY,
    • 19mm----------SAMBER,BLACK BUCK, LEOPARD,HYENA
    • 28mm---------SAMBER [M],BLUE BULL, TIGER, LION
    • 32-38mm-----GOUR, BEAR, ZEBRA
    • 45-51mm----------RHINO
    • 51-63------------ELEPHANT
  • AIR PRESSURE
    • 4-8 BAR-----20 mm
    • 5 BAR 10ml. DART
    • 8 BAR 20 ml.
    • 10ML. 30ml.-
  • Transportation cages
    • Types of cages
    • 1] Transportation Cage------ For Transportation Only
    • 2] Squeeze Cage---------------For Treatment
    • 3] Bait Cage--------------------For Capturing
    • Sizes Of Cages Of Cages
    • Transportation Cage –
    • L-8 Feet, W- 5&1/2 Feet, H.- 4&1/2
    • Feet
    • Squeeze Cage-----L – 8&1/2Feet, W-5&1/2 Feet, H.—4
    • Feet
    • Bait Cage--------- L- 8 Feet, W- 4 Feet, H – 4 Feet
  • Care to be taken prior to Reintroduction of Captured Wild Animal Complete information of the reintroducing area. Not too far from captured area. Sufficient Man power. Proper condition of transporting cage. Sufficient cloth to cover cage. Good vehicle. Silent atmosphere. Do not rescue in night hours. Do not rescue at hot time. Reintroduce only in the area where rescue wild life is present. Information about Prey & Predator ratio Early morning is proper time of rescue. . Wild animals take time to come out of the cage. So don’t compel them for early coming. Many a times animal comes out of the cage & use to observe the surrounding area. It may attach the person who opened the cage get. So proper care must be taken prior to rescue. Care at time of transport Go as early as possible. Avoid human contact. Do not waste time at Dhaba or hotel. Be in Govt. Uniform. Get the captured animal examined by a Veterinary Doctor [Graduate] before release.
    • POST MORTEM-FINDINGS
    • Electric Shock
    • Face-Pale, Eyes-Congested, Pupils-Dilated R.M. appearance early.
    • Entrance & Exit Marks greenish white circular spots are seen ate Entrance & Exit spot.
    • Lungs-congested & oedematous.
    • Brain-congested.
    • Peteachial Haemorrahages-under endocardium, Pericardium, Pleura, Drain & Spinal cord.
    • Necrosis of blood vessel walls.
    • Death due to paralysis of medulary centre.(Respl.)
    • Lightning Stock
    • Current 1000 million volts even more.
    • Blast like lesions.
    • Contusions, Laceration, Fracture, Rupture of organs.
    • R.M. soon & disappear quickly.
    • Hemorrhage brain
    • Patchily Hemorrhage-Pericardium &Lungs.
    • Contraction of Heart, Blood- thin or coagulate
    • Contact skin (part)-Blackish. Red Skin & Hairs-Burning
    • Snake Bite
      • Impression of two Teeth at site of bite.
      • Swelling & blooding from bite portion
      • Blood thin &Puree color.
    • Patchily Hemorrhage on vital organs
  • Starvation All organs-Reduced in size & weight except Brain. Skin-Inelastic, Pigmented. Fat-Absent subcutaneous Edema. Hairs-No shining Heart-Smaller in size & chambers are empty. Lungs-Pale, Collapsed. Bowel Contains-offensive odor & gases Liver-atrophied & show necrosis Wall of Intestine-Looks like tissue paper. Spleen-Shrunken. Kidney-Atrophy of Nehru. Urinary Bladder-Empty. Blood volume-Reduced, Anemia.
