• Biological System, Supports Life
• Includes both living & non living environment
• Biotic & Abiotic
• Elastic can tolerate breaking of chains to some extent.
• Biotic diversity
• Tropic structure Nutritional level
• Plants-manufacture own food [Autotrophs]
• Autotrophs-Light, water, carbon di oxide, Minerals
&organic substances for synthesis of food.
• Organic substances-In soil [Death & decomposition
Also from excreta of living individuals]
Animals-plant-food [Directly or Indirectly]
1. Neutral Eco.—Virgin Forest
2. Subsidised-[Production Eco.]
Cultivated Land, Industrial &
ODUM divided ecosystem in two components.
1. Autotropic—Green plants which fix solar
energy & synthesizes their food.
2. Heterotropic—Depends on others.[Pray]
Ecosystem ---- Four Major Components.
1. Abiotic—Nonliving [Gases, Minerals, Inorganic
2. Producer—Green plants
4. Decomposers—Micro organisms. [helps producer]
Simple food chain----At least three links.
Basic source of energy is Sun.
Transfer of food energy through a series of repeated
Only plants can trap energy & carbon di oxide for production
Autotropic plants are primary producer.
Primary producer---Primary consumers [Herbivores]—
Number of food chain is restricted to 4 or 5 & large amount of
energy is lost at each level.
1. Shorter the chain more will be Biomass.
All the feeding relationships at various & in species constitute
a complicated network of food chains, which is called Food
Various types of Food chain
• Predator—Herbivores-------Consumers. Size of
predator increases at each level.. of food chain.
• Parasitic—Begins with herbivores. Food energy
passes from longer to smaller organism.
• Saprophytic---Energy source is dead organic
matter derived from decay of plants & animals
The ecological pyramids –Base, Body & Apex.
Three types of Ecological pyramids
• Pyramids of numbers
Pyramids Of Number
Base— Primary tropic layer
Followed by another tropic layer
Apex represents decreased in number
Plants ---larger base
Apex --- Short
Inverted in Parasitic food chain
Growing stage, loss of energy 10% loss at every step.
Energy available at base is more.
Base is producer & apex is Consumer.
Total energy produced by photosynthesis is “Gross
Energy remains after respiration is “Net Primary
Biosphere--- Ecosystem present on the earth.
Hydrosphere—Ocean, Lakes, Rivers
Lithosphere-----Solid & Rocky components
Soil & Minerals
Atmosphere------Gases enveloped around
hydro & lithosphere
Nitrogen, Oxygen &
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BIODIV , WILD LIFE & ENVIEcology
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