Biology 11 (Fundamentals of Biology I)     ANIMALS: Form and FunctionLecturer: Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, Ph.D.     Pav. ...
ANIMALS : Form and FunctionA. Animal Cell Types and TissuesB. Animal Systems and Processes    1. Support and Protection   ...
ANIMALS : Form and Function• Anatomy - the study of the biological form of an  organism• Physiology - the study of the bio...
•    Life is    characterized by    hierarchical    levels of    organization,    each with    emergent    properties.
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity1. Protoplasmic grade of organization2. Cellular grade of organization3. Ce...
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity1. Protoplasmic grade of organization  –      unicellular organisms  –     ...
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity2. Cellular grade of organization  –      aggregation of cells that are fun...
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity3. Cell-tissue grade of organization  –      aggregation of similar cells i...
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity4. Tissue-organ grade of organization  –       an aggregation of tissues in...
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity5. Organ-system grade of organization  –      organs work together to perfo...
Structural Organization in Higher FormsStructural   Types/Kinds/Examples           Field ofUnit                           ...
Structural Organization in Higher FormsStructural    Types/Kinds/Examples               Field ofUnit                      ...
Animal Cell Types
Four main categories of animal tissues1. Epithelial Tissue2. Connective Tissue3. Muscular Tissue4. Nervous Tissue
1. Epithelial Tissue   •       covers the outside of the body and lines organs       and cavities within the body   •     ...
1. Epithelial Tissue•    the free surface of the epithelium is exposed to air or    fluid•    structures on free surfaces:...
1. Epithelial Tissue–     cells are closely joined–     animals have 3 main types of intercellular links:1.    tight junct...
1. Tight Junction             Tight junction                                             0.5 µm •     membranes of adjacen...
2. Desmosomes•    fasten cells together into    strong sheets, much like    rivets•    reinforced by intermediate    filam...
3. Gap Junction                 Gap junction                                      0.1 µm •     provide cytoplasmic channel...
1. Epithelial TissueTypes according to layering: 1. simple epithelium   - Made up of a single   layer of cells 2. stratifi...
1. Epithelial TissueTypes of epithelial cells according to shape:1. Cuboidal – like dice2. Squamous – flat like tiles3. Co...
Simple squamous epithelium      •          composed of flattened cells      •          form a continuous delicate lining o...
Stratified squamous epithelium                               •                                   consists of 2 to many    ...
Simple cuboidal epithelium      •          short, boxlike cells          collecting duct in kidney      •          usually...
Simple columnar epithelium                                         roof of mouth of toad•    like cuboidal epithelium but ...
Stratified columnar epithelium                                       salivary duct •     consists of at least two layers o...
Transitional epithelium                          •                              a type of stratified epithelium           ...
Glandular epithelia, absorb or secrete chemicalsolutions     Types based on how products are released:      a. exocrine (u...
Special terms of some epithelial tissues:      a. mesothelium – squamous cells lining serous         cavities such as peri...
2. Connective Tissue   •       mechanical support   •       bind structures to preserve integrity of organization   •     ...
2. Connective Tissue   •       paucity of cells; more intercellular substance       (fibers and ground substance)   •     ...
2. Connective Tissue   •       amorphous ground substance       - glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate       - p...
2. Connective TissueTypes of cells:    A. fixed       - fibroblast/fibrocyte       - mesenchymal       - adipose       - f...
Three kinds of connective tissue fibers:   •       Collagenous fibers (white)       –           made of collagen       –  ...
37     Diagram of Fibrous Connective                 Tissue
Major types of connective tissues in vertebrates
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesA. Fibrous connective tissue  –      dense due to its large      number of...
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesB. Loose connective tissue     –         binds epithelia to underlying tis...
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesC. Adipose tissue  –      specialized form of loose      connective tissue...
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesD. Cartilage  –      has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in   ...
1. Hyaline cartilage  –      bluish white, translucent, and homogenous  –      has significant proportion of collagen fibe...
2. Elastic cartilage   –       contains fine collagenous fibers and many elastic       fibers   –       external ears, eus...
3. Fibrocartilage  –      contains many large collagenous fibers  –      intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, disks of k...
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesE. Bone    –         the skeleton supporting most vertebrates    –        ...
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesE. Bone    – Osteoblasts are cells that deposit a matrix of      collagen ...
Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesF. Blood    –         Made of:1. Plasma (55%)                  –          ...
BloodPlasma (55 %) 1.    water (90% of plasma) 3. gases (O2, CO2, N) 2.    dissolved solids      a. proteins       –.     ...
BloodFormed elements (45 %) – produced by bone marrow
Types of White Blood CellsType             %       Nucleus                      Cytoplasmic           Other               ...
