Air navigation PILOTS
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Air navigation PILOTS

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Air navigation slides for better understanding of the so called tough subject!

Air navigation slides for better understanding of the so called tough subject!

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    Air navigation PILOTS Air navigation PILOTS Presentation Transcript

    • AIR NAVIGATION
    • • Periods 1&2 • INTRODUCTION • HOW IS AIR NAVIGATION DIFFERENT FROM • NAVIGATION ON LAND AND WATER? • FORM OF THE EARTH • SHAPE, SIZE, AXIS OF ROTATION, GEOGRAPHIC POLES • GREAT CIRCLES, SMALL CIRCLE • GRATICULE, LATITUDE, PARELLELS OF LAT, D LAT • MERIDIANS, PRIME MERIDIAN, ANTE MERIDIAN, • LONGITUDE, D LONG , LAT/LONG POSITION , • BEARING AND DIST, PLACE NAME, GRID, GEOREF SYSTEM
    • AIR NAVIGATION • AIR NAVIGATION is the ART and SCIENCE of taking an Aircraft from Place ‘A’ to Place ‘B’, Safely and in Shortest Possible TIME, ie Most Economically • Most Important aspect of Aviation and involves not only the in depth knowledge of a wide variety of subjects but also their interdependence and co-relation and their impact on the flight operations
    • THE THREE W’S OF NAVIGATION WHERE AM I ? WHY AM I HERE? WHAT DO I DO NEXT?
    • How is Air Navigation different from navigation on land and water? PILOTAGE NAVIGATION WITH REFERENCE TO VISIBLEFEATURES
    • EARTH • FORM SHAPE SIZE AXIS OF ROTATION GEOGRAPHIC POLES GREAT CIRCLES SMALL CIRCLES EQUATOR, MERIDIANS & PARELLELS GRATICULE
    • SOLAR SYSTEM The Solar System consists of the Sun ,nine major planets , including the earth, and approximately 2000 minor planets and asteroids. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto All the Planets orbit around the sun in elliptical orbits in accordance with Keppler’s Laws of Planetary motion. Similarly the Earth orbits the Sun in an elliptical orbit at an average distance of 93 million statute miles from the Sun.
    • THE EARTH’S ORBIT The Earth not only orbits the Sun but also spins on its own axis, presenting a continuously changing face to the Sun. This causes day and night. The Earth’s axis is inclined at an angle of approx 66.5 degrees to the Orbital Plane. This causes the seasons on the Earth as well as the changing time interval between Sunrise and Sunset throughout the year.
    • THE POLES The Poles are defined as the extremities of the axis about which the Earth spins. When viewed from above a Pole, if the Earth appears to rotate in an anti-clockwise direction then that Pole has been named as the North Pole. Similarly, if viewed from above a Pole , the Earth appears to rotate in a clockwise direction then that Pole has been named as the South Pole.
    • SHAPE OF THE EARTH OBLATE SPHEROID a solid generated by revolution of an ellipse about its minor axis Equatorial Diameter= Polar Diameter + 27 Statute Miles 6865 NM 6888 NM Compression or Flattening = Eq Dia – Polar Dia Eq Dia
    • Topographical SurfaceTopographical surface Mountain Geoid Ellipsoid Ocean
    • GREAT CIRCLE • IS A CIRCLE ON THE SURFACE OF A SPHERE (EARTH) WHOSE CENTER AND RADIUS ARE THE SAME AS THOSE OF THE SPHERE. • IT IS THE LARGEST CIRCLE THAT CAN BE DRAWN ON THE SPHERE . • IT CUTS THE SPHERE INTO TWO EQUAL HALVES. • ONLY ONE GREAT CIRCLE CAN BE DRAWN THROUGH ANY TWO POINTS ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH WHICH ARE NOT DIAMETRICALLY OPPOSITE TO EACH OTHER. • THE SHORTER ARC OF THE GREAT CIRCLE PASSING THROUGH TWO POINTS REPRESENTS THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN THE POINTS
    • • SMALL CIRCLE: ANY CIRCLE WHICH IS NOT A GREAT CIRCLE IS CALLED A SMALL CIRCLE. • EQUATOR: EQUATOR IS A GREAT CIRCLE WHOSE PLANE IS AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE AXIS OF ROTATION OF THE EARTH. IT CUTS THE EARTH INTO NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. • PARALELS OF LATITUDE: SMALL CIRCLES WHOSE PLANE IS PARALEL TO THE PLANE OF THE EQUATOR . • MERIDIANS: ARE SEMI GREAT CIRCLES PASSING THROUGH THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH POLES.A MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH A PLACE ALWAYS DEFINES THE NORTH SOUTH DIRECTION. • PRIME MERIDIAN: THE MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH GREENWICH (LONDON) IS CALLED THE PRIME MERIDIAN • ANTI MERIDIAN: THE OTHER HALF OF THE GREAT CIRCLE COMPLETING THE MERIDIAN IS CALLED ITS ANTI MERIDIAN • GRATICULE: NETWORK OF MERIDIANS AND PARALELS OF LATITUDE IS CALLED GRATICULE.
    • NP SP EQUATOR GREAT CIRCL SMALLCIRCLES
    • BASIC DIRECTIONS ON THE EARTH NEED FOR A DATUM………… THE DIRECTION IN WHICH THE EARTH IS SPINNING IS DEFINED AS EAST. THE DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO EAST IS NAMED WEST. FACING EAST, THE POLE ON THE LEFT IS NORTH POLE AND DIRECTION NORTH IS DEFINED AS THE DIRECTION TOWARDS THE NORTH POLE LIKEWISE THE POLE ON THE RIGHT IS THE SOUTH POLE AND THE DIRECTION SOUTH IS DEFINED AS THE DIRECTION TOWARDS THE SOUTH POLE. SOUTH IS ALSO THE DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO NORTH
    • NORTH EAST SOUTH WEST CARDINAL DIRECTIONS OR POINTS NORTH-EAST SOUTH-EAST SOUTH-WEST NORTH WEST QUADRANTAL DIRECTIONS OR POINTS N S EW NE SESW NW
    • SEXAGESIMAL SYSTEM / TRUE DIRECTION • SEXAGESIMAL SYSTEM USES THE FACT THAT A CLOCKWISE ROTATION OF DIRECTION FROM NORTH THROUGH EAST, SOUTH AND WEST AND BACK TO NORTH IS A CIRCLE OF 360 DEGREES. NORTH IS THUS 000 Degrees, EAST BECOMES 090 Degrees, SOUTH 180 Degrees AND WEST 270 Degrees. NORTH CAN BE 360 OR 000 Degrees. • WHEN THE NORTH DATUM IS WITH RESPECT TO THE GEOGRAPHIC NORTH POLE , THEN THE DIRECTIONS ARE TERMED AS TRUE DIRECTIONS AND SHOWN AS 000(T) , 090(T), 135(T) etc • 090(M) WILL BE THE DIRECTION WITH RESPECT TO THE MAGNETIC NORTH AND 090(C) WILL BE THE DIRECTION WITH THE DATUM AS THE COMPASS NORTH
    • LATITUDE,PARELLELS OF LATITUDE DIFF OF LAT/DIFF OF LONG PRIME MERIDIAN/ ANTI MERIDIAN STANDARD MERIDIAN POSITIONS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF LAT & LONG, BEARINGS AND DISTANCES
    • DEFINITIONS • LATITUDE : LAT OF A POINT IS THE ARC OF THE MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH THE POINT INTERCEPTED BETWEEN THE EQUATOR AND THE POINT. MEASURED IN DEG, MIN, AND SEC AND IS TERMED NORTH OR SOUTH DEPENDING ON WHETHER THE POINT IS NORTH OR SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR • LONGITUDE : LONGITUDE OF A PLACE IS THE SHORTER ARC OF THE EQUATOR INTERCEPTED BETWEEN THE PRIME MERIDIAN AND THE MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH THE PLACE . MEASURED IN DEG, MIN, AND SEC AND IS TERMED EAST OR WEST DEPENDING ON WHETHER THE POINT IS EAST OR WEST OF THE PRIME MERIDIAN.
