TRANSPORTATION OF WILD ANIMALS GUIDELINES & INFORMATION Transportation of wild animals is an extremely difficult and sensitive job. Thisactivity of transportation is generally carried out with surface transport by Air or by seamode. However, it is mostly carried out by road transport. The employees of the forest department are not familiar with this operation.Moreover wild animals seized by the forest department from circuses, which need to betransported to wild life orphanages, or some safe place is a job of extreme responsibility.Being new of this operation of transporting animals, there is a lot of confusion aboutselecting proper mode of transport. The following precautions need to be taken whiletransporting wild animals. 1) Plans of activity to be undertaken after the wild animals have been confiscated. 2) Details of action plan prior to transporting wild animals. 3) Precautions to be taken while transporting wild animals. 4) Precautions to be taken while handing over wild animals to Zoo Authorities or Animal Orphanage.1) Action to be taken after seize of wild animals:- After the seize of wild animals, it is necessary that they must be transported toplaces belonging to Forest Department. This place must be well away from any village ortown. There must be provision of electricity and water. Complete details regarding fodderor meat diet, time of feeding quantity of drinking water, cleaning of cages and enclosuresmust be obtained from the staff of circus. This member of staff must be kept at hand. Thecages and enclosures belong to the owner of the circus. To obtain this one must discussthe matter with the manager of the circus. He must be informed that the seize is beingmade on order of the Supreme Court.2) After having seized the wild animals, one should as far as possible, avoid undertakingthe transportation journey. Staff needs to be fully informed and trained before theyundertake the journey.3) All the seized wild animals must be examined by a Veterinary Doctor. Those animals,which are found to be sick must be treated and cured and only then, shifted to pre-arranged destination.
4) Animals belonging to a circus are addressed by names. These names must be askedwhen the animals are attended to. Precaution must be taken to protect wild animals fromnoise and other disturbing factors like curious spectators.5) One must plan to make the staff aware about wildlife and they must be made tointeract with, the animals till they are friendly with them.6) Most important factor is that the owner of the circus must be requested to prevent theuse of his staff and cages and after the completion of the transportation work, the staffand cages must be reached to the place desired by the owner.7) That we have seized the wild animals and not the cages must be told to the circus staffor it may create problems and as much the staff must be treated with respect. New cagesor enclosures will have to be prepared immediately.Guidelines to be followed prior to transportation wild animals :- Once the date of transportation has been fixed the staff or persons associated withthe operation must be informed about the date and approximate time of departure. Before undertaking the journey, it is essential to depute an advance party to studythe route in detail etc. 1) To know the addresses of Forest officer, Police Station, Veterinary hospitals, Zoo, rest houses, petrol pumps, availability of drinking water and important telephone numbers. Most important is availability of meat for wild animals. 2) Finalize places for halts. 3) While planning for halts, care must be taken that the places selected are away from towns or villages. A dhaba like place will be convenient for this purpose so that seized wild animal is not troubled or harassed. 4) While planning the route of transportation addresses of shops which undertake welding jobs and crane must be noted. It is advisable to take rest after having traveling over 300 kms & after 3-4 hoursrest the journey can be resumed. All the above mentioned facts are very important and it is therefore necessary forthe advance party to study the route carefully based on the points mentioned and dulyafter their return should the journey be undertaken.