Types of White Blood CellsType              %       Nucleus                    Cytoplasmic         Other                  ...
3. Muscle Tissue   •       composed of long cells called muscle fibers that       are capable of contracting when stimulat...
Types of muscles tissue
Types of muscles tissue 1. skeletal muscle  •    has cylindrical and striated cells with multiple nuclei    (syncitial)  •...
Types of muscles tissue 2. smooth muscle  •      spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus  •      cells have no st...
Types of muscles tissue 3. cardiac muscle  •      has cylindrical but branching striated cells, each with a      single nu...
4. Nervous Tissue   •       irritability and conductivity; senses stimuli and       transmits signals from one part of the...
4. Nervous TissueNeurons consists of a cell•body, dendrites and axons    •     Dendrite – transmits nerve    impulses from...
4. Nervous TissueTypes of neurons: •   sensory (afferent) •   motor (efferent) •   interneuron
Animal Body PlansSymmetry  –      refers to balanced proportions  –      correspondence in size and shape of parts on     ...
Spherical Symmetry   •                         any plane passing through                         the center divides a body...
Radial Symmetry   •                      body can be divided into                      similar halves by more than        ...
Biradial Symmetry   •                        only two planes passing                        through the longitudinal axis ...
Bilateral Symmetry   •                         body can be divided along a                         sagittal plane into mir...
Segmentation               •                   metamerism               •                   serial repetition of          ...
Lecture 1 animal cell types and tissues
Lecture 1 animal cell types and tissues
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Lecture 1 animal cell types and tissues

  1. 1. Biology 11 (Fundamentals of Biology I) ANIMALS: Form and FunctionLecturer: Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla, Ph.D. Pav. IV, Room 4113Main References: (1) Biology by Campbell and Reece (2) Integrated Principles of Zoology by Hickman et al.
  2. 2. ANIMALS : Form and FunctionA. Animal Cell Types and TissuesB. Animal Systems and Processes 1. Support and Protection 2. Movement 3. Digestion and Nutrition 4. Gas Exchange 5. Transport/Circulation 6. Excretion and Osmoregulation 7. Regulatory Mechanisms
  3. 3. ANIMALS : Form and Function• Anatomy - the study of the biological form of an organism• Physiology - the study of the biological functions an organism performs• The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated
  4. 4. • Life is characterized by hierarchical levels of organization, each with emergent properties.
  5. 5. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity1. Protoplasmic grade of organization2. Cellular grade of organization3. Cell-tissue grade of organization4. Tissue-organ grade of organization5. Organ-system grade of organization
  6. 6. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity1. Protoplasmic grade of organization – unicellular organisms – all life functions are confined within the boundaries of a single cell – protoplasm is differentiated into organelles Paramecium
  7. 7. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity2. Cellular grade of organization – aggregation of cells that are functionally differentiated – a division of labor is evident Volvox
  8. 8. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity3. Cell-tissue grade of organization – aggregation of similar cells into definite patterns of layers, thus becoming a tissue
  9. 9. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity4. Tissue-organ grade of organization – an aggregation of tissues into organs Planaria
  10. 10. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity5. Organ-system grade of organization – organs work together to perform some function – systems are associated with basic body functions
  11. 11. Structural Organization in Higher FormsStructural Types/Kinds/Examples Field ofUnit StudyOrgan Integumentary Respiratory AnatomySystem Muscular Reproductive Skeletal Digestive Nervous Endocrine Circulatory Immune ExcretoryOrgan oral cavity brain Anatomy pharynx eye esophagus liver stomach kidney pancreas lung intestines anus
  12. 12. Structural Organization in Higher FormsStructural Types/Kinds/Examples Field ofUnit StudyTissue A.Somatic B. Reproductive Histology - epithelial - sperm - connective - egg/oocyte - muscular - nervousCell same as in tissue Cytology/Cel l Biology
  13. 13. Animal Cell Types
  14. 14. Four main categories of animal tissues1. Epithelial Tissue2. Connective Tissue3. Muscular Tissue4. Nervous Tissue
  15. 15. 1. Epithelial Tissue • covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body • compact; occurs in sheets of tightly packed cells • little intercellular substance • polarized
  16. 16. 1. Epithelial Tissue• the free surface of the epithelium is exposed to air or fluid• structures on free surfaces: microvilli, cilia, flagella• Basement membrane• where the cells at the base of the barrier are attached• also called basal lamina
  17. 17. 1. Epithelial Tissue– cells are closely joined– animals have 3 main types of intercellular links:1. tight junctions2. desmosomes3. gap junctions
  18. 18. 1. Tight Junction Tight junction 0.5 µm • membranes of adjacent cells are fused, forming continuous belts around cells • prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells
  19. 19. 2. Desmosomes• fasten cells together into strong sheets, much like rivets• reinforced by intermediate filaments of keratin• attach muscle cells to each other in a muscle Desmosome 1 µm
  20. 20. 3. Gap Junction Gap junction 0.1 µm • provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells • salt ions, sugar, amino acids, and other small molecules can pass through channels
  21. 21. 1. Epithelial TissueTypes according to layering: 1. simple epithelium - Made up of a single layer of cells 2. stratified epithelium - Made up of many layers of cells 3. pseudostratified epithelium - Made up of a single layer of cells but appears stratified
  22. 22. 1. Epithelial TissueTypes of epithelial cells according to shape:1. Cuboidal – like dice2. Squamous – flat like tiles3. Columnar – like bricks on end
  23. 23. Simple squamous epithelium • composed of flattened cells • form a continuous delicate lining of blood capillaries, lungs, and other surfaces • permits the passive diffusion of gases and tissue fluids into and out of cavities
  24. 24. Stratified squamous epithelium • consists of 2 to many layers of cells • adapted to withstand mild mechanical abrasion • basal layers of cells undergo continuous mitotic divisions • lines the oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, vagina of mammals, skin
  25. 25. Simple cuboidal epithelium • short, boxlike cells collecting duct in kidney • usually lines small ducts and tubules • may have active secretory and absorptive functions
  26. 26. Simple columnar epithelium roof of mouth of toad• like cuboidal epithelium but cells are taller• found on highly absorptive surfaces such as intestinal tract and female reproductive tract• in some organs, cells may be ciliated
  27. 27. Stratified columnar epithelium salivary duct • consists of at least two layers of cells • found along some areas of the anorectal region and salivary duct
  28. 28. Transitional epithelium • a type of stratified epithelium • specialized to accommodate great stretching • found in the urinary tract and bladder
  29. 29. Glandular epithelia, absorb or secrete chemicalsolutions Types based on how products are released: a. exocrine (unicellular or multicellular) b. endocrine c. mixed (e.g., pancreas)
  30. 30. Special terms of some epithelial tissues: a. mesothelium – squamous cells lining serous cavities such as peritoneal and pleural cavities and lining of visceral organs b. endothelium – lining of blood and lymph vessels
  31. 31. 2. Connective Tissue • mechanical support • bind structures to preserve integrity of organization • exchange of metabolites between blood and tissues • storage of energy reserve in adipose tissues • protection against infection • repair
  32. 32. 2. Connective Tissue • paucity of cells; more intercellular substance (fibers and ground substance) • the extracellular matrix generally consists of a web of fibers embedded in a uniform foundation that may be liquid, jellylike, or solid
  33. 33. 2. Connective Tissue • amorphous ground substance - glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate - permit diffusion of nutrients, substances, water, gases, and wastes - important in areas where small blood vessels are absent
  34. 34. 2. Connective TissueTypes of cells: A. fixed - fibroblast/fibrocyte - mesenchymal - adipose - fixed macrophage B. wandering (from blood) - monocyte - plasma cell - mast cell - lymphocyte - eosinophil
  35. 35. Three kinds of connective tissue fibers: • Collagenous fibers (white) – made of collagen – nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise • Elastic fibers (yellow) – long threads of elastin – elastin fiber provides a rubbery quality • Reticular fibers (branching) – very thin and branched – composed of collagen
  36. 36. 37 Diagram of Fibrous Connective Tissue
  37. 37. Major types of connective tissues in vertebrates
  38. 38. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesA. Fibrous connective tissue – dense due to its large number of collagenous fibers – the fibers are organized into parallel bundles – forms tendons and ligaments
  39. 39. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesB. Loose connective tissue – binds epithelia to underlying tissues – functions as packing materials, holding organs in place – has all three fiber types• two cell types predominate in its fibrous mesh - fibroblasts - macrophages
  40. 40. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesC. Adipose tissue – specialized form of loose connective tissues that store fat in adipose cells – pads and insulates the body and stores fuel as fat molecules – each adipose cell contains a large fat droplet that swells when fat is stored and shrinks when the body uses fat as fuel
  41. 41. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesD. Cartilage – has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a substance called chondroitin sulfate, a protein-carbohydrate complex – chondrocytes secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate – Types: 1. Hyaline cartilage 2. Elastic cartilage
  42. 42. 1. Hyaline cartilage – bluish white, translucent, and homogenous – has significant proportion of collagen fibers – covers joint surfaces and rib ends – present in the nose, larynx, and trachea – skeletal cartilage in the embryos of all vertebrates – skeletal cartilage of adult sharks and rays – support and reinforcement
  43. 43. 2. Elastic cartilage – contains fine collagenous fibers and many elastic fibers – external ears, eustachian tube, epiglottis – maintains a structure’s shape while allowing great flexibility