    • • Latitude 40 N Equator A Latitude 40 N E Q N S 40°
    • . NP Greenwich B 0° Greenwich Meridian 180° Meridian
    • DEFINITIONS • CHANGE OF LAT (Ch Lat/D Lat): BETWEEN TWO PLACES IS THE SMALLER ARC OF THE MERIDIAN INTRRCEPTED BETWEEN THE PARALLELS OF LATITUDE OF THE TWO PLACES AND IS NAMED NORTH OR SOUTH DEPENDING ON THE DIRECTION OF THE CHANGE. MEASURED IN DEG, MIN AND SEC. • CHANGE OF LONG (Ch Long/D Long): BETWEEN TWO PLACES IS THE SMALLER ARC OF THE EQUATOR INTRRCEPTED BETWEEN THE MERIDIANS OF THE TWO PLACES AND IS NAMED EAST OR WEST DEPENDING ON THE DIRECTION OF THE CHANGE. MEASURED IN DEG, MIN AND SEC
    • Periods 3&4 DIRECTION MAGNETIC POLES, RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC AND MAGNETIC POLES VARIATION, ISOGONALS, DEVIATION , HEADING (C),(M),(T) TRACK – MAGNETIC AND TRUE CONVERSION AND C D M V T PRACTICE PROBLEMS
    • Aircraft HEADING True Magnetic Compass TN MN CN Variation (E) Deviation (W) Measurement of Direction
    • • DIRECTION MAGNETIC POLES RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOG & MAGNETIC POLES VARIATION, ISOGONALS, AGONIC LINE DIP-ISOCLINALS, ACLINIC LINE TRACK – MAGNETIC AND TRUE CONVERSION OF COMP DIR TO MAG AND TRUE AND VICE VERSA
    • Periods 5&6 UNITS OF MEASURE MENT NAUTICAL MILE , STATUTE MILE, KILOMETER RELATIONSHIP NAUTICAL MILE AND LAT METERS , FEET AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TEMPERATURE, UNITS OF MEASUREMENT POUNDS AND KILOGRAMS US GALLONS, IMP GALLONS, LITERS AND THEIR CONVERSION
    • UNITS OF MEASUREMENT • NAUTICAL MILE, STATUTE MILE, KM • METERS AND FEET & THEIR REL’SHIP 1M=3.3 ft • TEMP; UNITS OF MEASUREMENT • °C °F °K ( Absolute Temp) X°F=(X-32)x 5/9 °C Y°C=(Y+273) °K Z °C = (Z x 9/5) + 32° F • APPRECIATION OF VARIATION OF LENGTH OF NAUTICAL MILE WITH LAT • POUNDS, KG 1 Kg = 2.2 lbs • US GALLONS, IMP GALLONS,LITRES 1 Imp Gal = 1.2 US Gal = 4.55 Ltr 1 US Gal = 3.6 Ltr • CONVERSION OF THE ABOVE
    • Periods 7&8 CONVERGENCY, CONVERGENCE OF MERIDIANS VARIATION OF CONVERGENCY WITH LAT ITS EFFECT ON G/C TRACKS RHUMB LINE, DEFINITION, ADV/ DISADV OF R/L TR VIS-À-VIS G/C TR CONVERSION ANGLE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CONVERGENCY APPLICATION OF THE SAME
    • CONVERGENCY • CONVERGENCE OF MERIDIANS • VARIATION OF CONVERGENCY WITH LAT • EFFECT OF CONV ON GREAT CIRCLE TRACKS
    • x x x CONVERGENCY between Long A and Long B At Lat C A B Convergency = Ch Long X Sine Mean Lat CONVERGENCY IS DEFINED AS THE ANGLE OF INCLINATION BETWEEN TWO SELECTED MERIDIANS MEASURED AT A GIVEN LATITUDE C
    • RHUMB LINE • DEFINITION : IT IS A REGULARLY CURVED LINE WHICH CUT ALL THE MERIDIANS AT THE SAME ANGLE • ADVANTAGES : IT REPRESENTS THE CONSTANT DIRECTION FLIGHT. SO CONSTANT HEADING CAN BE MAINTAINED. IT OBVIATES THE NEED TO CONSTANTLY KEEP CHANGING THE HEADING AS IS THE CASE WITH G/C TRACKS • DISADVANTAGES : IT DOES NOT REPRESENT THE SHORTEST DISTANCE. SO IT IS LESS ECONOMICAL IN COMPARISON WITH GREAT CIRCLE • CONVERSION ANGLE : THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE G/C TRACK AND THE RHUMB LINE TRACK BETWEEN ANY TWO PLACES IS CALLED THE CONVERSION ANGLE. • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONV ANGLE AND CONVERGENCY: CONVERSION ANGLE IS EQUAL = ½ CONVERGENCY THEREFORE CA = ½ CH LONG X SINE MEAN LAT • ITS APPLICATION; IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE C/A IS APPLIED AT THE POSITION WHERE THE G/C DIRECTION IS MEASURED
    • • Convergency= 70 x Sin30 = 35 Deg • C/A= 17 ½ Deg E Q 60N 50W 20E A B NP SP R/L G/C C/A C/A
    • DEPARTURE • DEPARTURE IS THE E – W DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO MERIDIANS ALONG A SPECIFIED LATITUDE, USUALLY IN NAUTICAL MILES • IT IS MAXIMUM AT THE EQUATOR AND ZERO AT THE POLES, WHERE ALL MERIDIANS CONVERGE • THEREFORE, DEP VARIES AS Cos LAT Departure (nm) =Ch Long (Min)xCos Lat
    • A B C D 10 W 20 W 20 N 40 N POSN A – 40 N 10 W B - 40 N 20 W C - 20N 10 W D - 20 N 20 W GIVE:THE R/L DIST FROM A – B THE DEP FROM B TO C THE DEP FROM CTO B?
    • Q.1 GIVEN THAT THE VALUE OF EARTH’S COMPRESSION IS 1/297 AND THAT THE SEMI-MAJOR AXIS OF THE EARTH, ( MEASURED AT THE EQUATOR) IS 6378.4 KM , WHAT IS THE SEMI-MINOR AXIS (MEASURED AT AXIS OF THE POLES)? a) 6399.9 km b) 6356.5 km c) 6378.4 km d) 6367.0 km Q.2 GIVE THE DIRECTION AND CHANGE OF LATITUDE FROM “A” TO “B” IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CASES: A B a) 31°27’S 091°47’E 35°57’N 096°31’E b) 61°47’N 003°46’W 62°13N 001°36’E c) 43°57’S 108°23’E 43°57N 071°37W Q.3 YOU ARE AT POSITION “A” AT 54°20’N 002°30’W. GIVEN A ChLat OF 16°20’N AND A
    • • Q.4 WHAT IS THE POSITION OF THE RHUMB LINE BETWEEN TWO POINTS RELATIVE TO THE GREAT CIRCLE BETWEEN THE SAME TWO POINTS, IF THE POINTS ARE: a) IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE b) IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE • Q.5 COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE HDG (C) DEVN. HDG(M) VARN HDG(T) 095 100 5W 312 3E 315 138 3W 13 E
    • • Q.6 GIVE THE SHORTEST DISTANCE IN NAUTICAL MILES AND IN KILOMETERS BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING POSITIONS: A B a) 52°06’N 002 32’E 53°36’N OO2°32’W b) 04°41’S 163°36’W O3°21’N 163°36W c) 62 00’N 093°00’E 62°00’N 087°00’W d) 00°00’N 176°00’E 00°00’N 173°00W e) 43°57’N 071°37’W 43°57’S 108°23’W Q.7 WHAT IS THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN “A” ( 5130N 00000E) AND “B” (5130S 18000E)
    • Q.8 WHAT IS THE ANGLE BETWEEN TRUE G/C TRACK AND THE TRUE R/L TRACK JOINING THE POINTS “A” (7000S 16000W) AND “B” (7000S 17900E), AT THE PLACE OF DEPARTURE ?(Cos70 = 0.34 , Sin70 = 0.94) Q.9 POSITION “A” IS 58°N 030°W AND POSITION “B” IS 51°N 020°W. WHAT IS THE RHUMB LINE BEARING FROM ‘A’ TO ‘B’ , IF THE GREAT CIRCLE TRACK FROM ‘A’ TO ‘B’ MEASURED AT ‘A’ IS 100°(T)? a) 110°(T) b) 284°(T) c) 104°(T) d) 090°(T)°
    • Q.10 THE GREAT CIRCLE BEARING OF ‘E’ FROM ‘F’ IS O90°(T) AND THE GREAT CIRCLE BEARING OF ‘F’ FROM ‘E’ IS 265°(T). IN WHICH HEMISPHERE ARE ‘E’ AND ‘F’ LOCATED ?
    • AERONAUTICAL CHARTS • SIMPLE THEORY OF PROJECTIONS • SCALE • SCALE ERROR • RELIEF • SYMBOLS
    • • PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL CHART A. Representation of the Earth’s surface Areas should be represented in their true shape on the chart Equal Areas ON THE Earth Should be shown as Equal Areas on the Chart Angles on the Earth should be represented by the Same (Equal) Angles on the Chart Scale Should be Constant and Correct B. Navigation Requirements R/L Should Be A Straight Line G/C Should Be A Straight Line Lat and Long should be easy to plot Adjacent sheets should fit correctly Coverage should be Worldwide
    • SCALE • DEFINITION • REDUCED EARTH • R.F./STATEMENT IN WORDS/ GRADUATED SCALE • DEVELOPABLE SURFACE • TYPES OF PROJECTIONS a) PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS b) MATHEMATICAL PROJECTIONS
    • SCALE • Definition: It is the ratio of Chart Length to the Earth Distance in the same Units • Scale = Chart Length/ Earth Length (in same units) RF 1: 1,000,000 Statement : 0ne inch equals one mile :Quarter inch Map Graduated Scale 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
    • PROJECTIONS IDEAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NAVIGATION • APPEARANCE OF GRATICULE • SCALE VARIATION • ORTHOMORPHISM • CHART CONVERGENCY • APPEARANCE OF GREAT CIRCLE • APPEARANCE OF RHUMB LINE • AVAILABLE COVERAGE • FITMENT OF ADJACENT SHEETS
    • SCALE FACTOR • Scale can never be constant and correct • Scale Factor is the Factor at which the Scale is Expanding/ Contracting. • SF at A = Scale at A / Scale of Reduced Earth therefore, Scale at A = Scale of RE x SF • Also, Scale at A = SF at A x Specified scale, Scale at B = SF at B x Specified scale Therefore, Scale at A = SF at A Scale at B SF at B
    • SCALE ERROR • Difference between 1 and Scale Factor SF = 1.1 , Scale Error = 1.1-1 = +0.1 or, if SF = .99, Scale Error = - 0.01 • Scale Deviation is the scale error expressed as a percentage. So
    • Periods 11&12 MERCATOR / TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS CONSTRUCTION PROPERTIES ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES USES LIMITATIONS
    • MERCATOR PROJECTION N S
    • MERCATOR PROJECTION - PROPERTIES • A MATHEMATICAL PROJECTION – BASED ON NORMAL CYLINDRICAL • ORTHOMORPHIC BY CONSTRUTION • RHUMB LINES ARE STRAIGHT LINES • GREAT CIRCLES ARE CURVES CONCAVE TO THE EQUATOR • SCALE IS CORRECT ONLY AT THE EQUATOR: BUT SCALE CAN BE MADE CORRECT AT ANY OTHER STATED LAT SCALE IS NOT CONSTANT – EXPANDS AWAY FROM THE EQUATOR • AREAS ARE NOT CORRECTLY REPRESENTED: EXAGERATED – LAT • SHAPES DISTORTED SPECIALLY IN HIGHER LATITUDES • CONVERGENCY IS CONSTANT AT 0°(Correct only at Equator) - MERIDIANS ARE ALL PARELLEL ST. LINES • COVERAGE – POLES CAN NEVER BE PROJECTED PROJECTION IS USEFUL FOR NAV UPTO ABOUT 70 DEG LAT. IT WAS ONE OF THE MAIN PROJECTIONS USED FOR PLOTTING CHARTS. MAIN DISADVANTAGES- DOES NOT FOLLOW SHORTEST DIST. TR. AND RADIO BEARINGS NEED TO BE CORRECTED BEFORE PLOTTING ( APPLICATION OF CONVERSION ANGLE)
    • MERCATOR PROJECTION • SCALE FACTOR: AT EQUATOR SF = 1 MEANS SCALE IS CORRECT AT THE EQUATOR SCALE EXPANDS AWAY FROM THE EQUATOR AS SECANT OF LAT SO SCALE AT ANY LAT = SCALE AT EQ X SEC LAT • SCALE CAN ALSO BE MADE CORRECT AT TWO PARALLELS • SCALE CONTRACTS BETWEEN THEM EXPANDS OUTSIDE SCALE CORRECT AT THESE LAT’S SCALE REDUCES TOWARDS EQUATOR
    • OBLIQUE MERCATOR E Q NP SP FALSE EQUATOR THE PROPERTIES ARE IN RELATION TO THE FALSE EQUATOR. PROJECTION OF THE GRATICULE IS COMPLICATED.
