A “Research Project” ON “PROBLEM OF NPA AND ITS IMPACT ON BANKS (WITH SPECIAL REFRENCE TO STATE BANK OF INDIA)” Submitted to Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Business Administration (Session 2008-2010)Under the supervision of: - Submitted By:-Dr. R.S GUPTA NAVJINDER GREWALHOD MGT DEPTT. MBA(II)YR ROLL NO. (27)
DECLARATIONI hereby certify that the work embodied in the project “Problem of NPA and its impact onbanks (with special reference to state bank of India" was done by me under thesupervision of Dr. R.S GUPTA (H.O.D MGT DEPTT,BCET)The project is done for the partial fulfillment of Degree of Master of Business Administrationprogram of Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar from, Bhutta College Of EngineeringAnd Technology, Ludhiana. I have not submitted this report to any institute or University. NAVJINDER GREWAL
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMy sincere thanks are due to all the contributors without whose efforts this project would nothave been completed. No task of this nature is a single person effort, so I am very thankful toDr. R.S GUPTA (H.O.D MGT DEPTT)Under whose guidance I successfully completed my research project. Their unfailing interestand support gave a new dimension to my work. They made it possible to collect abundanceof material, the relevant portion of which is quoted in this project.I am also very grateful to all other Faculty of B.C.ET whose teaching methodology helpedme in completion of my project without any difficulty.I also express my gratitude to the all respondent for their proper responses and cooperationduring my dissertation project.I would like to extend my thanks to my all friends for their valuable suggestion andcooperation at various stages during my project. NAVJINDER GREWAL
CHAPTER PLANS.No. Chapters Page No. 1. Introduction Non –performing asset • Classification of NPA • Some issue of NPA 2. Review of literature 3. Objective of study 4. Research Methodology • Research Design • Sources of Data 5. Reason of NPA 6. Impact of NPA on Banks 7. Guidelines of RBI 8. Analysis and interpretation of data 9. Findings
10. Limitation11. Recommendation12. Conclusion13. Bibliography INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT
Since the introduction of economic liberalization and financial sector reforms, Banks areunder growing pressure to bring down their NPAs so as to improve their performance andviability. What is bothering the bankers today is the management of Non-performing Assets.Over the period this problem has aggravated alarmingly and therefore needs urgent remedialactions, so in this context a good number of circular instruction/guidelines have been issuedby bank/Reserve Bank of India.Reserve Bank of India, in the year 1991, appointed a committee under the Chairmanship ofSh. M.Narsimham to examine and give recommendation for Income Recognition, AssetClassification and Provisioning of loan assets of Banks and Financial Institutions. TheCommittee examined the issues and recommended that a policy of Income Recognitionshould be objective and based on record of recovery rather than on subjective considerations.On the basis of the recommendations of the Narsimhan Committee, RBI had issuedguidelines to all Scheduled Commercial Banks on Income Recognition, Assets Classificationand Provisioning in April, 1992 which have been modified from time to time by the RBI onthe basis of experience gained and suggestions received from various quarters. ThePrudential Norms for Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning have comeinto effect from the accounting year 31.03.1993.Similarly, guidelines were issued by the Reserve Bank of India in March, 1994 to All IndiaFinancial Institutions viz. IDBI,ICICI, IFCI, AXIS Bank and IIBI. Separate guidelines werealso issued by the RBI on Prudential Norms to Non-Banking Financial Companies in June,1994 and to Regional Rural banks in March, 1996. They have adopted these guidelines forthe purpose of Income Recognition and Assets Classification from the accounting year 1995-96. However, guidelines relating to provisioning for RRBs have been made effective fromthe financial year ended 31.03.1997. The definition of NPAs is also gradually becomingtough for RRBs to cover all advances like Commercial Banks. Although most of-theguidelines relating to RRBs are similar to that of Commercial Banks, they have been madeapplicable in a phased manner for RRBs.INDIAN BANKS FUNCTIONALLY diverse and geographically widespread, have playeda crucial role in the socio- economic progress of the country. Banks extend credit to different
types of borrowers for many different purposes. For most customers, bank credit is theprimary source of available debt financing. For banks good loans are the most profitable assets. Return comes in the form of loaninterest, fee income and investment and the most prominent assumed risk is credit risk.Credit risk involves inability or unwillingness of customer or counterpart to meetcommitments in relation to lending once a loan is overdue and ceases to yield income itwould become a Non Performing Asset.Proper management and speedy disposal of NPAs is one of the most critical tasks of bankstoday. The problem of Non Performing Assets [NPAs] in banks and financial institutions hasbeen a matter of grave concern not only for the banks but also the real economy in general, asNPAs can choke further expansion of credit which would impede the economic growth of thecountry. Any bottleneck in the smooth flow of credit is bound to create adverse repercussionsin the economy. NPAs are not therefore the concern of only lenders but also the public atlarge.Granting of credit for economic activities is the prime duty of banking. Apart from raisingresources through fresh deposits, borrowings and recycling of funds received back fromborrowers constitute a major part of funding credit dispensation activity. Lending is generallyencouraged because it has the effect of funds being transferred from the system to productivepurposes, which results into economic growth. However lending also carries a risk calledcredit risk, which arises from the failure of borrower. Non-recovery of loans along withinterest forms a major hurdle in the process of credit cycle. Thus, these loan losses affect thebank’s profitability on a large scale. Though complete elimination of such losses is notpossible, but banks can always aim to keep the losses at a low level.Non-performing Asset (NPA) has emerged since over a decade as an alarming threat to thebanking industry in our country sending distressing signals on the sustainability andinsurability of the affected banks. The positive results of the chain of measures affectedunder banking reforms by the Government of India and RBI in terms of the two NarasimhanCommittee Reports in this contemporary period have been neutralized by the ill effects ofthis surging threat. Despite various correctional steps administered to solve and end this
problem, concrete results are eluding. It is a sweeping and all pervasive virus confronteduniversally on banking and financial institutions. The severity of the problem is howeveracutely suffered by Nationalised Banks, followed by the SBI group, and the all IndiaFinancial Institutions.
STATE BANK OF INDIASBI is the largest bank in India with deposits of Rs 3, 67,000 crore as on March 31, 2005. Itdominates the Indian banking sector with a market share of around 20% in terms of totalbanking sector deposits. The increasing focus on upgrading the technology back-bone of thebank will enable it to leverage its reach better, improve service levels, provide new deliveryplatforms, and improve operating efficiency to counter the threat of competition effectively.Once the core banking solution (CBS) is fully implemented, it will cover over 10,000branches and ATMs of the State Bank group, and emerge as the strongest technology enableddistribution network in India.The increasing integration of SBI with its associate banks (associates) and subsidiaries willfurther strengthen its dominant position in the banking sector and position it as the country’slargest universal bank.Resource-raising capabilitiesSBI’s funding profile is strong, underpinned by its strong retail deposit base. The bank isfacing increasing competition in its metropolitan and urban franchise. SBI’s strong franchisegives it access to a steady source of stable retail funds, which constitute around 59% of thetotal resources as on March 31, 2005 (56% as at March 31, 2004).Savings deposits have shown a strong three-year growth of 19%. Thus, despite a reduction inthe proportion of current account deposits, low-cost deposits have continued to constituteover 40% of total deposits as at March 31, 2005. The bank’s cost of deposits (excludingIMD) has significantly reduced to 4.70% for the 2004-05 (refers to financial year from April1 to March 31), compared with 5.48% in 2003-04. The bank’s liquidity position is verystrong due to healthy accretion to deposits, large limits in the call market, and significantsurplus SLR investments. SBI will maintain its strong funding profile and a low cost resourceposition in view of its strong retail base and wide geographical reach.
