ASSIGNMENT-1                 This     ppt is presented by:-  ADITYA KUMAR SAHU   ROLL NO:-411PH5082   INTEGRATED MSc. IN  ...
Nuclear Waste   Disposal   Aditya kumar sahu
Nuclear Waste…Why?•Recently nuclear power has entered many discussions asworld energy needs rise and oil reserves diminish...
Nuclear Fuel cycleMost nuclear waste comes from the byproducts of the nuclear fuelcycle. The cycle typically is split into...
Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Cont.)
Radioactive WasteWe will discuss - Low Level Radioactive Waste High Level Radioactive Waste Mining Tailings
Classifications Nuclear  waste is segregated into several  classifications. Low level waste is not dangerous but  someti...
Low Level Waste               LLW Low   level waste is any waste that could be  from a high activity area. 90% volume of...
Intermediate Level Waste             ILW Intermediate  level waste requires shielding  when being handled. 7% volume of ...
High Level Waste               HLW High level waste has a large amount of  radioactive activity and is thermally hot. 3%...
Transuranic Waste              TRUW Transuranic  waste consists of all waste that  has radionuclides above uranium. TRUW...
Creation of Nuclear Waste•Nuclear waste is generated at all points ofthe fuel cycle.•Front end waste consists primarily of...
Front End Waste Front end waste consists mostly of LLW  and ILW. The primary front end waste is depleted  uranium and ra...
Service Period Waste Consists of mostly ILW. Mostly waste produced at the plant during  normal operation. Spent fuel ro...
Back End Waste   Nuclear waste developed    during the back end of the    fuel cycle is the most    dangerous and include...
Low Level Radioactive WasteLow Level Radioactive waste consists of microcurie, millicurie and at times curie activity wast...
Low Level Radioactive Waste Low   level radioactive waste consists of:  – Contaminated solids  – liquids  – animal carcas...
Waste Management (LLW) There  are several  options available for  the disposal of LLW  due to its lack of  radioactivity....
Radioactive Waste Low   level radioactive liquids are either:  – Incinerated  – Deep well injected (not as frequent anymo...
Radioactive Waste Radioactive animal carcasses are either incinerated or buried onsite.
Radioactive Waste Small  sealed sources  are “Stabilized” in  concrete and buried.  Stabilized concrete is  concrete that...
Radioactive Waste Low level contaminated solid wastes are buried. GSU has it’s solid waste “Supercompacted” at 30,000 psi...
Radioactive WasteMost low level wastes come from Governmentand Utilities. These consist of contaminatedsolids from nuclear...
Radioactive Waste Colleges, research and medical applications  account for less than 25% of the low level  Radioactive wa...
Radioactive Waste   Class A low-level radioactive waste is the least hazardous,    containing mostly short-lived radionuc...
Radioactive Waste   Class B low-level radioactive waste is more hazardous    than Class A waste. Most of it comes from nu...
Radioactive Waste Class C low-level radioactive waste is the most hazardous and must be handled accordingly. It also must...
Radioactive Waste
Radioactive Waste Thereare 3 LLRW Burial sites:  – Hanford  – Envirocare  – Barnwell
Radioactive Waste
Radioactive Waste
Radioactive Waste Politics   of LLRW  – Compacts  – On-site burial  – NIMBY
Radioactive Waste The compact system was set up by NRC to  have all states share in the responsibility of  disposal of ra...
Radioactive Waste Kentucky   was the first (Maxie Flats), then South  Carolina (Barnwell). In 1995, North Carolina was  t...
Radioactive Waste
Radioactive WasteIn the past, many Universities andcompanies were allowed to bury theirradioactive wastes onsite. Some wer...
Radioactive Waste                N.I.M.B.Y.NotInMyBackYard    The true politics of Hazardous Waste
NIMBY: Not In My Back Yard Fear    of radiation because they don’t understand    it   Concern that the waste facility wi...
Low-LevelDisposal Sites
Typical Low-Level Waste     Disposal SiteHanford (Nuclear News, November 2004)
Treatment (LLW)    Filtration    Ion Exchange    Evaporation    Incineration    Compaction    SolidificationTypical ...
Waste Management (HLW) Most common utilized  option are reactor pools  and dry cask storage. Other Options for waste  ma...
High-Level Radioactive Waste High-Level   Radioactive Waste is: the irradiated fuel from the cores of nuclear reactors, t...