    • OBLIQUE MERCATOR
    • OBLIQUE MERCATOR APPEARANCE OF GRATICULE
    • TRANSVERSE MERCATOR E Q NP SP
    • TRANSVERSE MERCATOR OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
    • Periods 13&14 SIMPLE CONIC/ LAMBERT’S CONFORMAL CONSTRUCTION PROPERTIES, CONSTANT OF THE CONE PARALLEL OF ORIGIN, STANDARD PARALLEL GRATICULE PROPERTIES – SCALE, G/C , R/L USES LIMITATIONS
    • CONICAL PROJECTIONS • CYLINDRICAL PROJECTIONS ARE MOST SUITED TO COVER AREAS CLOSE TO A GREAT CIRCLE, LIKE THE EQUATOR • AZIMUTHAL PROJECTIONS ON THE OTHER HAND ARE MOST SUITED TO COVER AREAS AROUND A POINT, LIKE THE POLES • CONICAL PROJECTIONS ARE THE MOST SUITED FOR THE AREAS IN BETWEEN THE TWO, NAMELY THE MID LATITUDES • IF YOU PLACE A CONE WITH THE APEX ABOVE THE POLE AND PLACE THE LIGHT SOURCE AT THE CENTER OF THE REDUCED EARTH, THE GRATICULE WILL BE PROJECTED ON TO THE DEVELOPABLE SURFACE • THE LAT ITUDE AT WHICH THE CONE IS TANGENTIAL, THE LENGTH OF THE PARALLEL OF LAT ON THE REDUCED EARTH AND ON THE PROJECTION WILL BE EQUAL. IN OTHER WORDS , THE SCALE FACTOR WILL BE ONE : SCALE WILL BE CORRECT. THIS LAT IS CALLED THE PARELLEL OF ORIGIN. • NUMERICALLY, THE VALUE OF PARELLEL OF ORIGIN IS EQUAL TO HALF THE APEX ANGLE.
    • THE FAMILY OF TRUE (PERSPECTIVE) PROJECTIONS CONSTANT OF THE CONE = 1 CONSTANT OF THE CONE = 0 CONSTANT OF THE CONE =>0 <1 CYLINDRICAL CONICAL AZIMUTHAL
    • CONICAL PROJECTIONS Semi Apex Angle = Lat of Parallel of Origin ө = ө ө PARALLEL OF ORIGIN E Q NP SP NORMAL CONICAL APEX OF THE CONE IS ON THE AXIS OF ROTATION OF THE EARTH (EXTENDED) PARALLEL OF ORIGIN THE PARELLEL AT WHICH THE CONE IS TANGENTIAL TO THE REDUCED EARTH DEPENDS ON THE APEX ANGLE SCALE WILL BE CORRECT ALONG THIS STANDARD PARELLEL ONE WHICH IS PROJECTED AT THE REDUCED EARTH SCALE. ON A ONE STANDARD PARELLEL PROJECTION IT IS ALSO THE PARELLEL OF ORIGIN CONSTANT OF THE CONE RATIO OF ANGLE OF THE SEGMENT WHEN DEVELOPED TO 360° IS CALLED THE CONSTANT OF THE CONE
    • CONSTANT OF THE CONE • Basically depends on the apex (semi- apex) angle. • Constant of the cone varies from 0 for cylindrical projections to 1 for azimuthal projections • Constant of the cone is mathematically equal to sine of the parallel of origin/standard parellel i.e. sine of semi apex angle for the simple conic .
    • LAMBERT’S CONFORMAL • A NON PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION ON TO A CONE TANGENTIAL AT A LAT CHOSEN AS THE PARELLEL OF ORIGIN • IT HAS TWO STANDARD PARELLELS i.e. SCALE IS MADE TO BE CORRECT ALONG THESE TWO PARELLELS WHICH ARE APPROXIMATELY EQUALLY SPACED ABOUT λ○. SCALE FACTOR AT THESE PARELLELS IS ONE .
    • LAMBERT’S CONFORMAL Parellel of Origin Standard Parellels
    • • PROPERTIES  MATHEMATICAL PROJ BASED ON CONIC WITH TWO STANDARD PARALLELS  ORTHOMORPHIC  SCALE : CORRECT ALONG THE TWO STANDARD PARELLELS ; EXPANDS OUTSIDES AND CONTRACTS INSIDE THE STD PARELLELS : EXPANSION OUTSIDE THE STD PARELLELS IS UNEQUAL i.e. IT IS MORE TOWARDS THE POLES THAN TOWARDS THE EQUATOR : SCALE MIN AT THE PARELLEL OF ORIGIN  CONVERGENCE = n x Ch long  GREAT CIRCLES ARE CURVES CONCAVE TO THE PARELLEL OF ORIGIN. DEVIATION BETWEEN G/C AND A STRAIGHT LINE IS SO SMALL THAT FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES A ST LINE IS A GREAT CIRCLE  RHUMB LINES : WILL APPEAR AS CURVES CONCAVE TO THE NEARER POLE  SHAPES AND AREAS : SHAPES ARE DISTORTED : BUT FOR SMALL AREAS SHAPES MAY BE CONSIDERED REASONABLY CORRECT
    • SCALE VARIATION ON A LAMBERT’S CONFORMAL
    • APPEARANCE OF G/C AND R/L ON LAMBERT’S CONFORMAL
    • Periods 15 &16 AZIMUTHAL PROJECTIONS Gnomonic ,Stereographic & Equidistant POLAR GNOMONIC /POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS CONSTRUCTION PROPRETIES USES LIMITATIONS
    • NP PARALLELS OF LAT PROJECTING LIGHT SOURCE Appearance of Graticule NP MERIDIANS STRAIGHT LINES RADIATING OUT FM THE CENTER, Ie THE POLE
    • • POLAR GNOMONIC • Construction: • This Is An Perspective Projection In Which A Plane Surface Is Placed Tangential To The Pole And The Light Source Is Placed At The Center Of The Reduced Earth
    • POLAR GNOMONIC – PROPERTIES PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION POLAR GNOMONIC: GRATICULE APPEARANCE MERIDIANS – RADIAL STRAIGHT LINEs PARELLELS OF LAT ARE CONCENTRIC CIRCLES POINT OF TANGENCY IS ONE OF THE POLES SCALE INCREASES AWAY FROM THE POLE OFTANGENCY SCALE FACTOR IS GIVEN BY SECANT (90 – Lat) ALONG THE LAT AND AS SECANT ² (90 –Lat) ALONG THE MERIDIAN SO PROJECTION IS NEITHER ORTHOMORPHIC NOR EQUAL AREA COVERAGE IS LIMITED TO LESS THAN 90 DEGREES, i.e. EQUATOR CAN NEVER BE PROJECTED
    • POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC THIS IS A PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION POINT OF TANGENCY : ONE OF THE POLES POINT OF PROJECTION : DIAMETRICALLY OPP THE PT OF TANGENCY R R ө POINT OF TANGENCY LIGHT SOURCE * * ** R Cosine ө ө 2R **Tan ½ (90- ө)=D/2R D =2Rx Tan ½ Co Lat R
    • POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION E Q NP NP MERIDIANS EQUATOR PARALLELS OF LATITUDE REDUCED EARTH SP PLANE OF PROJECTION
    • PRORERTIES : POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC  IT IS ALSO A PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION  SCALE EXPANDS ALONG MERIDIANS WITH DIST FM POINT OF TANGENCY  SCALE AT ANY POINT IS SAME ALONG PARELLELS AND MERIDIANS. HENCE IT IS CONFORMAL  GRATICULE: MERIDIANS ARE STRAIGHT LINES RADIATING FROM THE POINT OF TANGENCY PARALLELS OF LAT ARE CONCENTRIC CIRCLES  RHUMBLINES - CURVES CONCAVE TO THE POLE  GREAT CIRCLES : ALL MERIDIANS ARE STRAIGHT LINES, OTHER G/C ARE ARCS OF CIRCLES. DIFFICULT TO PLOT  SCALE NEARLY CONSTANT : SD < 1% UPT0 7 8.5 Deg  IT CAN BE EXTENDED BEYOND THE EQUATOR, i.e. MORE THAN ONE HEMISPHERE CAN BE PROJECTED
    • Periods17 & 18 TYPES OF CHARTS - Purpose and Uses of different charts TOPOGRAPHICAL CHARTS PLOTTING CHARTS POLAR CHARTS RADIO FACILITY CHARTS AERONAUTICAL NAVIGATION, RADIO NAVIGATION, PLANNING CHARTS TRRMINAL AREA CHARTS/ INSTRUMENT APPROACH LETDOWN CHARTS
    • TYPES OF CHARTS • TOPOGRAPHICAL CHARTS • PLOTTING CHARTS • POLAR CHARTS • RADIO FACILITY CHARTS • AERONAUTICAL NAV CHARTS • RADIO NAV CHARTS • PLANNING CHARTS • DANGER AREA/PROHIBITED AREA/RESTRICTED AREA CHARTS • TERMINAL AREA / IAL CHARTS
    • Periods 19 ,20,21 & 22 ELEMENTS OF FLIGHT NAV SPEEDS – IAS,RAS,CAS,EAS,TAS DIRECTION- TRUE, MAG, COMP, REL TRACK- REQD, TMG, TRACK ERROR HEADING BEARING/ BACK BEARING DISTANCE TEMPERATURE-INDICATED, OAT OR FAT WIND VEL DRIFT GROUND SPEED AIR POSITION GROUND POSITION / DEDUCED RECKONING (DR) POSN MEASUREMENT OF DIRECTION AND DIST ON A CHART
    • ELEMENTS OF FLIGHT NAV • SPEEDS – IAS,RAS,CAS,EAS,TAS • DIRECTION- TRUE, MAG, COMP, REL • TRACK- REQD, TMG, TRACK ERROR • HEADING • BEARING/ BACK BEARING • DISTANCE • TEMPERATURE-INDICATED, OAT OR FAT • WIND VEL • DRIFT • GROUND SPEED • AIR POSITION • GROUND POSITION / DEDUCED RECKONING (DR) POSN • MEASUREMENT OF DIRECTION AND DIST ON A CHART
    • • DIRECTION Aircraft HEADING True Magnetic Compass TN MN CN Variation (E) Deviation (W) Measurement of Direction MEASURED CLOCKWISE 000° TO 360° FROM: TRUE NORTH (T) MAGNETIC NORTH (M) COMPASS NORTH (C)
    • • Track Error Aircraft HEADING True Magnetic Compass TN MN CN Variation (E) Deviation (W) Track Required Drift TMG © TRACK ERROR : Angle between Track Required and Track Made Good Measured Port or Starboard of Track Required Track Error 20P Hdg
    • 140(M)=130(T)
    • Bearings • The direction or orientation of the fore and aft (longitudinal) axis of the aircraft, expressed as an angle measured clockwise from a reference. • The angle is the bearing from one point to another. • Bearings are named by the nature of the reference: True North reference – True bearing Magnetic North reference – Magnetic bearing Straight ahead – Relative bearings
    • 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 Rel Brg Ind
    • BEARINGS: DIRECTION OF PLACE “A” FROM PLACE “B” N N A BBEARING OF A FROM B 290°(T) BEARING OF B FROM A i.e. RECIPROCAL OF BRG OF B FROM A 290°(T) ± 180° = 11O°(T)
    • 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 Rel Brg Ind
    • N000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 Rel Brg Ind A A Brs 225(R) + HDG(T) 270 = 495-360 = 135(T)
    • Periods 23 & 24 TRIANGLE OF VELOCITIES • EFFECT OF WIND ON AN AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT • SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS BY ESTIMATION • INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER / SLIDE RULE
    • TRIANGLE OF VELOCITIES • EFFECT OF WIND ON AN AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT • SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS BY ESTIMATION