Earnings profile to remain goodSBI will maintain a good earnings profile in the medium term despite high pressure on yieldsdue to the increasing competition in the banking sector. SBI’s earning profile is characterisedby consistency in the return on assets (PAT/Average Assets), at around 1% per annum for thepast three years, and diverse income streams. To maintain yields and pursue credit growth,the bank is aggressively targeting retail finance and small and medium enterprises (SMEs).The bank’s core fee income of 1% of average funds deployed bolsters its revenue profile.However, with the opening of government business like tax collection to other banks andincreased competition, the growth in fee income is expected to slow down. The bank’soperating expense at 2.44% of average funds deployed in 2004-05 is in line with other publicsector banks. The bank’s cost structure is rigid as fixed employee cost accounted for 74% ofthe operating expenditure in 2004-05. Thus, despite good asset growth and technologyefficiency gains, the bank’s operating costs will remain high in the medium term. To be ableto reap the full benefits of technology implementation, the bank will have to reduce orredeploy work force; since this is a sensitive issue, it is expected to happen gradually.The bank’s fund based and fee income earnings are diversified across industries, regions,asset classes, and customer segments.Strong diversification in income streams will ensure that the bank’s earnings remainrelatively stable, despite the decline in profitability in some segments.Comfortable capital positionSBI is adequately capitalized with a tier I capital adequacy ratio of 8.04% and a large capitalbase of Rs 240.72 billion as at March 31, 2005. The bank has considerably improved its networth coverage for net NPAs to 4.4 times as at March 31, 2005 due to lower slippagesreflecting an improving asset quality, witnessed across the entire banking sector. Thecapitalization levels of SBI are adequate to address the asset side risks and support thebusiness growth in the medium term.
Management strategiesIn retail finance, the bank has leveraged its corporate relationships, pursued business growthselectively, and has not competed based on interest rate. The bank has taken initiatives likeon-line tax returns filing and faster transfer of funds to protect its dominant position in thegovernment business. The bank also has a clear technology strategy that will enable it tocompete with the new generation private sector banks in customer service and operationalefficiency.Asset quality to remain at average levelsThe bank continues to have a high level of gross NPAs at 5.95% of gross advances as atMarch 31, 2005, compared with 4.9% for all scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) takentogether. The bank is facing challenges to improve the quality of assets originated, as can beseen in the consistently higher levels of slippages (additions to NPAs) at 2.71% in 2004-05.To contain NPAs and ensure credit growth, the bank has decided to focus on financing theretail (personal) segment as well as SMEs. The share of retail advances has increased to24.73% (Rs 522.08 billion) of total advances as at September 30 2005. In the retail loansegment, SBI is targeting primarily the housing loans segment, which constitutes Rs. 283.41billion (54.3%) of total retail loans. The NPAs in retail finance are low currently; howeverthey are steadily increasing (especially in the housing finance portfolio) and have startedshowing signs of stress. SBI’s retail portfolio has grown at over 37% CAGR in the last twoyears and hence a significant portion of the portfolio is largely unseasoned. The housingfinance portfolio has a 12-month, lagged gross NPA of 4.34% as at March 31, 2005.The bankwill face significant challenges in the medium term to develop effective credit appraisal andcollection systems in order to contain NPAs in retail finance. SBI’s asset quality is expectedto remain at average levels, as the bank’s large and diverse asset portfolio reflects of the assetquality of the banking system.Business descriptionSBI along with its associate banks offer a wide range of banking products and services acrossits different client markets. The bank has entered the market of term lending to corporates
and infrastructure financing, traditionally the domain of the financial institutions. It hasincreased its thrust in retail assets in the last two years, and has built a strong market positionin housing loans.SBI, through its non-banking subsidiaries, offers a host of financial services, viz., merchantbanking, fund management, factoring, primary dealership, broking, investment banking andcredit cards. SBI has commenced its life insurance business by setting up a subsidiary, SBILife Insurance Company Limited, which is a joint venture with Cardiff S.A., one of thelargest insurance companies in France. SBI currently holds 74% equity in the joint venture.Industry prospectsTo leverage benefits such as access to low cost resources and the facility to provide a largergamut of services, a number of finance companies such as Kotak Mahindra Finance Limitedand HDFC Limited have promoted banks. Simultaneously, yet another emerging trend is thatof foreign banks promoting NBFCs to benefit from regulatory flexibility available to suchentities in areas like absence of statutory liquidity ratio and cash reserve ratio requirements,priority sector requirements, and corporate exposure limits.New private sector banks capture market shareWith technological edge and a strong marketing thrust, private sector banks have beenstealing market share in retail deposits and the corporate fee business from public sectorbanks. Together with some foreign banks, these private banks have also aggressively enteredthe retail asset financing space, hitherto the domain of non-banking finance companies.Given their focus on cross selling and optimizing their customer base, they now offer theentire range of products and services on the asset and liability side to retail and wholesalecustomers
Asset quality to improve Banks have not yet fully resolved the stress in the asset quality of their legacycorporate loan portfolios, however. Though slippages to NPAs and provisioning were highfor some banks in FY2004, as they moved to the 90-day norm for recognising andprovisioning for NPAs, the treasury gains enabled significant provisioning to be made withthe result that net NPAs for most public sector banks are now less than 3%.Going forward, steady growth in gross domestic product should help improve the banks’asset quality and increase corporate lending. The securitization and reconstruction offinancial assets and enforcement of security interest (Sarfaesi) Act should also help banks inlimiting slippages and improving NPA recoveries.Better Capitalization levelsBanks have demonstrated a fair amount of flexibility in raising fresh equity capital throughpublic issues in recent years, thereby improving their capitalization levels. The steadyaccruals to net worth and falling non-performing asset levels have resulted in animprovement in the capitalization position of banks in recent years.Challenges aheadCompetition from new private sector and foreign banks remains a key challenge for publicsector banks. They need to reorient their staff and effectively utilize technology platforms toretain customers and reduce costs. They also need to fortify their credit risk managementsystems to mitigate the risks arising from small-ticket lending to the retail, small and mediumenterprises, and services segments.
Consolidation and emergence of universal banking groupsThe cap on foreign ownership of banks has already been raised from 49% to 74%. Thecompetition in the sector could get further intensified if the 10% cap on voting rights is alsorelaxed. New private sector banks are expanding their geographical coverage and makinginroads into government business. The new private and foreign banks will continue to gainmarket share from public sector banks because of their efficient cost structures, technologicaledge, focused marketing approach and operational freedom. However, the emergence ofnewer players would be restricted if the private ownership of banks is capped at low levels.Mergers among PSBs would create banks with even larger balance sheets and customer base.However, the integration process in such mergers is expected to be complex and time longdrawn.These would also be driven by GoI due to provisions of Banking Companies (Acquisitionand Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1969, and hence political scenario will impact the timingand permutations possible. Strategic alliances between banks and other financial sectorplayers such as insurance companies and mutual funds are also likely as banks attempt toenhance their product range, leverage on economies of scale and reduce costs.
