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  1. 1. Ecology • Biological System, Supports Life • Includes both living & non living environment • Biotic & Abiotic • Elastic can tolerate breaking of chains to some extent. • Biotic diversity • Tropic structure Nutritional level • Plants-manufacture own food [Autotrophs] • Autotrophs-Light, water, carbon di oxide, Minerals &organic substances for synthesis of food. • Organic substances-In soil [Death & decomposition Also from excreta of living individuals] Animals-plant-food [Directly or Indirectly] Classification 1. Neutral Eco.—Virgin Forest 2. Subsidised-[Production Eco.] Cultivated Land, Industrial & other areas
  2. 2. ODUM divided ecosystem in two components. 1. Autotropic—Green plants which fix solar energy & synthesizes their food. 2. Heterotropic—Depends on others.[Pray] Ecosystem ---- Four Major Components. 1. Abiotic—Nonliving [Gases, Minerals, Inorganic compounds] Biotic--Living 2. Producer—Green plants 3. Consumers—Heterotropic 4. Decomposers—Micro organisms. [helps producer] Food Chains Simple food chain----At least three links. Plant------Herbivores------Carnivores. Basic source of energy is Sun. Transfer of food energy through a series of repeated consumption. Only plants can trap energy & carbon di oxide for production of food. Autotropic plants are primary producer. Primary producer---Primary consumers [Herbivores]— Tertiary consumers. Number of food chain is restricted to 4 or 5 & large amount of energy is lost at each level. 1. Shorter the chain more will be Biomass.
  3. 3. All the feeding relationships at various & in species constitute a complicated network of food chains, which is called Food web. Various types of Food chain • Predator—Herbivores-------Consumers. Size of predator increases at each level.. of food chain. • Parasitic—Begins with herbivores. Food energy passes from longer to smaller organism. • Saprophytic---Energy source is dead organic matter derived from decay of plants & animals Ecological Pyramids The ecological pyramids –Base, Body & Apex. Three types of Ecological pyramids • Pyramids of numbers • Biomass • Energy Pyramids Of Number Base— Primary tropic layer Followed by another tropic layer Apex represents decreased in number Biomass Plants ---larger base Apex --- Short
  4. 4. Inverted in Parasitic food chain Energy Growing stage, loss of energy 10% loss at every step. Energy available at base is more. Base is producer & apex is Consumer. Total energy produced by photosynthesis is “Gross Primary Production” Energy remains after respiration is “Net Primary Production.” Biosphere--- Ecosystem present on the earth. Hydrosphere—Ocean, Lakes, Rivers Lithosphere-----Solid & Rocky components Soil & Minerals Atmosphere------Gases enveloped around hydro & lithosphere Nitrogen, Oxygen & Carbon dioxide
  5. 5. Filename: Ecology.doc Directory: G:Work DoneCopy of Envi. & PresentationECOLOGY, BIODIV , WILD LIFE & ENVIEcology Template: C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorApplication Title: Ecology Subject: Author: abc Keywords: Comments: Creation Date: 2/2/2009 4:41 PM Change Number: 2 Last Saved On: 2/2/2009 4:41 PM Last Saved By: abc Total Editing Time: 9 Minutes Last Printed On: 6/16/2009 5:19 PM As of Last Complete Printing Number of Pages: 5 Number of Words: 408 (approx.) Number of Characters: 2,367 (approx.)