  • Organ phosphorus poisons-(Derived from phosphoric acid) [Malathion,Dimefox, alkali-phosphate tik 20]-Aryl-phosphate Signs of Asphyxia Cyanosis of lips, toes Blood stained froth from mouth & Nostrils (NOSE) Stomach contains-Kerosene smell Mucosa of stomach-Congested with patchily hemorrhages. Respiratory passage-congested having frothy hemorrhagic exudates. Lungs-Gross Congestion, excusive edema & sub pleural patchier. Internal organs-congested & poeticize. ENDRIN-Mouth & Stomach contents-Kerosene smell ZINK PHOSPHATE-Garlicky odor of stomach contents Blood cherry Red, fatty Degeneration -neuroses
  • Chart Showing Age of Puberty, Gastration Period
  • 15-20 Dec. 61-63 Days End of Rainy Season 3-4 Wolf 7. 10-15 T.O.Y. 63 Days T.O.Y. 3 Jackal 6. 20-22 Jan. to Feb. 60-62 Days Nov./Dec. 3 Wild Dogs 5. 20 Summer 84 Days Winter 4 Hyaena 4. 12-20 T.O.Y. 95-110 Days T.O.Y. 2-3 Leopard 3. 15-20 Feb. to May 104 Days After Rainy Season 3-4 Tiger 2. 25 years Jan. to March 6 Month End of April to August. Through out year 3-4 Common Hanuman Languor 1. Life Span in year Delivery Month Castration Period Mating Season Puberty Age (years) Name of Wild Animal S.no.
  • Life Span in year Delivery Month Castration Period Mating Season Puberty Age (years) Name of Wild Animal S.no. 20-30 Nov. to March 9 Month March to May 3-4 Bison 8. 20- March to May 9 Month After Rainy Season August/sept. 3-4 Wild-Buff 9. 12-15 Oct. to Feb. 165 April to May & T.O.Y. 2.5 Chinkara 10. 15 Oct. to Feb. 8-8.5 Summer 2-3 Four Horned Antelope 11. 12-15 Dec. On wards 165 Days Feb. to March 19-23 Month Black Buck 12. 20 Year ------------ 8-9 Month T.O.Y. 25 Month Blue Bull 13. 20 May to June 8 Month on Wards Nov. to Dec. 4 Years Samberg 14. 20-25 Sept. Onwards 210-215 Days Summer Winter Max. in May 4 Years Spotted Deer 15.
    • Diseases
    • Symptoms, Transition & P.M. charges resembles to the counter part species.
    • Bacterial Diseases
      • Tuberculosis
    • Monkeys &Dears are susceptible. Chronic &Contagious disease. Dry cough, Loss of weight, dull hair coat, Dispend, & Depression.
    • Diagnosis
    • Tuberculin test, sputum culture & occasionally from faecal culture.
    • Tuberculin Test
    • 0.1 ml. of tuberculin is injected intradermly in the middle of cervical region. (on neck area) Diffused o demotes swelling with not feeling-After 72 hours
    • In Primates
    • Thoracic ‘x’ ray
    • Tuberculin Test
    • By injecting 10000 units of old mammalian tuberculin (0.5-1ml) intradirmally in to the skin of each eyelid with Tuberculin syringe & needle.
  • Treatment- Streptomycin daily for first 2 moths, 15 mg/kg B.W. After wards Twice weekly for 10 months. Ionized tab.-Daily for first two moths. 5 mg/kg B.W. vat B 6 Necropsy Findings-Lesions are seen in Lungs Nodular lesions with pus. Organ affected-lungs, pleura, liver, peritoneum, kidney &spleen. Regional lymph node. Pasturellosis Acute & chronic form. Chervils & Bovines are affected Elephant & Rhinos are also susceptible. Symptoms-are rarely observed. In Deer-Nasal, oral discharge & prostration. Bison’s-Swelling over neck region. hot & painful. P.M. Findings-Hemorrhagic lungs & pleura & pericardium. Musculature of body is pink & edematous Lymph nodes are swollen & hemorrhagic. Patchily hemorrhage on Various tissues. Treatment-Streptomycin 10-15 mg per lb. b/w (2.2 lb=1kg) Evading 33.5% I/V 100.200 ml
  • 3. Lepton Spiro sis Deer, Antilopes, swamp deer, chinkara, and one tiger. Lepto, enter the body through m.m. of the eyes, nose, mouth or through abraded skin. Contaminated water & food by urine. Organism, localized in kidney, liver. Symptoms-Jaundice, Inter mitten fever abortion. Lab.Exa.-Microscopic exa. of sediment of urine. Send kidney & liver pieces in 10% Formalin for H.P. Treatment-Penicillin & Tetracycline for 7-10 days Anthrax-acute septic, disease. Hyper pyrexia . Soil born infection-Bleeding from natural orifices. Sudden death. Birds also spread diseases. Irradiated from- Spores are present in alimentary tract of birds. India-Rhinos in airing Asiatic Elephant Wild Herbivores Carnivores. NO.P.M. Lab.exa-Blood smears, ear piece should be sent to lab. Treatment-Crystalline penicillin 40.80 lakes crys4 - 40 lakes at 6 hour Interval Anti Anthrax serum 100-200 ml I/V
    • Viral Diseases
    • F.M.D.-
    • Natural hosts-cattle, yak, gaur, bison, mithun wild dogs, Deer, Antilopes, Camel, Elephant. sheep & goats
    • Strains-OAC Asia 1, sat 1, 2,3
    • In India-OAC Asia 1
    • Acute & highly contagious disease in wild herbivores.