Before booking trucks for the transportation job, the following precautions needto be taken.:- 1. Based on the number of wild animals, each truck will have to be loaded with only one cage. Based on this principle, trucks will have to be loaded. 2. The truck driver must have a valid driving license. Care must be taken to ensure that the cleaner does not drive the truck. There must be necessarily two drivers in a truck. 3. The truck drivers must carry valid Inter State Permits while passing through various states. 4. The driver must carry all papers relating to having paid all taxes. These must be checked.Pre-loading conditions for a truck :-1. Cranes must be used while loading the cages.2. Based on the number of truck, each truck will carry a Forest Guard, Forest Labour. Those accompanying the truck must be in uniform.3. Walkie Talkie sets must be given to forest department staff in each truck. All vehicles will be certified as “On Government Duty”.4. Each truck must carry a drum full of clean drinking water, long nylon rope, torch, 5 liter Phenyl, 5-liter capacity bucket, tarpaulin. There must be a half-tone truck accompanying the trucks. This half tone truck must carry one empty iron cage, a stretcher to carry tranquilized animals, a crow bar, a fine wire mesh, bundle of wire, drum to carry drinking water, tarpaulin etc.5. Trucks must be accompanied by Forest Department staff, a veterinary doctor. Other staff must be provided with a jeep. The distribution can be made as under :- a) Jeep no. 1: It will be occupied by the forest department official who has studied the entire route. He will be accompanied by two forest laborers who will also be used in getting meat. Staff from the circus will also be accommodated. These officials must be given a walkie-talkie, a torch etc. This jeep will lead the convoy. b) Jeep no. 2: This will accommodate Range Forest Officer, Forest laborers. Since cash will be required in the course of travel, the Range Forest Officer
must carry staff with him. This jeep will be in the middle of the convoy and will also carry walkie-talkie, torch, mobile phone. c) Jeep NO. 3: This jeep will carry veterinary staff and other staff. All medicines and equipment essential for a veterinary doctor must be madeavailable. One should not take it for granted and certain items may not be required. Theveterinary doctor must be accompanied by staff who has been trained in tranquilizing ofanimals so that there is no confusion. All wild animals must be thoroughly examined by the veterinary doctor and mustbe satisfied. Insurance must be sought while undertaking such a journey involving wildlife. Allanimals must be insured against the journey.Care of wild animals to be taken during journey :1. After loading the trucks with animal cages. The animals must be made to stay there for one or two hours. Meat and water could be given. Every meat eating animal consume about 8 ½ kg of meat, once or twice, drinking water must be provided. In the evening, a liter of milk is provided to all the animals in a circus. This must be given as per information available.2. Most important factor in undertaking such a project is the relationship amongst staff members. This has been a matter of concern on many occasions. These relations must be cordial.3. While traveling in Southern India, staff members having good knowledge of Tamil, Telgu, Kannad & Malayaley must be included.4. The entire project must be video taped. This can come handy for similar future projects.5. As per guidelines given by jeep no. 1, all halts must be planned only as per their advice.6. Complete travel plans must be available with higher officials so that communication link can be established.7. All wild animals must be checked after every hour or two.8. As per jeep no. 1, all vehicles will observe speed control, necessary for safety.
CLEANING OF CAGES & FEEDING PROGRAMME It is a very important factor during transportation of wild animals. Wild animalsshould not be feed during the journey. A fixed time is to be adjusted for this purpose. It is advisable to feed the animals once in a day at proper time. For this operationpersons in jeep no.1 must know route and places where beef will be easily available. Theproper time of feeding is between 9 to 10 am. In the morning hours all the cages needs to be clean with phenyl & all the beefleft in the cages must be taken off. After proper cleaning the floor of the cage must bedried. Three kg of turmeric powder should be spread inside the cage floor as antisepticmeasure. This is very important factor during the transportation of wild animalsespecially in carnivores. This all above operation takes about three to four hours time.After this the animals should not be disturbed and allow them to settle down. Feeding and watering programme should be taken after this. The circus staff withthe party are well accustomed to this work so their help and guidance must be taken asand when required. Do not immediately start the journey after the feeding. Wait at least for One toTwo hours before starting the journey. Stop the truck after each three to four hours for watering and observationpurpose. If a cub is present in the transportation do not keep it along with the mother injourney. Make a separate arrangement in supervision of a veterinarian. This is veryimportant matter. At halt allow the cub to suckle the mother with the help of circuspersonals. Take off the cub after complete feeding. Mother will feed a cub as well as shewill play with the cub and lick the cub.LIST OF ARTICLES1. The following articles are required while undertaking transportation of wild animals : a) Empty cage. b) Thick nylon rope, iron mesh and crowbar. c) A water drum with each vehicle. d) Bucket, mug. e) Tarpaulin.