Definition of NPAs (NON -PERFORMING ASSETS) An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank. A ‘non performing asset’ was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and / or installment of principal had remained ‘past due’ for a specified period of time. The specified period was reduced in a phased manner as under: Year ending March 31 Specified period 1993 Four Quarters 1994 Three Quarters 1995 Onwards Two quarters An amount due under any credit facility is treated as ‘past due’ when it has not been paid within 30 days from the due date. Due to the improvements in the payment and settlement systems, recovery climate, up gradation of technology in the banking sector, etc, it was decided to dispense with the ‘past due’ concept, with effect from 31st March, 2001. Accordingly, as from that date, a NPA shall be an advance where, i. Interest and/or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of a term loan ii. The account remains ‘our of order’ for a period of more than 180 days, in respect of an overdraft/cash creditiii. Interest and/or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agriculture purposes
iv. Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of other accounts. With a view to move towards international best practices, it has been decided to adopt the ’90 days’ overdue norm for identification of NPAs, from 31st March, 2004. ‘Out of Order’ Status An account should be treated as ‘out of order’ if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/drawing power. In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for six months as on the date of Balance Sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period, these accounts should be treated as ‘out of order’. ‘Overdue’ Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank.
Classification of NPAsBanks are required to classify NPAs further into the following three categories based on theperiod for which the asset has remained non-performing and the reliability of the dues: i. Sub-standard Assets: A sub-standard asset is one which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 18 months. In such cases, the current net worth of the borrower, or the current market value of the security charged is not enough to ensure recovery of the dues to the banks in full. Such assets will have well defined credit weakness that jeopardize the liquidation of the debt and are characterized by the distinct possibility that the bank will sustain a loss. ii. Doubtful Assets: A Doubtful Asset which has remained NPA for a period exceeding 18 months. It has all the weaknesses inherent to a sub-standard asset with the added characteristic that the collection or liquidation in full – on the basis of currently known facts – is highly questionable and improbable.iii. Loss Assets: A loss asset is one where a loss has been identified by the bank or, internal or external auditors but the amount has not been written off wholly.Guidelines for Classification of NPAsBroadly speaking, classification should be done taking into account the degree of welldefined credit weaknesses and the extent of dependence on collateral security for realizationof dues.Banks should establish appropriate internal systems to eliminate the tendency to delay orpostpone the identification of NPAs, especially in respect of high value accounts.
• Accounts with temporary deficiencies: These should be classified based on the past recovery records.• Accounts regularize near about the balance sheet date: These accounts should be handled with care and without scope for subjectivity. Where the account indicates inherent weakness based on available data, it should be deemed as an NPA.• Asset classification should be borrower-wise and not facility-wise: If a single facility to a borrower is classified as NPA, others should also be classified the same way, as it is difficult to envisage only a solitary facility becoming a problem credit and not others.• Advances under consortium arrangements: Classification here should be based on the recovery record of the individual member banks.• Accounts where there is erosion in the value of the security: If there is a significant (i.e. the realizable value of the security is less than 50% of that assessed by the bank during acceptance) the account may be classified as NPA.
NPA SOME ASPECTS AND ISSUES1. The NPAs of banks in India are considered to be at higher levels than those in other countries. This issue has attracted attention of public as also of international financial institutions and has gained further prominence in the wake of transparency and disclosure measures initiated by RBI during recent years.2. The NPA Management Policy document of SBI lays down to contain net NPAs to less than 5% of banks total loan assets in confirmity with the international standard. It is, therefore necessary that as per guidelines provided in NPA Management Policy document, every effort be made at all levels to cut down the NPAs. All this requires greater efforts and teamwork.3. It is essential to keep a constant watch over the non-performing assets not just to keep it performing but also that once they become non-performing, effective measures are initiated to get full recovery and where this is not possible, the various means are to be initiated to get rid off the NPAs from the branch books.4. NPAs adversely affect the wealth condition of the branch advances as also the profitability of the branch. Some of the reasons for this are as under: (a) Interest cannot be applied on the loan accounts classified as NPAs. (b) The Branch has to pay interest to central office on outstanding classified as NPA. (c) The Branch has to incur cost in supervision and follow up of such advances. (d) Provision has to be made on NPAs at Bank level.5. Under Income Recognition, Assets Classification and provisioning, NPA may be Sub standard, Doubtful or loss assets. 6) Once the assets are classified as NPA, the Branch Manager has to take all the necessary steps to get the dues recovered there-under to maintain the good health of advances and the higher profitability at the-Branch. This requires management of NPAs in such a Planned and scientific manner that the percentage of NPAs to the total advances will be minimum.
RECOGNITION OF INCOME ON NON-PERFORMING LOANS (NPLS)Stricter regulations have been laid down by supervisory authorities in many countries withregard to income recognition on Non-Performing Loans (NPLs). The suspension of interestpayments is required on loans that are classified as non-performing [substandard, doubtfuland loss].Any uncollected interest payments on NPLs are considered non-accrued interest. Previouslyaccrued, but uncollected interest is reversed out of income. Failure to do so would overstateincome. Uncollected interest is normally put in a memorandum account. NPLs are restoredon an accrual basis only after full settlement has been made on all delinquent principal andinterest. It would, therefore, be useful, if the accounts carry a footnote, explaining theaccounting policies followed with regard to recognition of income on NPLs. NARSIMHAN COMMITTEES RECOMMENDATIONSCommittee on Financial System (CFS) Narsimhan committee which reported in 1991,meanwhile major changes have taken place in the domestic, economic and institutionalscience, indicating the movement towards global integration of financial services. Committeehas presented second generation reforms. a) To strength the foundation of financial system. b) Related to this, streamlining procedures, upgrading technology and human resource development. c) Structural changes in the system.1. It is recommended that an asset be classified as doubtful if it is in the sub standard category for 18 months in the first instance and eventually for 12 months as loss if it
has been so identified but not written off. These norms, which should be regarded as the minimum, may be brought into force in a phased manner.2. Corporations and FIs should avoid the practice of "ever greening" by making fresh advances to their troubled constituents only with a view to settling interest dues and avoiding classification of the loans in question as NPAs. The committee notes that the regulatory and supervisory authorities are paying particular attention to such breaches in the adherence to the spirit of the NPA definitions and are taking appropriate corrective action.3. The committee believes that objective should be to reduce the average level of net NPAs for all banks to below 5% by the year 2000 and 3% by 2002. These targets cannot be achieved in the absence of measure to tackle the problem of backlong NPAs on one time basis and the implementation of strict prudential norms and management efficiency.4. There is no denying the fact that any effort at financial restructuring in the form of having off NPAs portfolio from the books of the corporation or measures to initiate the impact of high level of NPAs must go hand with operational restructuring. Cleaning up the balance sheets of banks would thus make sense only if simultaneous steps are taken to prevent of limit the reemergence of new NPAs.5. Direct credit has a proportionately higher share in NPA portfolio of corporations and has been one of the factors in erosion in the quality of asset portfolio. There is a continuing need of Financial Corporations to extend Credit to SSI sector, which is important segment of national economy but on commercial considerations and on basis of credit worthiness. Government feels reluctant to accept the recommendation for reducing the scope of directed credit under priority sector because timy sector of industry and small businesses have problems with regard to obtaining credit and some remaining may be necessary for this sector. A poverty alleviation and employment generation schemes. Given the special needs of these sectors, the current practice may continue.6. With regard to income recognition in India, income stops occurring when interest/installment of principal is not paid within 180 days. However, we should