    • Periods 25 &26,27&28 USE OF COMPUTER/ SLIDE RULE • PRINCIPLE OF CONSTRUTION • MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION • CONVERSIONS • CALCULATION OF: • CAS TO TAS , MACH NO. TO TAS, INDICATED ALT TO TRUE ALT, INDICATED ALT TO DENSITY ALT , CAS TO MACH NO.& VICE VERSA , FUEL CALCULATIONS • SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE OF VELOCITIES
    • PRINCIPLE OF CONSTRUCTION CIRCULAR SLIDE RULE BASED ON THE LOGRARITHMIC SCALE  IF 10ª = A NUMBER “X”, THEN Log X= a Conversely Anti Log of a = X SO IF WE WANT TO MULTIPLY X and Y, 10ª=X and 10ⁿ=Y, X x Y= 10ª x 10ⁿ= 10ª+ⁿ LIKEWISE, X/Y Can be solved by  Log X/Y = 10ª - ⁿ
    • PRINCIPLE OF CONSTRUCTION : Based on Logarithmic Scale • Log 10 = 1 ( 10 = 10¹ ) • Log 100 = 2 ( 100 = 10 ² ) • Log 10000 = 4 • Log 10ⁿ = n _____________________________________________ Log 1 = 0.00000 Log 2 = 0.30103 Log 3 = 0.47712 Log 4 = 0. 60205 Log 5 = 0.69897 Log 6 = 0.77815 Log 7 = 0.84510 Log 8 = 0.90309 Log 9 = 0.95424 Log 10 = 1.00000 Log 90 = 1.95424 Log 8000= 3.90309
    • Flight Computer • UNIT INDEX …………………………….. Against 10 • IMP GALLON CONV. ARROW………….. Against 10.7 • KILOMETER -----,,-------,,-----------,,------ Against 12.2 • US GALLON -----,,-------,,-----------,,------.. Against 12.8 • FOOT -----,,-------,,-----------,,------ ……… Against 14.3 • PRESSURE ALTITUDE WINDOW • LBS CONV. ARROW……………………. Against 35.3 • DENSITY ALT WINDOW • AIR TEMP WINDOW • “A” SCALE MILES, MPH,GALLONS, GPH,TAS, TRUE ALT • “B” SCALE ( TIME IN MIN, CAS, CAL ALT ) • “C” SCALE … TIME IN HOURS AND MINUTES • TEMP CONV SCALE • KILOGRAM CONV ARROW …………… Against 16.5 (INNER SCALE) • SECONDS ARROW ………………………Against 36 (INNER SCALE) • METERS-----,,-------,,-----------,,------ …… Against 43.5 (INNER SCALE) • LITERS -----,,-------,,-----------,,------ …… Against 48.5 ( OUTER SCALE) • SPEED INDEX …………………………… Against 60 (INNER SCALE) • NAUTICAL MILES CONV. ARROW…… Against 66 ( OUTER SCALE) • STATUTE MILES CONV ARROW…… Against 76 ( OUTER SCALE) • FUELPOUNDS CONV ARROW …… Against 77 ( OUTER SCALE) • OIL/POUNDS CONV ARROW ………… Against 96 ( OUTER SCALE)
    • FLIGHT COMPUTER Slide Rule Time-Speed-Distance Calculations Fuel Calculations Nautical/Statute Conversions CAS/TAS Conversion Density Altitude Calculations Exercise
    • USE OF COMPUTER/ SLIDE RULE • PRINCIPLE OF CONSTRUTION • MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION • CONVERSIONS • CALCULATION OF: • CAS TO TAS , MACH NO. TO TAS, INDICATED ALT TO TRUE ALT, INDICATED ALT TO DENSITY ALT , CAS TO MACH NO.& VICE VERSA , FUEL CALCULATIONS • SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE OF VELOCITIES
    • Period 31 METHODS OF DETERMINING WIND VELOCITY • TRACK AND GS METHOD- ITS ACC & LIMITATIONS • AIR PLOT METHOD – ITS ACC AND ADVANTAGES • FMS/GPS/INS WIND VEL
    • METHODS OF DETERMINING WIND VELOCITY • TRACK AND GS METHOD- ITS ACC & LIMITATIONS • AIR PLOT METHOD – ITS ACC AND ADVANTAGES • FMS/GPS/INS WIND VEL
    • Periods32&33 NAVIGATION TECHNIQUES • MAP READING – INTERPRETATION OF MAP/CHART SYMBOLS • NECESSITY OF CROSS-CHECKING PIN-POINTS • MONITORING PROGRESS OF THE AIRCRAFT BY MAP READING • MAP READING TECHNIQUES MAP TO GRD WHEN SURE OF POSN , GRD TO MAP WHEN UNSURE OF POSN • DR POSN AND ITS CIRCLE OF ERROR • METHODS OF DETERMINING TR ERROR AND ALTERATION OF HDG • CALCULATION OF GS AND ETA WITH THE AID OF TIME AND DIST MARKS ON MAP
    • NAVIGATION TECHNIQUES • MAP READING – INTERPRETATION OF MAP/CHART SYMBOLS • NECESSITY OF CROSS-CHECKING PIN-POINTS • MONITORING PROGRESS OF THE AIRCRAFT BY MAP READING • MAP READING TECHNIQUES MAP TO GRD WHEN SURE OF POSN , GRD TO MAP WHEN UNSURE OF POSN • DR POSN AND ITS CIRCLE OF ERROR • METHODS OF DETERMINING TR ERROR AND ALTERATION OF HDG • CALCULATION OF GS AND ETA WITH THE AID OF TIME AND DIST MARKS ON MAP
    • 0900 0910 0920 0935 0945 Track Plot of DR Tracks
    • FIXING POSITION • POSITION LINE • USES OF A SINGLE POSITION LINE TO CHECK TR TO CHK HDG TO CHK GS TO REVISE ETA TO HOME ON TO CONSTRUCT AN MPP • USE OF VISUAL, RADIO AND RADAR OBSERVATIONS IN FLIGHT
    • Periods 35&36 PILOT NAVIGATION/MENTAL DR • ESTIMATION OF TAS BY MENTAL CAL • MENTAL DR • ESTIMATION OF TR ERRORS • 1:60 RULE AND ITS APPLICATION • CORRECTION TR ERROR • AH PARELLEL TR / CLOSING ON TR ESTIMATION OF WIND EFFECT, DIST, DIR, FLIGHT TIME,TAS AND GROUND SPEED
    • PILOT NAVIGATION/MENTAL DR • ESTIMATION OF TAS BY MENTAL CAL • MENTAL DR • ESTIMATION OF TR ERRORS • 1:60 RULE AND ITS APPLICATION • CORRECTION TR ERROR • AH PARELLEL TR/ CLOSING ON TR ESTIMATION OF WIND EFFECT, DIST, DIR, FLIGHT TIME,TAS AND GROUND SPEED
    • MENTAL DR • X-TRACK / ALONG TR COMPONENT • RAS-TAS ESTIMATION • SPEED/DIST/TIME CALCULATIONS • FUEL FLOW/ FUEL AVAILABLE/ ENDURANCE CALCULATIONS • FEET-METERS/ LBS-KGS
    • Period 37 PRESSURE PATTRRN • PRINCIPLE • MINIMUM TIME TRACKS
    • PRESSURE PATTRRN • PRINCIPLE • MINIMUM TIME TRACKS
    • Period 38&39 NAVIGATION DURING CLIMB , DESCENT AND TURN CLIMB :- VARIATION OF RATE OF CLIMB WITH AIRCRAFT WT AND ALTITUDE CLIMB AT CONSTANT POWER INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATE OF CLIMB, SPEED AND CLIMB CLIMB AT CONSTANT AIR SPEED DETERMINATION OF MEAN WIND VEL FOR CLIMB BY INTERPOLATIONDETERMINATION OF MEAN HDG AND MEAN GROUND SPEED FOR THE CLIMB DESCENT NAVIGATION DURING DESCENT INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RoD, AIR SPEED AND ANGLE OF DESCENT DETERMINATION OF MEAN HDG AND MEAN GS FOR THE DESCENT
    • NAVIGATION DURING CLIMB, DESCENT AND TURN CLIMB :- • VARIATION OF RATE OF CLIMB WITH AIRCRAFT WT AND ALTITUDE • CLIMB AT CONSTANT POWER INTER- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATE OF CLIMB, SPEED AND CLIMB • CLIMB AT CONSTANT AIR SPEED • DETERMINATION OF MEAN WIND VEL FOR CLIMB BY INTERPOLATION • DETERMINATION OF MEAN HDG AND MEAN GROUND SPEED FOR THE CLIMB
    • DESCENT • NAVIGATION DURING DESCENT  INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN  RoD, AIR SPEED AND ANGLE OF DESCENT  DETERMINATION OF MEAN HDG AND MEAN GS FOR THE DESCENT
    • Period 40&41 NAVIGATION DURING TURN & ENROUTE NAVIGATIONAL PROCEDURES  INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATE OF TURN, AIR SPEED ANGLE OF BANK AND RADIUS OF TURN  TRACKING IN, TRACKING OUT, DETERMINATION OF RANGE BY CHANGE OF BEARING, UPDATING OF INS/IRS / FMS BY USE OF GROUND FACILITIES  INFLIGHT DIVERSION, CRUISING LEVEL  SPEED SCHEDULE , AERODROME CONSIDERATION  ETA TO ALTERNATE, FUEL CALCULATIONS
    • NAVIGATION DURING TURN & ENROUTE NAVIGATIONAL PROCEDURES • INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATE OF TURN, AIR SPEED ANGLE OF BANK AND RADIUS OF TURN Turn radius R = V² . g Tan Ф Rate of turn = TAS/ RADIUS = g Tan Ф Radians/ Sec V • TRACKING IN • TRACKING OUT • DETERMINATION OF RANGE BY CHANGE OF BEARING • UPDATING OF INS/IRS / FMS BY USE OF GROUND FACILITIES • INFLIGHT DIVERSION CRUISING LEVEL SPEED SCHEDULE AERODROME CONSIDERATION ETA TO ALTERNATE FUEL CALCULATIONS
    • TURNS • NAVIGATION DURING TURN • INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATE OF TURN, AIR SPEED ANGLE OF BANK AND RADIUS OF TURN Turn radius R = V² , g Tan Ф Rate of turn = TAS/ RADIUS = g Tan Ф Radians/ Sec V Rate 1 turn ……180Deg /min i.e. 3 deg / sec (In constant Rate turn, Angle of Bank depends on TAS) Rate 2 Turn …….360 Deg/Min i.e. 6 Deg/Sec Rate 3 Turn …….540 Deg/Min i.e. 9 Deg/Sec R
    • ENROUTE NAV PROCEDURES • TRACKING IN • TRACKING OUT • DETERMINATION OF RANGE BY CHANGE OF BEARING • UPDATING OF INS/IRS / FMS BY USE OF GROUND FACILITIES
    • • INFLIGHT DIVERSION CRUISING LEVEL SPEED SCHEDULE AERODROME CONSIDERATION ETA TO ALTERNATE FUEL CALCULATIONS
    • Period 42&43 FLIGHT PLANNING • PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING SELECTION OF ROUTE AND ALTERNATE AIRFIELD PREPARATION OF MAPS / CHARTS SPEED SCHEDULES METHODS OF CRUISE CONTROL EXTRACTION OF DATA FROM FLIGHT PLANNING GRAPHS & TABLES AND ITS APPLICATION SELECTION OF OPTIMUM CRUISING LEVEL NAVIGATION PLAN USE OF NAVIGATION CHARTS FOR PLANNING FLIGHTS WITHIN AND OUTSIDE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE INTERPRETATION AND USE OF THE INFO ON THE CHARTS SELECTION OF OPTIMUM LEVEL TERRAIN AND OBSTACLE CLEARANCE NAVIGATION CHECK POINTS VISUAL/ RADIO MEASUREMENT OF TRACKS AND DISTANCES OBTAINING WIND VEL FORECAST FOR EACH LEG COMPUTATION OF HEADING, GS, AND TIMES ENROUTE FROM TRACKS AND DISTANCES TAS AND WIND VELOCITIE COMPLETION OF PRE-FLIGHT PORTION OF THE NAVIGATION LOG