Radioactive WasteBecause there is currently no high level radioactive waste disposal facility, HLRW is held On-Site in wat...
Radioactive WasteOnce these Pools are full, Waste is transferred to casks which are also held on-site
Radioactive Waste
Radioactive WasteA HLRW repository is being constructed at Yucca Mountain in Nevada to hold all this waste. NIMBY again is...
Current High-Level Waste  Storage in the US 
www.nei.org
Transportation Concerns
Treatment Most  common initial treatment of waste is vitrification.  – Waste is first mixed with sugar and then passed   ...
Treatment (Cont.) Mid  level active waste is commonly treated  with ion exchange Process reduces the bulk volume of  rad...
Deep Geological Repository Most  common method  for handling nuclear  waste. Typically kept separate  from actual plants...
Transmutation of Nuclear            Waste Reduces   transuranic waste. Integral Fast Reactor Banned 1977-1981 (U.S.) M...
Reuse of Nuclear Waste Research  is being performed to find uses for  nuclear waste. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 alread...
Launch it into Space Near  infinite storage  space Completely removes  waste from biosphere Technical risks and  proble...
Yucca Mountain Yucca Mountain • Technically sound    • 1,000’ below ground    • Repository in block      of solid rock    ...
Deep Geologic Repository
Built for 300 years of retrieval10,000 years of storage
Waste Isolation     Pilot Plant   Opened March 26, 1999   Storage of transuranic    waste leftover from    research an p...
Private Fuel Storage                    (Skull Valley, Utah)   Temporary storage of    spent nuclear fuel until    Yucca ...
Conclusions HLW   is most dangerous  byproduct of nuclear  power. Borosilicate glass most  common storage. Several venu...
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  1. 1. ASSIGNMENT-1 This ppt is presented by:- ADITYA KUMAR SAHU ROLL NO:-411PH5082 INTEGRATED MSc. IN PHYSICS NIT,ROURKELA
  2. 2. Nuclear Waste Disposal Aditya kumar sahu
  3. 3. Nuclear Waste…Why?•Recently nuclear power has entered many discussions asworld energy needs rise and oil reserves diminish.•Most opponents of nuclear power point to two mainarguments: meltdowns and nuclear waste.•Nuclear waste is any form of byproduct or end product thatreleases radioactivity.•How to safely dispose of nuclear waste is pivotal for thecontinued operation of nuclear power plants, safety of peopleliving around dump sites, and prevention of proliferation ofnuclear materials to non-nuclear states
  4. 4. Nuclear Fuel cycleMost nuclear waste comes from the byproducts of the nuclear fuelcycle. The cycle typically is split into three sections: front end,service period, and back end. There can be intermediate stagesthat include the reprocessing of nuclear waste elements.
  5. 5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Cont.)
  6. 6. Radioactive WasteWe will discuss - Low Level Radioactive Waste High Level Radioactive Waste Mining Tailings
  7. 7. Classifications Nuclear waste is segregated into several classifications. Low level waste is not dangerous but sometimes requires shielding during handling. Intermediate level waste typically is chemical sludge and other products from reactors. High level waste consists of fissionable elements from reactor cores and transuranic wastes. Transuranic waste is any waste with transuranic alpha emitting radionuclides that have half- lives longer than 20 years.
  8. 8. Low Level Waste LLW Low level waste is any waste that could be from a high activity area. 90% volume of waste It does not necessarily carry any radioactivity. Split into four catagories: A, B, C, and GTCC.
  9. 9. Intermediate Level Waste ILW Intermediate level waste requires shielding when being handled. 7% volume of waste Dependent on the amount of activity it can be buried in shallow repositories. Not recognized in the United States.
  10. 10. High Level Waste HLW High level waste has a large amount of radioactive activity and is thermally hot. 3% volume of waste 95% of radioactivity Current levels of HLW are increasing about 12,000 metric tons per year. Most HLW consists of Pu-238, 239, 240, 241, 242, Np-237, U-236
  11. 11. Transuranic Waste TRUW Transuranic waste consists of all waste that has radionuclides above uranium. TRUWs typically have longer half-lives than other forms of waste. Typically a byproduct of weapons manufacturing. Only recognized in the United States.
  12. 12. Creation of Nuclear Waste•Nuclear waste is generated at all points ofthe fuel cycle.•Front end waste consists primarily of lowlevel alpha emission waste.•Service period waste typically includesLLW and ILW such as contaminated reactorhousings and waste from daily operation.•Back end waste normally is the mostradioactive and includes spent fuel rods andreactor cores.