move towards international Practices in this regard and introduce the norm of 90 days in a phased manner by the 2002.7. As an incentive to Bank is to make specific provision, the consideration be given to making such provisions tax deductible.8. Banks should pay greater attention to asset liability management to avoid mismatch and to cover, among others, liquidity and interest rate risks.9. It should be encouraged to adopt statistical risk management techniques like value at risk in respect of balance sheet term which are susceptible to market price fluctuation, Forex rate volatility and interest rate changes. While the RBI and IDBI may initially, prescribe certain normative models for market risk management, the ultimate objective should be that of building up their models and RBI blacklisting them for their validity on a periodical basis.10. There is a need for a greater use of computerized system than at present. Computerization has to be recognized as an indispensable tool for improvement in customer service, the institution and operation of better control systems, greater efficiency in information technology.11. State Financial Corporations at present are over regulated and over administered. Supervision should be based on evolving prudential norms and regulations which should be adhered to rather than excessive control over administrative and other aspects of organisation and functioning. Internal audit and internal inspection systems should be strengthened.12. The main issues with regard to operations of Bank’s are to ensure operational flexibility and measure of competition and adequate internal autonomy in matters of loan sanctioning and internal administration.13. This calls for some re-examination and the present relevance of directed credit programme ablest in respect of those who are able to stand on their own feet and to whom the directed credit programmes with the element of interest concessionality that has accompanied has become a source of economic rent. It is recommended that directed credit sector be redefined to comprise the small and marginal farmers, the tiny sector of industry, small business and transport operators, village and cottage industry, rural artisans and other weaker sections. The credit target for this redefined
priority sector should hence forth be fixed at 10% of aggregate credit which would be broadly in line with the credit flows to these sectors at present.14. The committee believes that the balance sheets of banks and FIs should be made more transparent and full disclosure made in Balance sheet. This is to be done in phased manner.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE Das (1990) has compared the various efficiency measures of public sector banks by applying data envelopment analysis model and concluded that the level of NPAs significant negative relationship with efficiency estimates. Verma (1999) has concluded that high level of NPAs leads to operational failure of the bank. Berger and young (1997) has examined the relationship between problem loan and bank efficiency by employing Granger-causality technique and found that high level of problem loans cause banks of increase spending on monitoring, working out and / or selling off these loans and possibly becomes more diligent in administering the portion of their existing loan portfolio that is currently performing. Gupta (1997) has also concluded that NPAs on protifability of banks and leads to liquidity crunch and slow down in the growth in GDP etc. Kaveri(1995) has also examined the impact of NPAs on profitability by taking profit making and six loss making banks and concluded that loss making banks maintained higher NPAs in the loan portfolio which led them to show losses. Kwan and Eisenbeis (1994) also concluded that there is negative relationship between efficiency and problem loans. Toor (1994) analysed that poor recovery management leads to reduction in yield on advanced that poor recovery management leads to reduction in yield on advances, reduced productivity loss in the credibility and put detrimental impact on the policies of the banks. Murthy (1988) has examined that default bring down the return accruing and to them, reduces effective rate of interest and reduces the funds’ recalculation and increase their dependence on external sources thereby increasing the costs. ACCORDING TO S, RAJ KUMAR (2002) the SARFAESI act and the could primarily used as powerful bargaining tool while negotiating with defaulter. This puts bank on stronger ground in salvaging sticky loan
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY To study the position of non performing assets in SBI group To know the impact on NPAon strategic banking variable. To know the reason for an asset becoming NPA
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYMeaning of Research Research is defined as “a scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on aspecific topic”. Research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is a systemized effortto gain new knowledge. It is a careful inquiry especially through search for new facts in anybranch of knowledge. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method offinding solution to a problem is a research.PROBLEM STATEMENTThe research problems, in general refers to sum difficulty with a researcher experience in thecontest of either a particular a theoretical situation and want to obtain a salutation for same.The present Dissertation has been undertaken to do the Problem of NPA inState Bank of India.RESEARCH DESIGN TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN DESI EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH RESEARCH DESIGN DESIGN
The present study is descriptive in nature, as it seeks to discover ideas and insightto bring out new relationship. Research design is flexible enough to provide opportunity forconsidering different aspects of problem under study. It helps in bringing into focus someinherent weakness in enterprise regarding which in depth study can be conducted bymanagement.SAMPLING DESIGN:A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame. It refersto the technique or the procedure that is adopted in selecting the sampling units from whichinferences about the population is drawn. Sampling design is determined before thecollection of the data.DATA COLLECTION TYPES OF DATA PRIMARY SECONDRY DATA DATAPRIMARY DATA: - METHODS OF PRIMARY DATAOBSERVATION INTERVIEW QUETIONAIRE SCHEDULEMETHOD METHIOD METHOD METHOD
SECONDARY DATA: -The secondary data on the other hand, are those which have already been collected bysomeone else and which have already been passed through the statistical processes. When theresearcher utilizes secondary data then he has to look into various sources from where he canobtain them. For e.g. Books, magazine, newspaper, Internet, publications and reports. In thepresent study use of secondary data collected from website..
REASONS FOR RISE IN NPAsFACTORS FOR RISE IN NPAs The banking sector has been facing the serious problems ofthe rising NPAs. But the problem of NPAs is more in public sector banks when compared toprivate sector banks and foreign banks. The NPAs in PSB are growing due to external as wellas internal factors.EXTERNAL FACTORS • Ineffective recovery tribunalThe Govt. has set of numbers of recovery tribunals, which works for recovery of loans andadvances. Due to their negligence and ineffectiveness in their work the bank suffers theconsequence of non-recover, their by reducing their profitability and liquidity. • Wilful DefaultsThere are borrowers who are able to payback loans but are intentionally withdrawing it.These groups of people should be identified and proper measures should be taken in order toget back the money extended to them as advances and loans. • Natural calamitiesThis is the measure factor, which is creating alarming rise in NPAs of the PSBs. every nowand then India is hit by major natural calamities thus making the borrowers unable to payback there loans. Thus the bank has to make large amount of provisions in order tocompensate those loans, hence end up the fiscal with a reduced profit. Mainly ours farmersdepends on rain fall for cropping. Due to irregularities of rain fall the farmers are not toachieve the production level thus they are not repaying the loans • Industrial sicknessImproper project handling , ineffective management , lack of adequate resources , lack ofadvance technology , day to day changing govt. Policies give birth to industrial sickness.Hence the banks that finance those industries ultimately end up with a low recovery of theirloans reducing their profit and liquidity.
