Lecture 6 transport circulation_part 2

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  • 1. Lymphatic System• lymphatic organs: red bone marrow, thymus gland, tonsils, spleen, lymph vessels, and lymph nodes• lymphatic capillaries take up and return excess fluid to the bloodstream• lacteals receive lipoproteins and transport them to the bloodstream• helps defend body against disease
  • 2. Lymphatic System
  • 3. Lymphatic SystemSpleen • Found in all vertebrates • Mechanical filtration of red blood cells to remove old red blood cells • Active immune response through humoral and cell- mediated pathways
  • 4. Lymphatic SystemThymus • Also an organ of the immune system • Active immune response through humoral and cell- mediated pathways • Develops T-lymphocytes from hematopoietic progenitor cells • Thymus begins to atrophy during early teens as its stroma begins to get filled with adipose tissues
  • 5. Lymphatic SystemAppendix • Blind-ended tube connecting to the caecum • Vestigial organ in humans • Shrunken remnant of the part of the caecum
  • 6. Lymphatic SystemAppendix • found in the digestive tracts of many extant herbivores • house mutualistic bacteria which help animals digest the cellulose molecules that are found in plants
  • 7. Lymphatic SystemAppendix • may harbour and protect bacteria that are beneficial in the function of the human colon • Appendicitis – inflammation of the appendix
  • 8. Villi of small intestine, showing blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
  • 9. Immune System
  • 10. Recall: BLOODFormed elements (45 %) – produced by bone marrow
  • 11. First Line of Defense– in humans, secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands give the skin a pH ranging from 3 to 5, which is acidic enough to prevent colonization by many microbes– microbial colonization is also inhibited by the washing action of saliva, tears, and mucous secretions– these secretions contain antimicrobial proteins. • Lysozyme - digests the cell walls of many bacteria
  • 12. Second Line of Defense• microbes that penetrate the first line of defense face the second line of defense, which depends mainly on phagocytosis• phagocytic cells called neutrophils constitute about 60%-70% of all white blood cells• monocytes, about 5% of leukocytes, provide an even more effective phagocytic defense Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 13. Second Line of Defensemacrophage – develop from monocytes (5% of white blood cells) – attack foreign microbes by phagocytosis – major component of the vertebrate lymphatic system
  • 14. Second Line of Defense• eosinophils (1.5% of all leukocytes) - for defense against large parasitic invaders, such as the blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni – position themselves against the external wall of a parasite and discharge destructive enzymes from cytoplasmic granules
  • 15. Schistosoma mansoni
  • 16. Second Line of Defense• Natural killer (NK) cells do not attack microorganisms directly but destroy virus-infected body cells – also attack abnormal body cells that could become cancerous – mount an attack on the cell’s membrane, causing the cell to lyse
  • 17. Second Line of Defense• some microbes have evolved mechanisms for evading phagocytic destruction – outer capsules – Mycobacterium tuberculosis are readily engulfed but are resistant to lysosomal destruction and can even reproduce inside a macrophage
  • 18. Second Line of Defense• damage to tissue by physical injury or entry of microorganisms triggers a localized inflammatory response
  • 19. Second Line of Defense– histamine is released by basophils and mast cells in connective tissue– leukocytes and damaged tissue cells also discharge prostaglandins and other substances that promote blood flow to the site of injury
  • 20. Second Line of Defense• chemokines secreted by blood vessel endothelial cells and monocytes, attract phagocytes to the area – a group of about 50 different proteins – bind to receptors on many types of leukocytes – induce the production of toxic forms of oxygen in phagocyte lysosomes and the release of histamine from basophils
  • 21. Second Line of Defense– fever, another systemic response to infection, can be triggered by toxins from pathogens or by pyrogens released by certain leukocytes– resets the body’s thermostat– higher temperature contributes to defense by inhibiting growth of some microbes, facilitating phagocytosis, and speeding up repair of tissues
  • 22. Second Line of Defense– other antimicrobial agents include about 20 serum proteins, known collectively as the complement system. • carry out a cascade of steps that lead to lysis of microbes • some complement components work with chemokines to attract phagocytic cells to sites of infection
  • 23. Second Line of Defense• interferons, - proteins secreted by virus-infected cells – diffuse to neighboring cells and induce them to produce other chemicals that inhibit viral reproduction – limits cell-to-cell spread of viruses