    • FLIGHT PLANNING • PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING SELECTION OF ROUTE AND ALTERNATE AIRFIELD PREPARATION OF MAPS / CHARTS SPEED SCHEDULES METHODS OF CRUISE CONTROL EXTRACTION OF DATA FROM FLIGHT PLANNING GRAPHS & TABLES AND ITS APPLICATION SELECTION OF OPTIMUM CRUISING LEVEL
    • NAVIGATION PLAN  USE OF NAVIGATION CHARTS FOR PLANNING FLIGHTS WITHIN AND OUTSIDE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE  INTERPRETATION AND USE OF THE INFO ON THE CHARTS  SELECTION OF OPTIMUM LEVEL  TERRAIN AND OBSTACLE CLEARANCE  NAVIGATION CHECK POINTS  VISUAL/ RADIO MEASUREMENT OF TRACKS AND DISTANCES  OBTAINING WIND VEL FORECAST FOR EACH LEG  COMPUTATION OF HEADING, GS, AND TIMES ENROUTE FROM TRACKS AND DISTANCES  TAS AND WIND VELOCITIES  COMPLETION OF PRE-FLIGHT PORTION OF THE FLT PLAN
    • OBTAINING WIND VELOCITY FORECAST FOR EACH LEG COMPUTATION OF HEADINGS/ GS AND TIMES ENROUTE FROM TR TAS & WV COMPLETION OF THE PREFLIGHT PORTION OF THE NAVIGATION FLIGHT LOG
    • • FUEL PLANNING CALCULATION OF FUEL BURN OFF FOR EACH LEG AND TOTAL BURN OFF FUEL FOR THE FLIGHT AIRCRAFT MANUAL FIGURES FOR FUEL CONSUMPTION DURING CLIMB ENROUTE AND DURING DESCENT FUEL FOR HOLDING AND DIVERSION TO ALTERNATE AIRFIELD RESERVES , TOTAL FUEL REQD FOR THE FLIGHT
    • Period 44&45 FUEL PLANNING  CALCULATION OF FUEL BURN OFF FOR EACH LEG AND TOTAL BURN OFF FUEL FOR THE FLIGHT  AIRCRAFT MANUAL FIGURES FOR FUEL CONSUMPTION DURING CLIMB, ENROUTE AND DURING DESCENT  FUEL FOR HOLDING AND DIVERSION TO ALTERNATE AIRFIELD  RESERVES AND TOTAL FUEL REQD FOR THE FLIGHT  COMPLETION OF PRE FLIGH PORTION OF FUEL LOG  CALCULATION OF PAY LOAD  FACTORS AFFECTING PAYLOAD  AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AT T/O & LDG  COMPILATION OF LONG DISTANCE  FLIGHT PLANS (PRACTICAL)
    • FUEL PLANNING  CALCULATION OF FUEL BURN OFF FOR EACH LEG AND TOTAL BURN OFF FUEL FOR THE FLIGHT  AIRCRAFT MANUAL FIGURES FOR FUEL CONSUMPTION DURING CLIMB, ENROUTE AND DURING DESCENT  FUEL FOR HOLDING AND DIVERSION TO ALTERNATE AIRFIELD  RESERVES AND TOTAL FUEL REQD FOR THE FLIGHT
    • FUEL PLANNING (CONT)  COMPLETION OF PRE FLIGHT PORTION OF FUEL LOG  CALCULATION OF PAY LOAD  FACTORS AFFECTING PAYLOAD  AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AT T/O & LDG  COMPILATION OF LONG DISTANCE PLANS (PRACTICAL)
    • Period 46 RADIO COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION PLAN COMMUNICATION FREQUENCIES AND CALL SIGNS FOR APPROPRIATE CONTROL AGENCIES AND INFLIGHT SERVICE FACILITIES SUCH AS WEATHER BROADCASTS, NAVIGATION AIDS (SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION)
    • RADIO COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION PLAN COMMUNICATION FREQUENCIES AND CALL SIGNS FOR APPROPRIATE CONTROL AGENCIES AND INFLIGHT SERVICE FACILITIES SUCH AS WEATHER BROADCASTS, NAVIGATION AIDS (SELECTION and IDENTIFICATION)
    • Period 47&48 FLIGHT PLANNING CHARTS • INTERPRETATION AND USE OF AERODROME CHARTS /SID STAR CHARTS, TERMINAL AREA CHARTS, ENROUTE LOW LEVEL/HIGH LEVEL AIRWAYS CHARTS, INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHARTS. • TERMINAL CHARTS • AREA, SID, STAR, AERODROME, INSTRUMENT APPROACH FORMAT • TOPOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION • PROJECTION SCALE • RADIO NAV AIDS • REPORTING POINTS/ FIXES • COMMUNICATIONS • AIRFIELD INFORMATION • MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDES • PLAN & PROFILE VIEW OF APP PROCEDURE CHARTS
    • FLIGHT PLANNING CHARTS • INTERPRETATION AND USE OF AERODROME CHARTS /SID STAR CHARTS, TERMINAL AREA CHARTS, ENROUTE LOW LEVEL/HIGH LEVEL AIRWAYS CHARTS, INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHARTS.
    • ATC PROCEDURES • KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE WITH ATC PROCEDURES
    • TERMINAL CHARTS • Area, SID, STAR, Aerodrome, Instrument Approach FORMAT • Topographical Information • Projection Scale • Radio Nav Aids • Reporting Points/ Fixes • Communications • Airfield Information • Minimum Sector Altitudes • Plan & Profile view of App Procedure Charts
    • Period 49&50 ATC PROCEDURES/INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES • KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE WITH ATC PROCEDURES • ATIS • AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORIES • ENTRY INTO HOLDING PATTREN • SPEED LIMITATIONS • MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDE (MSA) • MINIMUM HOLDING ALTITUDE (MHA) • OBSTACLE CLEARANCE ALTITUDE/ HEIGHT • CHARTED ALTITUDES PRECISION APP PROCEDURES - (ILS, LOC, VOR, VOR DME, NDB ,VDF, ASR ,PAR) • NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURES • STRAIGHT IN APPROACH, CIRCLING APPROACH • APPROACH SEGMENTS • INITIAL APPROACH FIX • INTERMEDIATE APPROACH FIX • FINAL APPROACH FIX • STEP DOWN FIX • LANDING MINIMA, DECISION ALTITUDE/ HEIGHT • MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/ HEIGHT
    • INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES • ATIS • Aircraft Approach Categories • Entry Into Holding Pattern • Speed Limitations • Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA) • Minimum Holding Altitude (MHA) • Obstacle Clearance Altitude/ Height • Charted Altitudes for Precision App Procedures - ( ILS, LOC, VOR, DME, NDB ,VDF, ASR ,PAR )
    • AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORIES • AIRCRAFT ARE CATEGORISED BASED ON THEIR SPEED AT THRESHOLD (V at). THESE SPEED RANGES ARE ASSUMED FOR CALCULATION OF AIRSPACE AND OBSTACLE CLEARANCE FOR EACH PROCEDURE AIRCRAFT CATEGORY V at (K) A Less Than 91 B 91- 120 C 121-140 D 141-165 E 166-210
    • Entry Into Holding Pattern (Left Hand Hold ) • DIRECT ENTRY • PARALLEL ENTRY • OFFSET ENTRY D I R E C T S E C T O R PARALLEL ENTRY SECTOR OFFSET ENTRY SECTOR 70º 110º
    • SPEED LIMITATIONS LEVELS Altitudes or Flt Lvl Depending on Alt Setting NORMAL CONDITIONS TURBULENCE CONDITIONS Up to and Inclusive 4250 M (14000 Ft ) 425 Km/h (230 K) 315 Km/h (170 K) (For Cat A & B A/C) 520 Km/h (280 K)* *Prior ATC Clearance Required 315 Km/h (170 K) (For Cat A & B A/C) ABOVE 4250 M (14000 Ft) TO 6100M (20000 Ft) (Inclusive) 445 Km/h (240 K) Wherever Possible 520 Km/h should be used for airway Holds 520 Km/h (280 K) 0.8 Mach Whichever is less ABOVE 6100 M (20000 Ft) TO 10350 M (34000 Ft) (Inclusive) 490 Km/h (265 K) Wherever Possible 520 Km/h should be used for airway Holds 520 Km/h (280 K) 0.8 Mach Whichever is less ABOVE 10350 M (3400000 Ft) 0.83 Mach 0.83 Mach
    • Minimum Sector Altitudes • These are the altitudes which would provide the necessary vertical clearance above the terrain/ obstacles in the respective circle
    • MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDE 3200 FEET WHEN APPROACHONG ON HEADING 090 DEG TO300DEG AND 3700 FEET FROM HEADING 300 DEG TO 090 DEG
    • MINIMUM HOLDING ALTITUDE • MHA – IT IS THE LOWEST ALTITUDE SPECIFIED FOR EACH HOLDING PATTERN • OBSTACLE CLEARANCE ALTITUDE/ HEIGHT: • CHARTED ALTITUDES FOR PRECISION APP PROCEDURES -
    • INST. APP. PROCEDURES • Non-Precision Approach Procedures • Straight in Approach, Circling Approach • Approach Segments • Initial Approach Fix • Intermediate Approach Fix • Final Approach Fix • Step Down Fix • Landing Minima, Decision Altitude/ Height • Minimum Descent Altitude/ Height
    • INST. APP. PROCEDURES • Visibility/ RVR Minima • Missed Approach Point • Missed Approach Procedure • Diversionary Procedure- Operational Control
    • Period 51&52 POINT OF NO RETURN (PNR) • DEFINITION • IMPORTANCE AND USE • CALCULATION OF DISTANCE AND TIME TO PNR (BY FORMULA AND BY USING NAV COMPUTER) • EFFECT OF CHANGE OF WIND VELOCITY ON POSN OF PNR • EFFECT OF ENGINE FAILURE • LAST TIME TO DIVERT TO ALTERNATE • PRACTICE PROBLEMS ON PNR
    • Period 53&54 CRITICAL POINT (CP) • DEFINITION • IMPORTANCE AND USE • CALCULATION OF DISTANCE AND TIME TO CP (BY FORMULA AND BY USING NAV COMPUTER) • CRITICAL POINT FOR AERODROMES NOT FALLING ON THE ROUTE • EFFECT OF CHANGE OF WIND VELOCITY ON POSITION OF CP • PRACTICE PROBLEMS ON CP
    • CRITICAL POINT (CP) • Definition • Importance and Use • Calculation of Distance and Time to CP (By Formula and by Using Nav Computer) • Critical Point For Aerodromes Not Falling on the Route • Effect Of Change of Wind Velocity on Position of CP
    • CP • THE PILOT SOMETIMES HAS TO DECIDE ON THE BEST COURSE OF ACTION IN THE SITUATIONS WHICH DEVELOP IN THE AIR. FOR EXAMPLE IN CASE OF AN EMERGENCY, LIKE ONE ENGINE FAILURE IN A TWIN/ MULTI ENGINE AIRCRAFT, THE NEED IS TO LAND AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. HENCE HE HAS TO DECIDE, WHETER TO PROCEED TO DESTINATION OR RETURN TO THE STARTING POINT • CRITICAL POINT IS THAT POINT ON THE TRACK FROM BASE “A” TO DESTINATION “B” FROM WHERE IT TAKES THE SAME TIME TO PROCEED TO “B” AS TO RETURN TO “A”. IT IS AN EQUI- TIME POINT.