• Lack of demandEntrepreneurs in India could not foresee their product demand and starts production whichultimately piles up their product thus making them unable to pay back the money theyborrow to operate these activities. The banks recover the amount by selling of their assets,which covers a minimum label. Thus the banks record the nonrecovered part as NPAs andhas to make provision for it. • Change on Govt. policiesWith every new govt. banking sector gets new policies for its operation. Thus it has to copewith the changing principles and policies for the regulation of the rising of NPAs. eg. Thefallout of handloom sector is continuing as most of the weavers Co-operative societies havebecome defunct largely due to withdrawal of state patronage. The rehabilitation plan workedout by the Central govt to revive the handloom sector has not yet been implemented. So theover dues due to the handloom sectors are becoming NPAs.INTERNAL FACTORS • Defective Lending processThere are three cardinal principles of bank lending that have been followed by thecommercial banks since long. i. Principles of safety ii. Principle of liquidity iii. Principles ofprofitabilityi. Principles of safety By safety it means that the borrower is in a position to repay the loanboth principal and interest. The repayment of loan depends upon the borrowers:a. Capacity to payb. Willingness to payCapacity to pay depends upon: 1. Tangible assets 2. Success in business Willingness to paydepends on: 1. Character 2. Honest 3. Reputation of borrower The banker should, there foretake utmost care in ensuring that the enterprise or business for which a loan is sought is a
sound one and the borrower is capable of carrying it out successfully .he should be a personof integrity and good character. • Inappropriate technologyDue to inappropriate technology and management information system, market drivendecisions on real time basis can not be taken. Proper MIS and financial accounting system isnot implemented in the banks, which leads to poor credit collection, thus NPA. All thebranches of the bank should be computerised. • Improper swot analysisThe improper strength, weakness, opportunity and threat analysis is another reason for rise inNPAs. While providing unsecured advances the banks depend more on the honesty, integrity,and financial soundness and credit worthiness of the borrower. • Banks should consider theborrowers own capital investment. • it should collect credit information of the borrowersfrom a. From bankers b. Enquiry from market/segment of trade, industry, business. c. Fromexternal credit rating agencies. • Analyse the balance sheet True picture of business will berevealed on analysis of profit/loss a/c and balance sheet. • Purpose of the loan When bankersgive loan, he should analyse the purpose of the loan. To ensure safety and liquidity, banksshould grant loan for productive purpose only. Bank should analyse the profitability,viability, long term acceptability of the project while financing. • Poor credit appraisal systemPoor credit appraisal is another factor for the rise in NPAs. Due to poor credit appraisal thebank gives advances to those who are not able to repay it back. They should use good creditappraisal to decrease the NPAs. • Managerial deficienciesThe banker should always select the borrower very carefully and should take tangible assetsas security to safe guard its interests. When accepting securities banks should consider the 1.Marketability 2. Acceptability 3. Safety 4. Transferability.
The banker should follow the principle of diversification of risk based on the famous maxim“do not keep all the eggs in one basket”; it means that the banker should not grant advancesto a few big farms only or to concentrate them in few industries or in a few cities. If a newbig customer meets misfortune or certain traders or industries affected adversely, the overallposition of the bank will not be affected. Like OSCB suffered loss due to the OTM Cuttack,and Orissa hand loom industries. The biggest defaulters of OSCB are the OTM(117.77lakhs), and the handloom sector Orissa hand loom WCS ltd (2439.60lakhs). • Absence of regular industrial visitThe irregularities in spot visit also increases the NPAs. Absence of regularly visit of bankofficials to the customer point decreases the collection of interest and principals on the loan.The NPAs due to wilful defaulters can be collected by regular visits. • Re loaning processNon remittance of recoveries to higher financing agencies and re loaning of the same havealready affected the smooth operation of the credit cycle. Due to re loaning to the defaultersand CCBs and PACs, the NPAs of OSCB is increasing day by day.
IMPACT OF NPAS ON BANKS:-In portion of the interest income is absorbed in servicing NPA.NPA is not merely non-remunerative. It is also cost absorbing and profit eroding.In the context of severe competition in the banking industry, the weak banks are atdisadvantage for leveraging the rate of interest in the deregulated market and securingremunerative business growth. The options for these banks are lost. "The spread is the breadfor the banks". This is the margin between the cost of resources employed and the returntherefrom." This is the margin between the cost of resources employed and the returnthereform. In other words it is gap between the return on funds deployed (Interest earned oncredit and investments) and cost of funds employed (Interest paid on deposits). When the interest rates were directed by RBI, as heretofore, there was not option forbanks. But today in the deregulated market the banks decide their lending rates andborrowing rates. In the competitive money and capital Markets, inability to offer competitivemarket rates adds to the disadvantage of marketing and building new NPA has affected theprofitability, liquidity and competitive functioning of banks and finally the psychology of thebankers in respect of their disposition towards credit delivery and credit expansion. 1. Impact on Profitability "The efficiency of banks is not always reflected only by the size of its balance sheet but by the level of return on its assets. NPAS do not generate interest income for the banks, but at the same time banks are required to make provisions for such NPAS from their current profits. NPAS have a deleterious effect on the return on assets in several ways: • They erode current profits through provisioning requirements. • They result in reduced interest income. • They require higher provisioning requirements affecting profits and accretion to capital funds and capacity to increase good quality risk assets in future, and
• They limit recycling of funds, set in asset-liability mismatches, etc.There is at times a tendency among some of the banks to understate the level of NPAs inorder to reduce the provisioning and boost up bottom lines. It would only postpone theprocess.In the context of crippling effect on a banks operations in all spheres, asset quality has beenplaced as one of the most important parameters in the measurement of a banks performanceunder the CAMELS supervisory rating system of RBI.Between 01.04.93 to 31.03.2001, SBI Group incurred a total amount of Rs. 31251 Crorestowards provisioning NPA. This has brought Net NPA to Rs. 32632 Crores or 6.2% of netadvances. To this extent the problem is contained but a what cost?This costly remedy is made at the sacrifice of building healthy reserves for future capitaladequacy.The enormous provisioning of NPA together with the holding cost of such non-productiveassets over the years has acted as a severe drain on the profitability of the SBI Group. In turnSBI Group are seen as poor performers and unable to approach the market for raisingadditional capital. Equity issues of nationalized banks that have already tapped the market arenow quoted at a discount in the secondary market. Other bans hesitate to approach the marketto rise new issues. This has alternatively forced SBI Group to borrow heavily from the debtmarket to build Tier II Capital to meet capital adequacy norms putting severe pressure ontheir profit margins; else they are to seek the bounty of the Central Government for repeatedRecapitalization.Considering the minimum cost of holding NPAs at 7% p.a. (reckoning average cost of fundsat 6% plus 1% service charge) the net NPA of Rs. 32632 Croces absorbs a recurring holdingost of Rs. 2300 Crores annually. Considering the average provisions made for the last 8 yearswhich works out to average of Rs. 3300 crores from annum, a sizeab business.