  • 24. Third Line of Defense• Lymphocytes are the key cells of the immune system• two main types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells)
  • 25. Third Line of Defense• a foreign molecule that elicits a specific response by lymphocytes is called an antigen• Antigens react to specific antibodies that are either attached to lymphocytes or are secreted
  • 26. • Antibodies constitute a group of globular serum proteins called immunoglobins (Igs) – a typical antibody molecule has two identical antigen- binding sites specific for the epitope that provokes its production
  • 27. – an antibody interacts with a small, accessible portion of the antigen called an epitope or antigenic determinant
  • 28. • antigen receptors on a B cell are transmembrane versions of antibodies and are often referred to as membrane antibodies (or membrane immunoglobins)• antigen receptors on a T cell, called T cell receptors, are structurally related to membrane antibodies but are never produced in a secreted form
  • 29. • there is an enormous variety of B and T cells in the body, each bearing antigen receptors of particular specificity• this allows the immune system to respond to millions of antigens, and thus millions of potential pathogens
  • 30. • although a microorganism encounters a large repertoire of B cells and T cells, it interacts only with lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for its various antigenic molecules
  • 31. • the “selection” of a lymphocyte by one of the microbe’s antigens activates the lymphocyte• stimulated to divide and differentiate• produce two clones of cells – effector cells – memory cells• clonal selection
  • 32. • the selective proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes that occur the first time the body is exposed to an antigen is the primary immune response – selected B cells and T cells generate antibody-producing effector B cells, called plasma cells, and effector T cells, respectively
  • 33. • a second exposure to the same antigen at some later time elicits the secondary immune response – faster (only 2 to 7 days), of greater magnitude, and more prolonged – antibodies produced tend to have greater affinity for the antigen than those secreted in the primary response Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 34. • While B cells and T cells are maturing in the bone marrow and thymus, their antigen receptors are tested for potential self-reactivity – capacity to distinguish self from nonself continues to develop as the cells migrate to lymphatic organs – autoimmune diseases • Caused when the immune system mistakes its own cells as pathogens and attack them
  • 35. • T cells interact with one important group of native molecules – collections of cell surface glycoproteins encoded by a family of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
  • 36. – Two main classes of MHC molecules mark body cells as self: • Class I MHC molecules, found on almost all nucleated cells • Class II MHC molecules, restricted to macrophages, B cells, activated T cells, and those inside the thymus
  • 37. • two main types of T cells, each responds to one class of MHC molecule: – Cytotoxic T cells (TC) have antigen receptors that bind to protein fragments displayed by the body’s class I MHC molecules – Helper T cells (TH) have receptors that bind to peptides displayed by the body’s class II MHC molecules
  • 38. (APC)– Cytotoxic T cells respond by killing the infected cells– helper T cells send out chemical signals that incite other- cell types to fight the pathogen
  • 39. Helper T-cell Signal Pathway
  • 40. • If the cell contains a replicating virus, class I MHC molecules expose foreign proteins that are synthesized in infected or abnormal cells to cytotoxic T cells – this interaction is greatly enhanced by a T surface protein CD8 which helps keep the cells together while the TC cell is activated
  • 41. Complement System
  • 42. Five Classes of Immunoglobulins • first to be produced after initial exposure to antigen • promotes neutralization and cross-linking of antigens • very effective in complement system
  • 43. Five Classes of Immunoglobulins • most abundant Ig in blood • present in tissue fluids • promotes opsonization, neutralization and cross- linking of antigens • only Ig that crosses placenta
  • 44. Five Classes of Immunoglobulins • present in tears, saliva, mucus, and breast milk • provides localized defense of mucous membranes by neutralization and cross- linking of antigens
  • 45. Five Classes of Immunoglobulins • present on surface of B cells that have not been exposed to antigens • acts as antigen receptor in the antigen-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of B cells
  • 46. Five Classes of Immunoglobulins • present in blood at low concentrations • triggers release from mast cells and basophils of histamine and other chemicals that cause allergic reactions
  • 47. 52 Blood Transfusions
  • 48. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis fetalis)
  • 49. Summary of Immune Response