f) Stretcher. g) Torch, walkie talkie, mobile phone. h) Phenyl – 5 liters. i) Other necessary items.2. Articles and medicines required to tranquilize wild animals. All these items are readily available at Indore, their address is as follows. Helpro Health, Products & Services, D-53, Shopping Complex, A.B. Road, Indore (M.P.) 452 003. Phone no. 0731-552614 (Tel-fax)3. List a. Blow pipe with standard equipments. b. Gas rifle model no. 50 with standard equipments (Range-70-M) c. Gas pistol, model 35 with standard equipments (Range-50M) d. Pneumatic blowpipe model 45 Delta Special with equipments.4. Medicines required for tranquilizing a. Ketamine 100 - 50 ml x 2 b. Xylazil 100 - 50 ml x 2 c. Antagozil SA - 20 ml x 10 All these items and medicines must be made available before undertakingjourney.6. Other necessary medicines and material :i) Ing Taxim or Ampiclox 1 gr x 5ii) Cifran Tab 500 mg 20 tabiii) Ing Avil 10 ml x 3iv) Ing Beplex Fort or Belamyl 30 ml.v) Ing. Atropin Sulphate 1 ml. x 30vi) Ing. Adrenaline 1 ml. X 30vii) Ing. Sod bi carb 50 ml. X 10
viii) Ing. Ranidine 20 ml. X 10ix) Ing. Pennorm 10 ml. X 2x) Susp. Normet 60 ml. X 6xi) Crocin syrup 60 ml. X 2xii) Dextrose 5% 500 ml. X 5xiii) I.V. Set 20g. 5xiv) Disposable Syringes 2 ml. 5 ml. 10 ml. 20 ml. 10 10 10 10xv) Sterelization Liquid 100 ml.xvi) Dexona 5 ml. X 5xvii) Normal saline 500 ml. (0.9%) x 5xviii) Spirit 100 ml.xix) Detol 100 ml.xx) Hydrogen Peroxide 100 ml.xxi) Tr. Iodine Spray 2xxii) Analgesic Spray 2xxiii) B.P. Handle no. 4 1 B.P. Blade no. 20 10xxiv) Cat gut 1 boxxxv) Betadine liquid 450 ml.xxvi) Cotton bundle 500 qr.xxvii) Bandage cloth 4” x 10xxviii) Scissor 1xxix) Lorexene Antisepti ointment 2xxx) Ing. Zobid 30 ml. X 5xxxi) Glucon D Powder 1 kg.xxxii) Alvitone 1 ltr.xxxiii) Arlery Forceps 9” x 1xxxiv) Stethescope 1xxxv) Thermometer 3xxxvi) Other medicines required for treatment of animals.Care to be taken about cubs of wild animals during transportation. It is observed that adult wild animals are more than often accompanies by theircubs, who are to be looked after by the veterinary doctor whose responsibility it is. Inorder to look after these cubs, the following precautions need to be taken.
1. Before undertaking journey, the young ones must be kept with their mother. Before loading of cages in the truck, they must be taken out with the help of the circus staff.2. Young ones must be placed in a big cardboard box with dry grass at the bottom and covered by a Turkish towel. There must one more Turkish towel placed on the cubs or young ones.3. These cubs or young ones should not be handled by unknown or inexperienced persons. Out of curiosity, we tend to handle them and it can prove dangerous.4. No officer or staff member should be permitted to carry these young ones to show to other staff members.5. After placing the cages in the truck and after the situation has become quite, the cub or young one should be allowed to stay with mother for some time before undertaking journey.6. This will infuse confidence in the mother and assure of her young ones close proximity. As such she will not create problems in the course of this journey.7. Before undertaking journey, the young one must taken out and put into the cardboard box carefully.8. During hot summer, if the temperatures are high, an air- conditioned vehicle is used, so that the young ones do not suffer. Cost of hiring vehicle is not as important as safety and urgency of doing this work.9. Do not keep the young ones with their mothers in the course of the journey, since the cages are constantly shaking and the wild animals are totally ignorant about problems of a journey and as a possibility of young one getting crushed under its weight. Moreover, the mother is unable to feed its young one while the truck is moving.10. After every 2-3 hours, the young one should be taken to its mother only after ascertaining here condition. In the beginning the young one must be shown to the mother from outside the cage and after ascertaining her reaction, the young one must be released with caution. Assistance of the circus staff must be taken for such work.11. Care must be undertaken to remove the young ones from its mother’s cage without fail before commencing journey.12. When the mother is being fed with meat, the young one should be released in the cage. The cub must be released in the cage only after one or two hours.13. You have to ensure whether the cub goes to its mother to feed or the mother draws the cub towards her to feed.