In the face of the deregulated banking industry, an ideal competitive working is reached,when the banks are able to earn adequate amount of non-interest income to cover their entireoperating expenses i.e. a positive burden. In that event the spread factor i.e. the differencebetween the gross interest income and interest cost will constitute its operating profits.Theoretically even if the banks keeps 0% spread, it will still break even in terms of operatingprofit and not return an operating loss. The net profit is the amount of the operating profitminus the amount of provisions to be made including for taxation. On account of the burdenof heavy NPA, many nationalised banks have little option and they are unable to lowerlending rates competitively, as a wider spread is necessitated to cover cost of NPA in the faceof lower income from off balance sheet business yielding non-interest income.The following working results of SBI Group an identified well manged nationalised banksfor the last two years and for the first nine months of the current financial year, will berevealing to prove this statement.Non-interest income fully absorbs the operating expenses of this banks in the currentfinancial year for the first 9 months. In the last two financial years, though such income hassubstantially covered the operating expenses (between 80 to 90%) there is still a deficit left.The strength of SBI Group is indentified by the following positive feature: 1. Its sizeable earnings under of non-interest income substantially/totally meets its non-interest expenses. 2. Its obligation for provisioning requirements is within bounds. (Net NPA/Net Advances is 1.92%)It is worthwhile to compare the aggregate figures of the 19 Nationalised banks for the yearended March, 2001, as published by RBI in its Report on trends and progress of banking inIndia. Interest on Recapitalization Bonds is a income earned form the Government, who hadissued the Recapitalization Bonds to the weak banks to sustain their capital adequacy under abailout package. The statistics above show the other weaknesses of the nationalised banks in
addition to the heavy burden they have to bear for servicing NPA by way of provisioning andholding cost as under: • Their operating expenses are higher due to surplus manpower employed. Wage costs total assets is much higher to PSBs compared to new private banks or foreign banks. • Their earnings from sources other than interest income are meagre. This is due to failure to develop off balance sheet business through innovative banking products. 2. Impact on Liquidity of the SBI Group Though SBI Group are able to meet norms of Capital Adequacy, as per RBI guidelines, the facts that their net NPA in the average is as much as 7% is a potential threat for them. RBI has indicated the ideal position as Zero percent Net NPA. Even granting 3% net NPA within limits of tolerance the SBI Group are holding an uncomfortable burden at 7.1% as at March 2001. They have not been able to build additional capital needed for business expansion through internal generations or by tapping the equity market, but have resorted to II-Tier capital in the debt market or looking to recapitalistion by Government of India. 3. Impact on Outlook of Bankers towards Credit Delivery. The fear of NPA permeates the psychology of bank managers in the SBI Group in entertaining new projects for credit expansion. In the world of banking the concepts of business and risks are inseparable. Business is an exercise of balancing between risk and reward. Accept justifiable risks and implements de-risking steps. Without accepting risk, there can be no reward. The psychology of the banks today is to insulate themselves with zero percent risk and turn lukewarm to fresh credit. This has affected adversely credit growth compared to growth of deposits, resulting in a low C/D Ratio around 50 to 54% for the industry. The fear psychosis also leads to excessive security-consiousness in the approach towards lending to the small and medium sized credit customers. There is insistence on provision of collateral security, sometimes up to 200% value of the advance, and consequently due to a feeling of assumed protection on account of holding adequate security (albeit over-
confidence). a tendency towards laxity in the standards of credit appraisal comes to thefore. It is well know that the existence of collateral security at best may convert the creditextended to productive sectors into an investment against real estate, but will not preventthe account turning into NPA. Further blocked assets and real estate represent the mostilliquid security and NPA in such advances has the tendency to persist for a longduration.SBI Group have reached a dead-end of the tunnel and their future prosperity depends onan urgent solution for handling this hovering threat.4. Impact on Productivity:High level of NPAs effect the productivity of the banks by increasing the cost of fundsand by reducing the efficiency of banks employees. Cost of funds is increased becausedue to non-availability of sufficient internal sources they have to rely on external sourcesto fulfill their future financial requirements. Productivity of employees is also reducedbecause it keeps staff busy with the task of recovery of overdue. Instead of devoting timefor planning for development through more credit and mobilization of resources thebranch staff would primarily be engaged in preparing a large value of returns andstatements relating to sub-standard, doubtful and loss assets, preparing proposal for filingof suits, waivement of legal action, compromise, write off or in preparing DICGC claimpapers etc.5. Impact on other Variables:High level of NPAs also leads to squeezing of interest spread, when asset becomes anNPA for the first time it adversely affects the spread by not contributing to the interestincome and from the second year onwards it will have its impact on the bottom line of thebalance sheet because of provisioning to be made for it and not have incremental effecton the spread.Now a days Govt. does not encourage liberal capital support to be given to banks. Banksare required to bring their own capital by issuing share to the public, whereas high levelof NPAs leads to lower profits hence less or no profits available for equity shareholdershence lower EPS and fall in the value of share. During the year 2001-02 share of 12
public sector banks were traded on the NSE out of which share value of three PSBs havedecreased. Low market value of shares has also forced the banks to borrow heavily debtmarket to build Tier II capital to meet capital adequacy norms, putting severe pressure ontheir profit margins.6. Qualitative aspects of the Micro Level Impact of NPAs:High incidence of loan defaults shakes the confidence of general public in the soundnessof banking setup and indirectly effects the capacity of the banking system to mop up thedeposits. It is a blot on the credibility of the banking system. It also leads to loss of trustof foreign suppliers. Reputed foreign suppliers do not accept letter of credit opened biIndian banks or confine their transaction to top Indian banks only. Moreover, it putsnegative effect on granting of autonomy to PSBs whreas it is must for banks in thiscompetitive environment. Banks having positive net profits for the last three years, NetNPA level below 9%, owned funds of Rs. 100 Crore, CAR of > 8% are the 4 condition tobe fulfilled to get autonomous status, which becomes difficult in the situation of hugelevel of NPAs. Inadequate recovery also inhibits the banks to draw refinance from higher levelagency. The eligibility of a bank to draw refinance from NABARD is linked to the %ageof recovery to demand in respect of direct, medium and long term loans for agricultureand allied activities. It implies that refinance facility would be progressively reduceddepending on the position of NPAs and also on the No. of years in which a banks branchremains in a particular category of default. Due to fear of NPAa banks are being takenaway from the basic function for which these were established it is becoming more &more risky and less remunerative. They are floating their subsidiaries to manage mutualfunds, factoring, insurance business, Good money is spent to recover bad money.Deterioration in the quality of loan assets and inability to come with new products makesthe Indian banks uncompetitive globally. Due to high cost, they cannot reduce lendingrate to meet the economys demand of low lending rate. It is also biggest threat for capitalaccount convertibility.
7. Some areas of Macro-Economic Impact:It is not only the banks which are affected higher level of NPAs but it is the economy as awhole which pays for it. Banks are not putting enough resource in lending due to fear ofdefault. Once the credit to various sectors of the economy slow down, the economy isbadly hit. There is slowdown in growth in GDP, industrial output and fall in the profitmargins of the corporate and consequent depression in the market. Further high level ofNPAs can result in adding to the inflationary potential in the economy and eroding theviability of the credit system as a whole. Not only this, burden of NPAs is to be borne by the society as a whole. When capitalsupport is given to PSB on A/c of losses booked and/ or erosion of capital due to NPAs, itcomes out of either Govt. budgetary resources or from the public as perLiberalization policy, whether this money is from tax revenues or from the hard earnedsaving of the investing public, in fact, the society is bearing the cost of theseNPAs. Moreover, Govt. holds majority of shares in PSBs in some banks 100% capital isin its hand. Any dividend declared would have gone to the Govt. and which can be spenton the welfare and development program.