    • CP • IN THE AIR TIME IS ALWAYS AT A PREMIUM. TO HELP US TO SAVE TIME AND TO BE ABLE TO TAKE A QUICK AND OBJECTIVE DECISION, PRE- FLIGHT PREPARATION INCLUDES THE CALCULATION OF CRITICAL POINT BETWEEN THE BASE AND DESTINATION AS WELL AS BETWEEN BASE AND A DIVERSION OR A DIVERSION AND THE DESTINATION.
    • CP - CALCULATION A B D NM X CPX NM LET “O” BE THE G/S OUT (A TO B) AND “H” BE THE G/S HOME (B TO A) LET “X” BE THE DIST FROM A TO CP Therefore, Dist From CP To B = D-X By Definition Time From CP To A = Time From CP To B i.e. X = D-X or OX = H(D-X) H O So, OX+HX = DH i.e X(O+H) = DH Therefore, X = D H O+H
    • CP • TIME TO CP Will Be, DIST TO CP = X G/S OUT O • EXAMPLE • DIST A To B = 400 NM • G/S OUT “O” = 160 K • G/S HOME “H” = 200 K • THEN, DIST TO CP X = 400 x 200 I60 + 200 i.e. 80000/360 = 222 NM • And Time To CP = 222 / 160 = 83.5 Min i.e. 1 hr 23.5 Min
    • CP- ON MORE THAN SINGLE LEG ROUTES • ON A ROUTE , A To B, To C, To D Route Track Dist W/V G/S TIME CUM TIME A-B B-A 350 170 273 273 330/25 137 183 2:00 1:29 B-C C-B 045 225 356 356 330/25 154 166 2:19 2:09 C-D D-C 080 260 127 127 330/25 166 154 0:39 0:30 TAS=180 RED TAS= 160
    • • GIVEN • A - B 230 NM H/W COMP 20 Kts • B – C 140 NM H/W COMP 10 Kts • C – D 330 NM T/W COMP 15 Kts • FULL TAS = 200 Kts , RED TAS = 180 Kts • CALCULATE DISTANCE AND TIME TO CRITICAL POINT.
    • LEG TR W/V HDG TAS * G/S( O) DIST/ CUM DIST TIME /CUM TIME LEG TR W/V HDG TAS * G/S (H) DIST/ CUM DIST TIME/ CUM TIME A-B B-C C-D CP CALCULATION DIST TO CP:……………………… X=DH (Treat This CP as Reporting Point O+H Time to CP= X Normal G/S Out *Use revised TAS as per Contingency Planned. Generally Engine Failure D-E E-F F-G
    • CP CALCULATION LEG TR W/V HDG TAS * G/S (O) DIST/ CUM DIST TIME /CUM TIME LEG TR W/V HDG TAS * G/S (H) DIST/ CUM DIST TIME /CUM TIME A-B 020 050/ 25 180 77 B-A B-C 050 050/ 25 180 132 C-B C-D 075 050/ 25 180 167 D-C D-E 045 075/ 30 180 258 E-D E-F 015 075/ 30 180 132 F-E F-G 025 075/ 30 180 87 G-F DIST TO CP:……………………… X=DH (Treat This CP as Reporting Point O+H Time to CP= X =…………… Normal G/S Out *Use revised TAS as per Contingency Planned. Generally Engine Failure
    • CP CALCULATION LEG TR W/V HDG TAS * G/S (O) DIST/ CUM DIST TIME /CUM TIME LEG TR W/V HDG TAS * G/S (H) DIST/ CUM DIST TIME /CUM TIME A-B 275 260/ 70 400 332 473 1:25 B-A 260/ 70 473 400 468 473 1:01 B-C 245 260/ 70 400 332 512 1:33 C-B 260/ 70 512 400 468 512 1:06 C-D 220 260/ 70 400 350 627 1:47 D-C 260/ 70 260/ 70 627 400 450 627 1:24 D-E E-D E-F F-E F-G G-F DIST TO CP:……………………… X=DH (Treat This CP as Reporting Point) O+H Time to CP= X =…………… Normal G/S Out *Use revised TAS as per Contingency Planned. Generally Engine Failure
    • POINT OF NO RETURN (PNR) • Definition • Importance and Use • Calculation of Distance and Time to PNR (By Formula and by Using Nav Computer) • Effect of Change of Wind Velocity on Posn of PNR • Effect of Engine Failure • Last Time To DIVERT to Alternate
    • POINT OF NO RETURN (Also Called POINT OF SAFE RETURN) • DEFINITION: IT IS THAT POINT ON THE TRACK FROM BASE TO DESTINATION UPTO WHICH AN AIRCRAFT CAN FLY AND RETURN TO THE STARTING POINT WITHIN THE SAFE ENDURANCE OF THE AIRCRAFT BASE • •DESTINATION X POINT OF SAFE RETURN Distance = X NM IF G/S OUTBOUND =O AND G/S INBOUND =H THEN X/O + X/ H = SAFE END
    • PNR / PSR • X + X = P O H Where , X is the distance from base to PNR O is the G/S out H is the G/S home and P is the safe endurance MULTIPLYING Both Sides By OH, we have XH+XO = POH or X( O+H ) = POH THEREFORE, X = POH O+H
    • • EFFECT OF CHANGE OF WIND VEL ON PNR • IN NIL WIND CONDITIONS, G/S OUT=G /S HOME • HENCE TIME OUTBOUND = TIME INBOUND • SO DIST TO PNR = ½ P x O • INCASE OF HEAD WIND/TAIL WIND ON THE OUTBOUND LEG, THE PNR WILL ALWAYS SHIFT TOWARDS THE BASE. Why ? • EXAMPLE: LET P BE 4 HOURS, TAS IS 200K • IN NIL WIND THE PNR WILL BE 2x200=400nm • INCASE OF A 50K HEAD WIND ON OUTBOUND, O = 150 and H = 250 • THEREFORE DIST TO PNR= 4x150x250 = 375 nm 150+250 • INCASE OF A TAIL WIND ON OUTBOUND ALSO PNR WILL BE 4x250x 150 = 375 nm 250+150
    • CP/PNR PRACTICE QUESTION • Q.1. GIVEN, TAS=200 KTS, Engine out TAS = 160 KTS • ROUTE : BAGHDAD – BASRA TR 115º (T), DIST 170NM, W/V 180/20 KTS BASRA-KUWAIT TR 178 º (T), DIST 110NM, W/V 230/30 KTS KUWAIT-BAHRAIN TR 129 º(T), DIST 147NM, W/V 250/15 KTS • CALCULATE ETA CP if ATD BAGHDAD is 1115 Z
    • • Q1-A • FULL TAS = 350 • RED TAS= 300 K • A – B TR/DIST 350/297 W/V 140/25 • B – C 040/335 100/25 • CALCULATE DIST AND TIME TO CP • A - B G/S OUT = 321 HOME = 279 • B – C 288 312 •
    • Q.2. An aircraft has to fly a single leg route of 1000NM. The cruising TAS is 480KTS and Engine out TAS is 350 KTS. Track is 120º(T) and average wind velocity is 090/50. Determine: • Distance and Time to CP. • Safe Endurance (excluding use of reserve fuel) • • Distance to PNR. Assume that total fuel capacity is 15,600 kgs, consumption at 480 Kts = 3150 kgs/hr, fuel reserve to be carried are holding fuel of 50 minutes at cruising consumption plus 15% of total fuel required. Ignore climb and descent for all calculations.
    • Q.3. Given TAS is 480 KTS, Engine out TAS is 380 KTS • Route: FROM-TO TRACK DIST. W/V DAR-ES-SALAAM-MAURITIUS 137 º 1441NM 140/30 MAURITIUS-COCO ISLANDS 080 º 2305NM 100/45 COCO ISLANDS- JAKARTA 060 º 693NM 170/25 • CALCULATE TIME TO CP.