  13. 13. Front End Waste Front end waste consists mostly of LLW and ILW. The primary front end waste is depleted uranium and radium. – DU has several uses due to its high density (19,050 kg/m3). – Mix with uranium to form reactor fuel
  14. 14. Service Period Waste Consists of mostly ILW. Mostly waste produced at the plant during normal operation. Spent fuel rods are the most dangerous waste produced during the service period.
  15. 15. Back End Waste Nuclear waste developed during the back end of the fuel cycle is the most dangerous and includes most of the HLW produced. Most back end waste emits both gamma and beta particles. Also uranium-234, Spent nuclear fuel in a cooling pond in North neptunium-237, Korea. plutonium-238 and americium-241are found in back end waste.
  16. 16. Low Level Radioactive WasteLow Level Radioactive waste consists of microcurie, millicurie and at times curie activity waste.(A Curie is a unit of nuclear transformations. 1 Curie is 3.7 x1010 transformations per second)
  17. 17. Low Level Radioactive Waste Low level radioactive waste consists of: – Contaminated solids – liquids – animal carcasses – small sealed sources
  18. 18. Waste Management (LLW) There are several options available for the disposal of LLW due to its lack of radioactivity. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Map of WIPP Facility On-site disposal
  19. 19. Radioactive Waste Low level radioactive liquids are either: – Incinerated – Deep well injected (not as frequent anymore) – Solidified – Sewer Disposed (Regulations allow curie levels of some isotopes to be sewer disposed of if dilution is large enough)
  20. 20. Radioactive Waste Radioactive animal carcasses are either incinerated or buried onsite.
  21. 21. Radioactive Waste Small sealed sources are “Stabilized” in concrete and buried. Stabilized concrete is concrete that is certified to resist wear for a certain time period.
  22. 22. Radioactive Waste Low level contaminated solid wastes are buried. GSU has it’s solid waste “Supercompacted” at 30,000 psi to reduce the volume to be buried
  23. 23. Radioactive WasteMost low level wastes come from Governmentand Utilities. These consist of contaminatedsolids from nuclear reactor usage and weaponconstruction.
  24. 24. Radioactive Waste Colleges, research and medical applications account for less than 25% of the low level Radioactive wastes created
  25. 25. Radioactive Waste Class A low-level radioactive waste is the least hazardous, containing mostly short-lived radionuclides that will be reduced in radioactivity (decay) in a relatively short time. It contains only small amounts of radionuclides that take a relatively short time to decay. Class A waste will be disposed of in concrete canisters that will maintain their shape and strength for hundreds of years.
  26. 26. Radioactive Waste Class B low-level radioactive waste is more hazardous than Class A waste. Most of it comes from nuclear reactors. It must be in a stable form for disposal and will also be disposed of in concrete canisters. Stabilization can be accomplished by solidifying liquid waste, compacting solid waste, or placing the low-level radioactive waste in a container that will be stable for many years. Class B low- level radioactive waste makes up only a small percent of the waste volume generated; but along with Class C waste, it contains the largest portion of the total radioactivity.
  27. 27. Radioactive Waste Class C low-level radioactive waste is the most hazardous and must be handled accordingly. It also must be disposed of in a stable form.
  28. 28. Radioactive Waste
  29. 29. Radioactive Waste Thereare 3 LLRW Burial sites: – Hanford – Envirocare – Barnwell
  30. 30. Radioactive Waste
  31. 31. Radioactive Waste
  32. 32. Radioactive Waste Politics of LLRW – Compacts – On-site burial – NIMBY
  33. 33. Radioactive Waste The compact system was set up by NRC to have all states share in the responsibility of disposal of radioactive waste and to limit waste transport distance. Georgia is in the Southeast compact. Until 1992, all states within the SE compact (excluding Florida) would host a LLRW landfill on a 20-25 year revolving timetable.
  34. 34. Radioactive Waste Kentucky was the first (Maxie Flats), then South Carolina (Barnwell). In 1995, North Carolina was to open a site but the citizens protested and sued. The State legislature refused. North Carolina was then “kicked out” of the S.E. compact and left with no place to dispose of waste. Other States followed N.C.’s lead and refused This lead to the collapse of the traditional compact system and the
  35. 35. Radioactive Waste
  36. 36. Radioactive WasteIn the past, many Universities andcompanies were allowed to bury theirradioactive wastes onsite. Some wereallowed to deep well inject liquidradioactive waste.