  44. 44. 3. Fibrocartilage – contains many large collagenous fibers – intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, disks of knee joint, and pads between femur and tibia – absorbs compression shock Collagen fiber Chondrocyte in lacuna
  45. 45. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesE. Bone – the skeleton supporting most vertebrates – mineralized connective tissueCopyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  46. 46. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesE. Bone – Osteoblasts are cells that deposit a matrix of collagen – then, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions combine and harden within the matrix into the mineral hydroxyapatite – the combination of hard mineral and flexible collagen makes bone harder than cartilage without being brittleCopyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  47. 47. Major types of connective tissues in vertebratesF. Blood – Made of:1. Plasma (55%) – matrix consisting of water, salts, and a variety of dissolved proteins2. Formed elements (45%) – erythrocytes, leukocytes and cell fragments called plateletsCopyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  48. 48. BloodPlasma (55 %) 1. water (90% of plasma) 3. gases (O2, CO2, N) 2. dissolved solids a. proteins –. fibrinogen (synthesized by the liver) –. albumin (synthesized by the liver) –. globulin b. supplies for cells (glucose, fats and fat-like substances, amino acids, salts) c. cell products (enzyme, hormones, antibodies)
  49. 49. BloodFormed elements (45 %) – produced by bone marrow
  50. 50. Types of White Blood CellsType % Nucleus Cytoplasmic Other granule/cytoplasm features/ functionsA. granulocyte1. neutrophil 60-75 2-5 or more thin lobes, fine; don’t stain phagocytic connected by slender well at neutral pH chromatic threads with either acid or basic stain2. eosinophil 2-5 2 oval lobes linked by granules, coarse; against thread-like chromatin stain pinkish red helminthic with acid stain infections3. basophil 0.5-2 nuclei stain very faintly, stain blue with inflammatory often obscured by basic dye reaction cytoplasmic granules; U or J-shaped
  51. 51. Types of White Blood CellsType % Nucleus Cytoplasmic Other granule/cytoplasm features/ functionsB. agranulocyte1. lymphocyte 20-25 large, somewhat narrow rim of smallest; spherical with some cytoplasm antibody indentations and only production slightly concentric position2. monocyte 3-8 nuclei vary slightly, large amount of biggest; indented ovals to horse- cytoplasm becomes shoe shaped structure macrophage; phagocytic
  52. 52. 3. Muscle Tissue • composed of long cells called muscle fibers that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses • most abundant tissue in most animals • muscle contraction accounts for most of the energy-consuming cellular work in active animals
  53. 53. Types of muscles tissue
  54. 54. Types of muscles tissue 1. skeletal muscle • has cylindrical and striated cells with multiple nuclei (syncitial) • occurs in muscles attached to skeleton • single innervation by motor nerve • functions in voluntary movement of body
  55. 55. Types of muscles tissue 2. smooth muscle • spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus • cells have no striations • double innervation by parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system; involuntary • blood vessel walls and walls of the digestive tract • functions in movement of substances in lumens of body
  56. 56. Types of muscles tissue 3. cardiac muscle • has cylindrical but branching striated cells, each with a single nucleus • double innervation by parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system; involuntary • occurs in the wall of the heart • functions in the pumping of blood
  57. 57. 4. Nervous Tissue • irritability and conductivity; senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to another • neuron – functional unit of nervous tissue
  58. 58. 4. Nervous TissueNeurons consists of a cell•body, dendrites and axons • Dendrite – transmits nerve impulses from their tips toward the rest of the neuron Axon – transmits impulses • toward another neuron or toward an effector, such as a muscle cell
  59. 59. 4. Nervous TissueTypes of neurons: • sensory (afferent) • motor (efferent) • interneuron
  60. 60. Animal Body PlansSymmetry – refers to balanced proportions – correspondence in size and shape of parts on opposite sides of a median plane
  61. 61. Spherical Symmetry • any plane passing through the center divides a body into equivalent or mirrored halves • found chiefly among some unicellular forms • rare in animals • best suited for floating and rolling
  62. 62. Radial Symmetry • body can be divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through the longitudinal axis • found in some sponges and hydras, jellyfish, sea urchins • usually sessile, free floating or weakly swimming
  63. 63. Biradial Symmetry • only two planes passing through the longitudinal axis produce mirrored halves because of some part that is single or paired • comb jellies
  64. 64. Bilateral Symmetry • body can be divided along a sagittal plane into mirrored portions – right and left halves • much better suited for directional (forward) movement • strongly associated with cephalization
  65. 65. Segmentation • metamerism • serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis of the body • segment (metamere or somite)
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