GUIDELINES BY RBIGuidelines of Government and RBI for Reduction of NPAs1. Compromise settlement schemes: The RBI/Government of India have been constantly goading the banks to take steps for arresting the incidence of fresh NPAs and have also been creating legal and regulatory environment to facilitate the recovery of existing NPAs of banks. More significant of them, I would like to recapitulate at this stage.* The broad framework for compromise or negotiated settlement of NPAs advised by RBI in July 1995 continues to be in place. Banks are free to design and implement their own policies for recovery and write-off incorporating compromise and negotiated settlements with the approval of their Boards, particularly for old and unresolved cases falling under the NPA category. The policy framework suggested by RBI provides for setting up of an independent Settlement Advisory Committees headed by a retired Judge of the High Court to scrutinise and recommend compromise proposals.* Specific guidelines were issued in May 1999 to public sector banks for one time nondiscretionary and non discriminatory settlement of NPAs of small sector. The scheme wasoperative up to September 3, 2000. [Public sector banks recovered Rs. 668 crore throughcompromise settlement under this scheme].* Guidelines were modified in July 2000 for recovery of the stock of NPAs of Rs. 5 croreand less as on 31 March 1997. [The above guidelines which were valid up to June 30, 2001helped the public sector banks to recover Rs. 2600 crore by September 2001].* An OTS Scheme covering advances of Rs. 25000 and below continues to be inoperation and guidelines in pursuance to the budget announcement of the Honble FinanceMinister providing for OTS for advances up to Rs. 50,000 in respect of NPAs ofsmall/marginal farmers are being drawn up.
2. Lok Adaltas: Lok Adalats help banks to settle disputes involving accounts in doubtful" and "loss" category, with outstanding balance of Rs. 5 lakh for compromise settlement under Lok Adalats. Debt Recovery Tribunals have now been empowered to organize Lok Adalats to decide on cases of NPAs of Rs. 10 lakhs and above. The public sector banks had recovered Rs. 40.38 crore as on September 30, 2001, through the forum of Lok Adalat. The progress through this channel is expected to pick up in the coming years particularly looking at the recent initiatives taken by some of the public sector banks and DRTs in Mumbai.3. Debt Recovery Tribunals: The Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions (amendment) Act, passed in March 2000 has helped in strengthening the functioning of DRTs. Provisions for placement of more than one Recovery Officer, power to attach defendants property/assets before judgement, penal provisions for disobedience of Tribunals order or for breach of any terms of the order and appointment of receiver with powers of realization, management, protection and preservation of property are expected to provide necessary teeth to the DRTs and speed up the recovery of NPAs in the times to come. Though there are 22 DRTs set up at major centres in the country with Appellate Tribunals located in five centres viz. Allahabad, Mumbai, Delhi,Calcutta and Chennai, they could decide only 9814 cases for Rs. 6264.71 crore pertaining to public sector banks since inception of DRT mechanism and till September 30, 2001. The amount recovered in respect of these cases amounted to only Rs. 1864.30 crore.
Looking at the huge task on hand, with as many as 33049 cases involving Rs. 42988.84 crore pending before them as on September 30, 2001, I would like the banks to institute appropriate documentation system and render all possible assistance to the DRTs for speeding up decisions and recovery of some of the well collateralised NPAs involving large amounts. I may add that familiarisation programmes have been offered in NIBM at periodical intervals to the presiding officers of DRTs in understanding the complexities of documentation and operational features and other legalities applicable of Indian banking system. RBI on its part has suggested to the Government to consider enactment of appropriate penal provisions against obstruction by borrowers in possession of attached properties by DRT Receivers, and notify borrowers who default to honour the decree passed against them.4. Circulation of information on defaulters: The RBI has put in place a system for periodical circulation of details of willful defaults of borrowers of banks and financial institutions. This serves as a caution list while considering requests for new or additional credit limits from defaulting borrowing units and also from the directors/proprietors/partners of these entities. RBI also publishes a list of borrowers (with outstanding aggregating Rs. 1 crore and above) against whom suits have been filed by banks and FIs for recovery of their funds, as on 31st March every year. It is our experience that these measures had not contributed to any perceptible recoveries from the defaulting entities. However, they serve as negative basket of steps shutting off fresh loans to these defaulters. I strongly believe that a real breakthrough can come only if there is a change in the repayment psyche of the Indian borrowers5. Recovery action against large NPAs: After a review of pendency in regard to NPAs by the Honble Finance Minister, RBI had advised the public sector banks to examine all cases of willful default of Rs 1 crore and above and file suits in such cases, and file criminal cases in regard to willful defaults. Board of Directors are required to review NPA accounts of Rs. 1 crore and above with special reference to fixing of staff accountability.On their part RBI and
the Government are contemplating several supporting measures including legal reforms, some of them I would like to highlight.6. Corporate Debt Restructuring (CDR): Corporate Debt Restructuring mechanism has been institutionalised in 2001 to provide a timely and transparent system for restructuring of the corporate debts of Rs. 20 crore and above with the banks and financial institutions. The CDR process would also enable viable corporate entities to restructure their dues outside the existing legal framework and reduce the incidence of fresh NPAs. The CDR structure has been headquartered in IDBI, Mumbai and a Standing Forum and Core Group for administering the mechanism had already been put in place. The experiment however has not taken off at the desired pace though more than six months have lapsed since introduction. As announced by the Honble Finance Minister in the Union Budget 2002-03, RBI has set up a high level Group under the Chairmanship of Shri Vepa Kamesam, Deputy Governor, RBI to review the implementation procedures of CDR mechanism and to make it more effective. The Group will review the operation of the CDR Scheme, identify the operational difficulties, if any, in the smooth implementation of the scheme and suggest measures to make the operation of the scheme more efficient.7. Credit Information Bureau: Institutionalisation of information sharing arrangements through the newly formed Credit Information Bureau of India Ltd. (CIBIL) is under way. RBI is considering the recommendations of the S.R.Iyer Group (Chairman of CIBIL) to operationalise the scheme of information dissemination on defaults to the financial system. The main recommendations of the Group include dissemination of information relating to suit- filed accounts regardless of the amount claimed in the suit or amount of credit granted by a credit institution as also such irregular accounts where the borrower has given consent for disclosure. This, I hope, would prevent those who take advantage of lack of system of information sharing amongst lending institutions to borrow large
amounts against same assets and property, which had in no small measures contributed to the incremental NPAs of banks.8. Proposed guidelines on willful defaults/diversion of funds: RBI is examining the recommendation of Kohli Group on willful defaulters. It is working out a proper definition covering such classes of defaulters so that credit denials to this group of borrowers can be made effective and criminal prosecution can be made demonstrative against willful defaulters.9. Corporate Governance: A Consultative Group under the chairmanship of Dr. A. Ganguly was set up by the Reserve Bank to review the supervisory role of Boards of Banks and financial institutions and to obtain feedback on the functioning of the Boards vis-a-vis compliance, transparency, disclosure, audit committees etc. and make recommendations for making the role of Board of Directors more effective with a view to minimising risks and overexposure. The group is finalising its recommendations shortly and may come out with guidelines for effective control and supervision by bank boards over credit management and NPA prevention measures. 10. Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002: The Act provides, inter alia for enforcement of security interest for realisation of dues without the intervention of courts or tribunals. The Security Interest (Enforcement) Rules, 2002 has also been notified by Government to enable Secured Creditors to authorise their officials to enforce the securities and recover the dues from the borrowers. As on June 30, 2004, 27 public sector banks had issued 61, 263 notices involving outstanding amount of Rs. 19,744 crore, and had recovered an amount of Rs. 1,748 crore from 24,092 cases.