14. If in case, the mother’s milk is not available, cows milk or buffaloes milk can be given after mixing with water and proper heating and then cooling. A feeding bottle fitted with nipple thoroughly cleaned and disinfected should be filled with milk and the cub is to be fed. Care must be taken to provide correct quantity of milk after ascertaining the age, weight and growth of the cub by the veterinary doctor.15. After reaching destination, the wild animals must be first released in their cages or enclosures, so as to get acclimatized to their new homes. The young one must then be shown to its mother from outside and after ascertaining its behaviour the cub must be released in the mother’s enclosure.16. In the course of the journey, one packet of Glucon D alongwith vitamin drops of A, B, C, D, E and Crocin should be kept available at hand.Handing over wild animals to the Zoo.1. After reaching destination, the cages of wild animals should not be off loaded. They should be kept, as they are for an hour in quite and undisturbed environment.2. All health certificates of the wild animals checked by the Zoo Authorities must be obtained.3. Off-loading of cages must be carried out silently and carefully with the help of crane. After handing over the cages of wild animals, the higher officials of the Forestdepartment must be informed.Note: This article prepared based on the experience gained in the course of undertaking the 1800 km trip while transporting 12 Lions and one cub from Dhule to Tirupati.
Wildlife health management & duties of Forest Veterinarian Forest veterinarian plays a very important role in wildlife health management. Previously a very little importance was given to this field. Now lot of work isdone by veterinarians on wildlife health Management. The area of the forest is decreasing while pressure from human & grazingdomestic animals is in creasing. Due to heavy illicit, rapid urbanization & change in theclimatic conditions wild animals are under stress & thus affecting their health. Decrease in habitat is now leasing to in breading. For better wildlife health management Forest Department must appointVeterinarian & other staff on their establishment. They should not be on deputation for aperiod of 3 or 5 years. This directly reflects on daily routine work. Duties (Role) of Forest Veterinary Doctor in Wildlife health management areas under. 1) Treatment of wild animals & monitoring general health & wildlife. 2) Disease monitoring 3) Vaccination work 4) Tranquilisation of wild animals and transportation. 5) Post mortem examination 6) Laboratory work 7) Eco Development activity. 8) Training to field level staff.1) Treatment of wild animals Treatment of injured or ill animal is the primary duty of a Forest Veterinarian.This is not an easy job wild animals are very shy are always in stress condition. Treatment of wild animal differs from that of domestic animals. To control wildanimal is not a easy job. Many a times they have to be tranquilised. Monitoring the health of wild animals is also very important job. This is done byobserving the general health of wildlife, movements & reflexes. This is known as phenotypic observation Evaluation of general health of wildlifein every compartment & range must be done. This gives an idea about the healthy &weak wildlife. Providing the same facilities in weaker compartment or range can help inimproving wild life health.2) Disease Control & Vaccination Work
There are many diseases of domestic animals communicable to wild animals. It is observed that in some forests Domestic animals of wild herbivores graze together. There are every chances of spreading of communicable contagious diseasesamongst than. Information about any out break of disease in Forest villages 10 km. radius area isto be collected regularly. If there is any out break of disease than stop the grazing ofdomestic cattle in forest areas immediately. To avoid the spread of diseases regular vaccination of cattle in the forest villages& villages within 15 km radius must be carried out with the help of Animal HusbandryDepartment. Vaccination of cattle is mandatory under section 34 of the Wildlife(Protection) Act.3) Tranquilisation of Wild animals Tranquilisation of wildlife is done for following purpose. i) Veterinary purpose ii) Research Work iii) Transportation iv) Capturing Problematic wild animals v) Other related work. It is not easy to tranquilise wild animal in free range forest. This work must beunder taken in the preserve of veterinarian having good knowledge about the medicine,antidote & other essential life saving drugs. This is a team work & must be carried out in calm atmosphere. Transportation of wild animal is also important duty of Forest Veterinarian.4) Post Mortem examination This is the most important duty of a wildlife veterinarian. It gives as idea aboutthe cause of death in natural & un-natural deaths. Wildlife veterinarian must know theprocedure-of post mortem & submission of the samples for confirmation of cause ofdisease to concern diagnostic Centre and Forensic Laboratory. Submission of sample forD.N.A. Testing is also a duty of wildlife veterinarian. Many a time’s meat of wild animal is seized by forest deptt. Identification of meatis not easy. It has to be submitted to the Forensic Lab or C.C.M.B. Hydrabad.5) Laboratory Work