    • Symptoms
    • Vesicles or Erosions in mucosa of mouth.
    • Rise in Temp.
    • Vesicles in cleft of hoof.
    • Salivation
    • Lameness.
    • Starvation
    • Unable to Drink
    • Treatment
    • Very difficult to treat wild herbivores in in-situ condition.
    • I came across an out break of F.M.D. at Navergaon National Park, Dist. Bhandara [M.S.]. 5-6 Bison’s died due to this disease. Though the mortality is less but I observed 6-8% Mortality.
    • History- There was out break of F.M.D. in near cattle. The area of out break was very near to National Park.
    • Local Cattle & wild herbivores use to graze together in Forest. So due to this disease spread in the Bosons, out break in cattle occurred in octs.2001. Out break in Bison was reported on 6-5-2002.
    • It was not possible to Tranquilise every Bison for treatment. So a thought came in my mind to treat the Bison’s on Artificial water holes.(Summer Season)
    • Line of Treatment-“Water hole Treatment”
    • First all artificial water holes were identified. Filled them with freash water
    • Added – Khuren, Homeopathy medicine 15 bottles in each water hole Twice daily
    • Pot, pargunate-3%
    • Cephalexin
    • Vimerol liquid
    • Area around 10-15 feet was first soaked with water by spraying water.
    • Sprayed Termeric powder on soaked area.
    • Above medication was done Twice daily
    • Very Good results were observed.
  • Rinder-Pest Highly Contagious viral disease. Symptoms-High fever, erosive steatites, gastro enteritis Diarrhea Disease spread from infected Domestic animals. Outbreak - Barasinga (Kanha 1967) Gaur, Nilgai, Samber, Spotted deer & Four horned antelopes P.M. Findings-Necrotic ulcers on buccal m.m.(brain like) Skin Irruption. Large Intestine-Zebra Marking Ileum -Necrosis & deep ulcers (payers patches) Upper Resp.tract - patchier Bladder & Vagina- ------!!-------. Samples for Lab. Work & Confirmation-Sample of spleen Blood, liver, Intestine In 50% Buffered glycerin- Saline or In plastic bages ON ICE. H.P.-Tissues in 10% Formalin
  • First Aid Kit 1]Tr. Iodine 2] Hydrogen Peroxide 3] Boric Powder 4]Pot. Permanganate 5]Detol 6] Sprit 7] Cotton Bundle 8] Gauge 9]Iodex 10] Anti Septic Tube 11] Tr. Iodine Spray 12] Analgesic Spray 13] Oil Turpentine 14] Betadin 1] Syringes---------10 ml., 20 ml., 50 ml. 2] I |V set 3] Scissors , Straight & Curved 4] Irrigater 5] B.P.Handle & Blades 6] Hand Gloves 7] Thermometer 8] Artery Forceps 9] Adhesive Tape
  • DENTITION 1.Tiger 2{ I- 3/3 C- 1/1 P- 3/2 M- 1/1 } = 30 2.Bovines/Cervids 2 { I- 0/4 C- 0/0 P- 3/3 M- 3/3 }= 32 3.Hyeana/Wolf 2 { I- 3/3 C- 1/1 P- 4/4 M- 2/3 }= 42
  • Workshop at Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradoon.
  • Workshop at Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradoon.
  • Save Nature, Save Wildlife!!