PROBLEMS LOAN RECOVERY1. Inadequate security and Erosion in value of security: Generally, banks tend to find that there is a major gap in the valuation of the security, as carried out at the time of providing the loan and at the time of loan recovery. The value of the security has generally deteriorated over the period and according to experts, it may further deteriorate by almost 10-50% if quick action is not taken for its immediate sale.2. Political interferences: Political interference in the day -to-day functioning of public sector banks created a number of problems for them. The populist policies of the national level politicians, such as waiver in repayment only added to these problems.3. Slow legal procedure: Before the establishment of DRTs in 1993, the banks had to approach the normal courts to recover their dues. There were provisions under various acts which hampered the smooth takeover and sale of secured assets. The legal process could take years to be completed, with the borrower having ample scope for delaying the takeover of assets. A number of loopholes provided the borrower with opportunities to delay or ignore repayment of loans. During this period, it was said by some unscrupulous businessmen that - "there is no difference between equity and debt - you never have to repay either of them ".4. Swamping of DRTs with cases: Once DRTs were established to quicken the pace of recovery procedures, the pace of recovery improved quite a bit. However, the DRTs were soon drowned in the ever increasing number of cases. The pending number of cases with the DRTs increased manifold during the period 1993-2002.
5. Misuse of BIFR/SICA: This was one of the favourite methods of willful defaulters to delay repayment. If the defaulters company is declared sick and taken for financial reconstruction under BIFR, it is not possible to undertake any recovery proceeding against the company .The procedure of financial reconstruction can take a number of years together, thereby delaying recovery to a great extent.6. Transfer of property Act, English mortgage: Under provisions of Section 69 of Transfer of Property Act, mortgagee can take possession of mortgaged property and sell the same without the intervention of the Court only in the case of English Mortgage. In addition, mortgagee can take possession of mortgaged property where there is specific provision in mortgage deed and it is situated in the towns of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai only. In other cases, intervention of the court is required. However, this is very slow and time consuming process and by the time bank /FI is able to get possession; the asset either does not exist or has become valueless.
STATE BANK OF INDIA TOTAL ASSET 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- YEAR 04 05 06 07 08 TOTAL ASSET(RS. CR) 407185 459883 494029 566565 721526 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 YEAR 300000 TOTAL ASSET(RS. CR) 200000 100000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 YEARInterpretation:-Above graph show that total assets of SBI is increased in 2004-05 by52658 crore, in 2007-08 increased by 154961rs. crore. So assets of the SBI bankincreased from last five year.
GROSS NPA YEAR 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 _GROSS NPA(RS.CR) 12667 12456 9628 9998 12837 _GROSS NPA(RS.CR) 14000 12000 10000 8000 _GROSS 6000 NPA(RS.CR) 4000 2000 0 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 04 05 06 07 08Interpretation:- above graph shows that Non-performing assets of SBI decreasedfrom 2003-04 to2006-07 and increased in 2007-08. There are so many reason ofincreases of npa NET NPA
YEAR 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 NET NPA(RS. CR.) 5442 5349 4906 5258 7424 NET NPA(RS. CR.) 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 NET NPA(RS. 3000 CR.) 2000 1000 0 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 04 05 06 07 08Interpretation :-above graph show that net NPA decreasd from 2003-04 to 2005-06 andincreased in 2006-07 to 2007-08.
GROSS NPA (RATIO%) YEAR 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 GROSS NPA(RATIO%) 7.75 5.96 3.61 2.92 3.04 8Interpretation : Above graph shows that the gross NPA (Ratio%)of SBI is decreasedfrom 2004-05 to 2006-07 and increased in 2007-08. 7 6
NET NPA(RATIO%) YEAR 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 NET NPA(RATIO%) 3.48 2.65 1.88 1.56 1.78 4 3.5 3 2.5 YEAR 2 NET 1.5 NPA(RATIO%) 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6Interpretation: Above graph shows that the net NPA(Ratio%) of SBI is decreased from2004-05 to 2006-07 and increased in 2007-08 PROVISION COVER
YEAR 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 PROVISION COVER 57.04 59.45 49.04 47.41 45.04 PROVISION COVER 70 60 POVISION COVER % 50 40 PROVISION COVER 30 20 10 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 yEARInterpretation: Above graph shows that in 2003-04 provision cover of NPA is 57.04%and increased in 2004-05. It decreased from 2005-06 to 2007-08. State Bank of Patiala
YEAR 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 GROSS NPA(%) 1.82 1.65 1.38 2.14 1.42 NET NPA(%) 1.35 1.23 0.99 0.83 0.6 2.5 2 1.5 GROSS NPA(%) 1 NET NPA(%) 0.5 0 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 04 05 06 07 08Interpretation: Above graph shows that the gross NPA of SBP is decreased from2003-04 to 2005-06,increased in 2006-07 and again decreased in 2007-08. The net NPAdecreased from 2003-04 to 2007-08. FINDINGS 1. REASON OF NPA IN BANK:-
Default by customer Non-inspection of borrower Lack of expertise Imbalance of inventories Poor credit collection Lack of trained staff Lack of commitment to recovery Change in consumer preference 2 IMPACT OF NPA ON BANK Govt. Policies Impact of profitability Liquidity Impact on outlook of Banker to wards credit delivery Impact of productivity RECOMMANDATIONS
Credit administration: A banks have to strengthen their credit administrative machinery and put in place effective credit risk management systems to reduce the fresh incidence of NPAs. Better Inspection: We shall keep a close watch on the manner in which NPA reduction is taking place. Cash Recovery: We should also insist that cash recoveries should more than offset the fresh write-offs in NPAs. Perception: The mindset of the borrowers needs to change so that a culture of proper utilization of credit facilities and timely repayment is developed. Financial System: As you are aware, one of the main reason for corporate default is on account of diversion of funds and corporate entities should come forward of avoid this practice in the interest of strong and sound financial system. Coordinator: Extending credit involves lenders and borrowers and both should realize their role and responsibilities. They should appreciate the difficulties of each other and should endeavor to work contributing to a healthy financial system. LIMITATION OF STUDY Shortage of time :-
.Time is very short for research ,so that is very difficult can get the knowledge about everything . Information not sufficiently available The source of data collection is secondary so the information available is not sufficient. No direct source of information available The information is collected from indirect sources so in some information data is not available. Secondary data:- Information is not reliable because of secondary data CONCLUSION
A strong banking sector is important for a flourishing economy. The failure of thebanking sector may have an adverse impact on other sectors.Over the years, much has been talked about NPA and the emphasis so far has been onlyon identification and quantification of NPAs rather than on ways to reduce and upgradethem.There is also a general perception that the prescriptions of 40% of net bank credit topriority sectors have led to higher NPAs, due to credit to these sectors becoming sticklymanagers of rural and semi-urban branches generally sanction these loans. In the changedcontext of new prudential norms and emphasis on quality lending and profitability,mangers should make it amply clear to potential borrowers that banks resources are scareand these are meant to finance viable ventures so that these are repaid on time andrelevant to other needy borrowers for improving the economic lot of maximum numberof households. Hence selectionof right borrowers, viable economic activity, adequatefinance and timely disbursement, correct and use of funds and timely recovery f loans isabsolutely necessary pre conditions for preventing of minimizing the incidence of newNPAs.
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