Regular examination of Faecal samples, scat of wild animals must be done. Itgives an idea about the health of wild animal. Faecal sample examination is done to knowthe worm infestation. In the carnivorous animals hairs are present in the scat. Examination of hair in tobe done. This gives an idea about liking of the wild carnivorous for the prey. For this their must be well equip pathology Laboratory.6) Eco Development activity Forest veterinarian, forest department & N.G.O. should jointing organize workshops & educational programmes in the forest & nearby villages. Wildlife veterinarian must visit the villages under his jurisdiction & shouldorganize camps for treatment of domestic cattle. The villages must be told not to graze their domestic animal in the forest area.Information about communicable diseases from domestic animals to wild counter partshould be given to them. Regular visit to the village will defiantly help in maintaining a good relationshipbetween villages & forest department. This will help to check poaching also.Training to Field Level Staff Wildlife health management is a new subject to NGO’s & forest department staff. So work shops and seminar on wildlife health organization must be organized bya forest veterinarian and forest department. WWF India is organizing such types ofseminar in Madhya Pradesh & Chchattisgarh state export from different field and alsofrom the Animal Husbandry Department should be invited to deliver lectures on differentwildlife health management topics. To achieve the good wildlife health management forest department must appointforest veterinary Doctor to District place, Wildlife Sanctuary, National Park & TigerProject. So establishment of veterinary cadre is a must. Forest veterinarian must be sentto attend the seminar on wildlife health management organized in India or abroad. This will defiantly help in prompt & effective wildlife health management.
Examination of live wild animal for Medico legal purposesWild animals are generally brought to Veterinary dispensary for physicalexamination & treatment by the forest department in following conditions.1] Injury of any kind,2] Accident,3] Ill ness4] For medico legal purpose.General InstructionsFirst allow the animal to settle down & then examine the animal.Read the letter carefully.Write down your findings as under.Date of examination TimeKind of wild animal Sex AgeName of AuthorityNow examine the wild animal carefully & write down your findings.In maximum times injured & accidental cases are brought to Veterinarydispensaries for medico legal examination.In case of InjuryMention the type of injury as under, • Abrasions • Lacerations • Incise • Stab • Fire arm • Fracture or Dislocation • Bruises[ Contusions]Abrasions Only superficial skin is destructed, slight bleeding. Such types of woundsheal fast.Cause of such wound may be forceful blow or forceful pressing over solid object.Age of Abrasions
• Fresh [Bright red in colour] 12 to 24 hours • Bright scab 2 to 3 days • Healing of injury 4 to 7 days • Drying of scab 7 days onwardsBruises [contusions] • Painful swelling over affected area damaging sub cutaneous tissues, Rupture of blood vessels. • Cause--- Forceful blow by solid blunt object.Colour of Contusions • Red Fresh • Blue up to 3 days • Bluish black 4 th day • Greenish 5 to 6 days • Yellow 7 to 12 days • Normal 14 days onwardsLaceration Tear rupture involving skin, muscles & internal organs.Incised Discontinuity of skin & muscles .Longer than depth.Cause Injury due to sharp objects. Approximate time • Fresh Haematoma formation 12 hours • Scab dried clot 24 hoursScab formation 1 to 2 daysStab [Punctured wound] • Deeper than length & skin width. Entry of wound is larger. • Cause—Sharp objectsFire arms Injuries due to fire arms are not so common in wild life. But injuries due to fire balls or gun powder & floor balls are very common specially in wild bores.. Fire arm injury is having entry & exit injury, presence of bullet & gun powder stains on the skin.
Dislocation & FracturesThis usually occurs while trapping a wild animal by local methods.So carefully examine the type of fracture & give treatment accordingly.These are some important guide lines on physical examination of wild life.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------