  37. 37. Radioactive Waste N.I.M.B.Y.NotInMyBackYard The true politics of Hazardous Waste
  38. 38. NIMBY: Not In My Back Yard Fear of radiation because they don’t understand it Concern that the waste facility will release long-term contamination Worry that property values will be reduced with construction of a waste facility Belief that power companies are the ones responsible for storing their own waste People don’t want dumped on by other peoples’ waste Belief that nuclear power should just go away and be replaced by other energy resources Environmental concerns
  39. 39. Low-LevelDisposal Sites
  40. 40. Typical Low-Level Waste Disposal SiteHanford (Nuclear News, November 2004)
  41. 41. Treatment (LLW)  Filtration  Ion Exchange  Evaporation  Incineration  Compaction  SolidificationTypical LLW treatment facility.
  42. 42. Waste Management (HLW) Most common utilized option are reactor pools and dry cask storage. Other Options for waste management include: – Deep Geologoical Storage – Transmutation Locations of storage sites for nuclear – Reuse waste in the U.S. – Launching it into space
  43. 43. High-Level Radioactive Waste High-Level Radioactive Waste is: the irradiated fuel from the cores of nuclear reactors, the liquid and sludge wastes that are left over after irradiated fuel has been reprocessed (a procedure used to extract uranium and plutonium), the solid that would result from efforts to solidify that liquid and sludge from reprocessing.
  44. 44. Radioactive WasteBecause there is currently no high level radioactive waste disposal facility, HLRW is held On-Site in water pools
  45. 45. Radioactive WasteOnce these Pools are full, Waste is transferred to casks which are also held on-site
  46. 46. Radioactive Waste
  47. 47. Radioactive WasteA HLRW repository is being constructed at Yucca Mountain in Nevada to hold all this waste. NIMBY again is playing a role in the opening
  48. 48. Current High-Level Waste Storage in the US 
  49. 49. www.nei.org
  50. 50. Transportation Concerns
  51. 51. Treatment Most common initial treatment of waste is vitrification. – Waste is first mixed with sugar and then passed through a heated tube to de-nitrite the material. – This material is then fed into a furnace and mixed with glass. – The molten glass mixture is poured into steel cylinders and welded shut.
  52. 52. Treatment (Cont.) Mid level active waste is commonly treated with ion exchange Process reduces the bulk volume of radioactive material. Typically, mixed with concrete for a solid storage form.
  53. 53. Deep Geological Repository Most common method for handling nuclear waste. Typically kept separate from actual plants and buried far below ground. First used in 1999 in the US. Current research is Yucca Mountain Site focusing on Yucca Mountain.
  54. 54. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Reduces transuranic waste. Integral Fast Reactor Banned 1977-1981 (U.S.) MOX Fuel – Behaves as low-enriched uranium Research now in subcritical reactors. Fusion also being researched.
  55. 55. Reuse of Nuclear Waste Research is being performed to find uses for nuclear waste. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 already used in industrial applications. Some waste can be used for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Overall can reduce total HLW but not eliminate it.
  56. 56. Launch it into Space Near infinite storage space Completely removes waste from biosphere Technical risks and problems Political entanglements
  57. 57. Yucca Mountain Yucca Mountain • Technically sound • 1,000’ below ground • Repository in block of solid rock • 1,000’ above water table • Remote location on Nevada Test Range It is better to have used nuclear fuel in one locationFor more information, http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ymp/index.shtml
  58. 58. Deep Geologic Repository
  59. 59. Built for 300 years of retrieval10,000 years of storage
  60. 60. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Opened March 26, 1999 Storage of transuranic waste leftover from research an production of nuclear weapons http://www.wipp.energy.gov/ http://www.radiochemistry.org/wipp_tour/index.html
  61. 61. Private Fuel Storage (Skull Valley, Utah) Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel until Yucca Mountain is operational Goshute Indian Skull Valley Band 3-ft thick concrete storage pads http://www.privatefuelstorage.com/ http://www.kued.org/skullvalley/
  62. 62. Conclusions HLW is most dangerous byproduct of nuclear power. Borosilicate glass most common storage. Several venues being researched for the safe disposal of HLW.
  63. 63. This ppt. is submitted by:-
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