    • • Q.4 AN AIRCRAFT IS TO FLY FROM ‘A’ TO ‘B’ ON A TRACK OF 280(T), DISTANCE 959 NM, MEAN TAS 230 Kt, W/V FOR THE FIRST 430 NM IS 200/50, AND 260/65 FOR THE REMAINING DISTANCE. FUEL ON BOARD IS 26,500 Kg, 3100 Kg TO BE HELD IN RESERVE. CONSUMPTION IS 3400 Kg/Hr. GIVE THE TIME AND DISTANCE TO: (a) POINT OF NO RETURN/ PSR (b) CRITICAL POINT/ PET/ ETP ASSUMING ENGINE FAILURE AT THE CP AND A REDUCED TAS OF 190 Kt
    • SOLUTIONS A B 929 NM X 430 NM 529 NM G/S O 2I7 H 232 G/S O 167 H 291 200/50 260/65 Q.4
    • • Q.5 • GIVEN: MAX TAKE OFF WEIGHT 61000 Kg WEIGHT (No Fuel and No P’Load) 37000 Kg TAS 410 Kt DISTANCE 2250 NM CONSUMPTION 2800 Kg/Hr RESERVE (Assume Unused) 3200 Kg HEADWIND Component 40 Kt • DETERMINE: (a) Maximum Payload That Can Be Carried (b) Time and Distance to CP (c) Time and Distance to PNR (a) 3773 Kgs (b) 3:20 1235 NM (c)
    • • Q.6 • AN AIRCRAFT IS TO FLY FROM ‘A’ TO ‘B’ VIA ‘X’ AND ‘Y’ ; ROUTE DATA IS AS GIVEN: Stage Wind Component (Kt) Distance(NM) ‘A’ to ‘X’ +20 400 ‘X’ to ‘Y’ +15 630 ‘Y’ to ‘B’ +25 605 Mean TAS 500 Kt (4 Eng) & 435 Kt (3 Eng) Mean Fuel Cons 5300 Kg/Hr ( 4 Engines ) & 4100 Kg/Hr ( 3 Engines ) Fuel On Board ( Including Reserve 5500 Kg, unused) 30,000 Kg Calculate the Time and Distance to the Point of Safe Return from departure ‘A’, the RETURN flight to ‘A’ to be made on 3 Engines
    • • Q.7 • ON A TRIP FROM ‘A’ TO ‘C’ VIA ‘B’, AN AIRCRAFT IS ORDERED IN THE EVENT OF TURNING BACK,TO PROCEED TO ITS ALTERNATE ‘D’ VIA ‘B’. TAS ON 4 ENGINES IS 500 Kt, AND ON 3 ENGINES IS 420 Kt. Route Details Are: From To Wind Component Distance ‘A’ ‘B’ -25 Kt 565 NM ‘B’ ‘C’ -45 Kt 900 NM ‘B’ ‘D’ +30 Kt 240 NM • (a) IF THE RETURN FROM CRITICAL POINT IS MADE ON THREE ENGINES, GIVE THE TIME AND DISTANCE ‘A’ TO THE CRITICAL POINT BETWEEN ‘C’ AND ‘D’. • (b) Fuel On Board 38000 Kg, Cons 6300 Kg/Hr, Reserve (Assume Unused) 6500 Kg, and the Whole Flight Is Made On 4 Engines, What Is the Distance From ‘A’ To The Point Of Safe Return to ‘D’
    • Q.5
    • Q.6
    • Q.7 A B C D 565 NM 900 NM 240NM O 475 Kt O 455 Kt H 465 Kt O450Kt
    • FLIGHT PROGRESS CHART
    • Period 55&56 SOLAR SYSTEM AND TIME • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LONGITUDE AND TIME • STANDARD TIME, LOCAL MEAN TIME & UTC • INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE • SUN RISE/ SUN SET- • DEFINITION, VARIATION OF TIMES OF PHENOMENA WITH LATITUDE, HEIGHT AND WITH DECLINATION OF THE SUN • EXTRACTION OF TIMES OF PHENOMENA FROM AIR ALMANAC • TWILIGHT- DEFINITION VARIATION OF PERIOD OF TWILIGHT WITH LATITUDE, DECLINATION OF SUN AND HEIGHT OF AIRCRAFT • MOON RISE/ MOONSET DEFINITION TABULATION IN AIR ALMANAC
    • SOLAR SYSTEM AND TIME • Relationship Between Longitude and Time • Standard Time, Local Mean Time & UTC • International Date Line • SUN RISE/ SUN SET- Definition, Variation of Times Of Phenomena with Latitude, Height and With Declination of the Sun Extraction of Times of Phenomena From Air Almanac
    • • MEASUREMENT OF TIME IS BASED ON : • EARTH’S ROTATION – OWN AXIS • ROTATION AROUND THE SUN ( MOVEMENT OF THE SUN IN THE GALAXY AND THE GALAXY ITSELF IN THE UNIVERSE HAVE A NEGLIGIBLE EFFECT ON MEASUREMENT OF TIME) • PERIHELION ( 04 JAN ) 91.4 M Miles • APHELION (03 JULY ) 94.6 M Miles ( MEAN DIST 93 M Miles )
    • • THE SEASONS: • PREDOMINANT CAUSE – INCLINATION OF EARTH’S AXIS TO ITS ORBITAL PLANE AT 66.5° • THIS CAUSES THE DECLINATION OF THE SUN TO CHANGE FROM EQUATOR( LAT 0°) - Mar 21 Tropic of Cancer (Lat 23.5° N) -Jun 21 EQUATOR( LAT 0°) Sept 21 Tropic of Capricorn (Lat 23.5° S)- Dec 21
    • March21 Spring Equinox September 21 Autumn Equinox June 21 Summer Solstice December 21 Winter Solstice DECLINATION OF THE SUN 23.5º 23.5º 20º 20º 10º 10º J F M A M J J A S O N D J Largest Change Smallest Change
    • DAYS AND YEARS • CIVIL DAY – Should be related to hours of daylight and darkness and be of constant duration • SIDERIAL DAY – Measured with respect to a fixed point in space - a distant star Not suitable as it is not related to daylight • APPARENT SOLAR DAY- Measured with respect to real or apparent sun Related to daylight but not constant length Apparent Solar DAY is longer than Siderial Day • MEAN SOLAR DAY – Mean Sun is an imaginary sun which appears to move around the earth at a constant speed equal to the average speed of the REAL SUN • Mean solar day is measured in relation to the MEAN SUN, IS CONSTANT IN LENGTH AND IS RELATED TO HOURS OF DAYLIGHT AND DARKNESS • Maximum diff between mean time and real sun time is 16 min in mid November and 14 minutes in mid February
    • Z Z Z Parallel Light Rays }Siderial day Apparent Solar Day A B C
    • YEAR • SIDERIAL YEAR – Time taken by the Earth to complete one orbit of the Sun measured against a distant Star – 365 Days 6 Hrs • TROPICAL YEAR – Time interval between two successive crossings of the Equator by the Sun from South to North (Declination = 0 Deg). It is the length of one cycle of Seasons – 365 Days, 5 Hrs 48 Min 45 Sec. • CALENDER YEAR – Normally 365 days, kept in step with Tropical Year by adding a day once in 4 Yrs (LEAP year) and a fine adjustment by skipping 3 leap yrs in 400 yrs (when first two nos. of century not divisible by 4 - year is not a Leap Year)
    • HOUR ANGLE • HOUR Angle of a celestial body is defined as the arc of the Equinoctial intercepted between the meridian of a datum (Greenwich or the observer) and the Meridian of the Body, measured Westward 0 to 360 Deg. • EARTH SPINS 360°in 24 Hours • HENCE in ONE Hour it Spins 15° In 4 minutes , 1° In 1 Minute , ¼ ° ie. 15’ In 4 Seconds ,1 Minute of rotation
    • TIME LOCAL MEAN TIME STANDARD TIME IST GMT UTC ZONE TIME
    • CENTRAL MERIDIAN FOR THE ZONE 1 8 0 W 1 6 5 W 1 5 0 W 1 3 5 W 1 2 0 W 1 0 5 W 9 0 W 7 5 W 6 0 W 4 5 W 3 0 W 1 5 W 0° 1 5 E 3 0 E 4 5 E 6 0 E 7 5 E 9 0 E 1 0 5 E 1 2 0 E 1 3 5 E 1 5 0 E 1 6 5 E 1 8 0 E Y X W V U T S R Q P O N Z A B C D E F G H I K L M Z O N E Z O N E N U M B E R + 1 2 + 1 1 + 1 0 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 1 0 - 1 1 - 1 2 ZONE TIME
    • GM 000 15°E 30E 45E 60E 75E 90E 105E 120E 135E 150E 165E NP A B c D E F G H I K L M ZN O P Q R S T U V W X Y 165W 150W 135W 120W 105W 90W 75W 60W 45W 30W 15W 097 ½ E 082 ½ E 067 ½ E 052 ½ E 037 ½ E 022 ½ E 112 ½ E 127 ½ E 142 ½ E 157 ½ E 172 ½ E180E/W MY NP
    • • TWILIGHT- Definition Variation of Period Of Twilight with Latitude Declination of Sun Height of Aircraft • MOON RISE/ MOONSET Definition Tabulation in Air Almanac
    • SENSIBLE/ VISIBLE HORIZON EFFECT OF ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION AND SUN’S SEMI DIAMETER OF SUN
    • N 72
    • 0
    • NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTS, MAGNETISM & COMPASSES
    • • Period 57&58 MAGNETISM &COMPASSES • INTRODUCTION • TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, MAGNETIC POLES • MAGNETIC MERIDIAN • MAGNETIC VARIATION: ISOGONAL AND AGONIC LINES • ANGLE OF DIP: ISOCLINAL AND ACLINAL LINES • HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL COMPONENTS MAGNETIC EQUATOR • REGULAR AND IRREGULAR CHANGES IN THE EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD • LOCAL IRREGULARITIES IN EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD
    • GENERAL • Terrestrial Magnetism, Magnetic Poles • Magnetic Meridian • Magnetic Variation: Isogonal and Agonic Lines • Angle Of Dip: Isoclinal and Aclinal Lines • Horizontal and Vertical Components Magnetic Equator • Regular and Irregular Changes in the Earth’s Magnetic Field • Local Irregularities In Earth’s Magnetic Field
    • Period 59&60 DIRECT READING COMPASS • REQUIREMENTS OF MAGNETIC COMPASS • UNRELIABILITY OF COMPASS INDICATIONS DURING TURNS AND ACCELERATION/ DECELERATION • COMPASS AND MAGNETIC HEADINGS • EFFECT OF CHANGE OF GEOGRAPHIC POSITION AND MAGNETIC MATERIAL CARRIED IN THE AIRCRAFT • DEVIATION AND ITS APPLICATION • KNOWLEDGE OF COEFFICIENTS A,B AND C • KNOWLEDGE OF PREPARATION OF COMPASS CARD • IMPORTANCE AND PROCEDURE OF COMPASS SWING ON THE GROUND • OCCASIONS FOR COMPASS SWING ON THE GROUND
    • DIRECT READING COMPASS • Requirements of Magnetic Compass HORIZONTALITY Directive Force H, is Horizontal. So for best results, the System must be maintained HORIZONTAL. How? C of G Kept BELOW Pt of Pivot SENSITIVITY For Higher accuracy the system must be capable of detecting even small changes in Earth’s Mag. Fd. That is it must be very sensitive. How? i) By using IRIDIUM TIPPED PIVOT in a JEWELLED CUP ii) By Lubricating the Pivot with liquid filled in Compass Bowl iii) By reducing effective weight of the Mag. System APERIODICITY (Should NOT Oscillate, should come to rest quickly) How i) By using several short , powerful magnets ii) By using DAMPING WIRES which will dampen any oscillations due to the resistance by the liquid
    • • THE COMPASS LIQUID (Desired Properties) • Low Coefficient Of Expansion • Low Viscosity • Transparency • Low Freezing Point • High Boiling Point • Non-corrosive Dimethyl Siloxane Polymer – meets most of these requirements.
    • • Unreliability of Compass Indications During Turns and Acceleration/ Deceleration • Compass and Magnetic Headings • Effect of Change of Geographic Position and Magnetic Material Carried in the Aircraft • Deviation and its Application
    • TURNING AND ACCELERATION ERRORS • Aircraft on Northerly Hdg Turning right N S N S Centrifugal Force at Pivot –F Inertia at C of G – F’ F F’ Set up Clockwise Moment Result: Compass Turns in the Direction of Turn So LESSER Turn Indicated What Happens on a Southerly Course? What Happens on an Easterly Course? What Happens on an Westerly Course? F F’ C of G Point of Pivot C of G
    • • ACCELERATION ERRORS N S C of G Pivot AIRCRAFT ON AN EASTERLY HDG AND ACCELERATING ACCELERATION FORCE ACTS AT THE PIVOT INERTIA ACTS AT THE C OF G THE TWOFORCES SET UP A MOMENT RESULT : COMPASS SYSTEM TURNS IN A CLOCKWISE DIRECTION i.e. HEADING REDUCES AIRCRAFT APPEARS TO TURN TOWARDS NORTH What Happens on an Easterly course? What Happens on a Northerly course? What Happens on a Westerly course? What Happens in case of a deceleration? ACCLNINERTIA
    • • EFFECT OF CHANGE OF GEOGRAPHIC POSITION Higher the Lat, More Dip, Reduction in H, Increase in Z Causing more tilt Errors more pronounced • EFFECT OF MAGNETIC MATERIAL CARRIED IN THE AIRCRAFT Will affect the compass system Reducing effect of H, May cause Deviation T H Z T”Z” H”
    • DIRECT READING COMPASS - ERRORS TURNING AND ACCELERATION ERRORS SCALE ERRORS ALIGNMENT ERROR CENTERING ERROR PARALLAX ERROR
    • ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES OF DR COMPASSES ADVANTAGES SIMPLE, LIGHT WEIGHT, LESS COSTLY, DO NOT REQUIRE ELECTRICAL POWER DISADVANTAGES SUFFER FROM ERRORS ACCURACY RESTRICTED AC MANEOUVRES AFFECTED BY A/C MAGNETISM NO REPEATER OR TORQUE OUTPUT TO OTHER SYSTEMS REDUCED “H” IN HIGHER LATITUDES
    • Period 61&62 REMOTE READING COMPASS • GENERAL PRINCIPLES • BASIC USE: PRESENTATION OF HEADING • ADVANTAGES OVER DRC
    • SIMPLE FLUX VALVE N N S S ̃ AC Induced Voltage Primary Windings Secondary Windings Core A Core B CONSTRUCTION TWO IDENTICAL SOFT IRON CORES HAVE WINDINGS SUCH THAT AN AC INDUCES OPPOSITE POLARITY IN THE CORES. THE TWO CORES ARE WOUND WITH A COMMON SECONDARYAND THE SECONDARIES PICK UP THE TOTAL RESULTANT FLUX OF THE TWO CORES ~
    • FLUX VALVE – SIMPLIFIED VIEW
    • EARTH’S FIELD “H” MAG HDG 000 ° 090° 180 ° 270 ° 360° 000° MAX NIL MAX NIL MAX FLUX INDUCED IN A CORE AS THE ANGLE IS VARIED
    • Core A Core B Output Voltage + 0 - Resultant Voltage induced in Secondary Windings when H= 0 Core B Core A A C F L U X
    • + 0 -- Earth’s Mag Fd H Saturation level Core A Core B Resultant Flux in Secondary Windings A C Resultant Voltage induced in Secondary Windings when H is not 0 Core A Core B F L U X
    • ONE OF THE THREE SPOKES OF THE SPERRY FLUX VALVE
    • SIGNAL SELSYN DATA SELSYN MASTER INDICATOR AMPGYRO UNIT PRECESSION FOLLOW UP GYRO BEVEL GEARS HORIZONTAL VERTICAL 400 CPS AC 400 CPS AC GEAR TRAIN TO REPEATERS ROTOR Precession Coils Center Shaft Detector Unit FOLLOW UP MOTOR Varn Setting Control RIC (SCHEMATIC)
    • REMOTE INDICATING COMPASS (THE SLAVED GYRO COMPASS) • COMPONENTS THE DETECTOR UNIT GYRO UNIT- ANNUNCIATOR, SYNC KNOB AMPLIFIER UNIT CORRECTOR CONTROL BOX REPEATER SYSTEM
    • ANNUNCIATOR
    • AIRCRAFT MAGNETISM Magnetic Materials Non Magnetic Materials Hard Iron (Permanent) Soft Iron (Temp Magnetised) Magnetisation methods Stroking Placing in a Strong Magnetic Field Electric Field Aircraft Magnetic Materials get Magnetised- Why?
    • • Aircraft Magnetism Hard Iron Soft Iron Permanent Temp – Only in Does not Change presence of Mag Fd With Hdg Effect Changes with Ch in Hdg
    • • DEVIATION: Is the angular difference between the Magnetic North and the Compass North and is termed E or W depending on whether the Compass North lies to the E or W of the Magnetic North Hdg (C) +/- Devn E/W = Hdg(M) DEVN EAST, COMPASS LEAST DEVN WEST, COMPASS BEST
    • AIRCRAFT PERMANENT MAG • HOW IS IT ACQUIRED? • WHAT EFFECT DOES IT HAVE? • HOW DO WE ANALYSE/ CORRECT FOR IT? • EFFECT OF CHANGE IN HDG? • ASSUMPTIONS - P, Q, R
    • EARTH’S FIELD “H” P – F& A COMPONENT OF A/C PERMANENT MAGNETISM RESULTANT FIELD NIL DEVN N E S W 000° 045° 09O° 180° 270° 315° 225° 135° EFFECT OF +P ON COMP DEVN
    • EARTH’S FIELD “H” Q – ATHWARTSHIP COMPONENT OF A/C PERMANENT MAGNETISM RESULTANT FIELD MAX DEVN E N E S W 000° 045° 09O° 180° 270° 315° 225° 135° EFFECT OF +Q ON COMP DEVN MAX DEVN W 0 DEVN 0 DEVN
    • • Coeff A= Devn on(N+E+W+S+NE+NW+SE+SW) 8 • Coeff C= Devn on N- Devn on S 2 • Coeff B= Devn on E- Devn on W 2 • Knowledge Of Preparation of Deviation Card • Importance Of Compass Swing • Procedure • Occasions for Compass Swinging on the Ground
    • • CORRECTOR
    • COMPASS SWING PROCEDURE • Check comp for “S” • TAKE A/C TO SUITABLE SITE( sw base) • ENSURE FLT CONTROLS, Engs, Rad/Elect Circuits – ON • PLACE A/C ON Hdg ‘S(M)’- Note Devn…(i) • PLACE A/C ON Hdg ‘W(M)’ - Note Devn…(ii) • PLACE A/C ON Hdg ‘N(M)’- Note Devn…(iii) • CALCULATE Coeff ‘C’ ….[ iii –i ]/2 ApplyTo Compass reading and Correct (No sign change) • PLACE A/C ON Hdg ‘E’ - Note Devn…(iv) • CALCULATE Coeff ‘B’ ….[ iv –ii ]/2 ApplyTo Compass reading and Correct (No sign change) • Carry out check swing on 8 Headings • CALCULATE Coeff ‘A’ –Sum of Devns on all Hdgs Devided by total number of Hdgs. Correct by moving Lubber Line/ VSC/ Detector Unit as Appropriate
    • OCCASIONS FOR A COMPASS SWING • WHENEVER THE A/C IS INITIALLY RECEIVED • PERIODICAL - EVERY THREE MONTHS OR AS SPECIFIED IN THE C of A • AFTER A MAJOR INSPECTION • AFTER STANDING ON ONE HDG FOR MORE THAN FOUR WEEKS • ANYTIME THERE IS A MAJOR COMPONENT CHANGE • ANYTIME THERE IS A PERMANENT MAJOR CHANGE IN LATITUDE • ANYTIME THE A/C IS STRUCK BY LIGHTNING • ANYTIME THE ACCURACY OF THE COMPASS IS SUSPECT •
    • • QUESTION • The results of a compass swing are as follows: • Hdg (C) Hdg (M) 002 357 047 044 092 090 137 135 182 181 227 228 272 272 317 313 • Calculate Coeffs A, B & C • What will you make the compass read on S & W • Hdgs to correct for Coeff C/B ? • What will you make it read on 313(M) to correct for A ?
    • 0 0 1 2 3 EW 3 2 1 1 2 3 E W 3 2 1 X X X X X X X X X
    • RIC - ADVANTAGES • DET UNIT INSTALLED REMOTELY SO LEAST AFFECTED BY A/C MAGNETISM • NO TURNING AND ACCLN ERRORS • REPEATERS ARE POSSIBLE: FEED TO OTHER EQPT POSSIBLE • RIGIDITY OF THE GYRO IS USED TO OVER COME THE T & A ERRORS WHILE THE GYRO WANDER IS CONTROLLED BY KEEPING IT ALIGNED WITH THE MAGNETIC MERIDIAN WHICH IS BEING CONTINUOUSLY SENSED BY THE DETECTOR UNIT (3 TO 5 DEG/ MIN)
    • GRID NAVIGATION G/C TRACK ON POLAR STEROGRAPHIC OR LAMBERT’S CON. Represented by a straight Line But the problem is that due to convergence of longitudes the True DIRECTION IS CONSTANTLY AND RAPIDLY CHANGING 30 W GM 30 E
    • 30 W GM 30 E GRID NORTH TRUE NORTH CONVERGENCE is the angle between GN and TN termed E or W depending on whether TN lies E OR W OF GN
    • CONVERGENCE • IN NORTHERN HEMISPHERE CONV IS EAST WHEN LONG IS WEST AND CONVERGENCE IS WEST WHEN LONG IS EAST • IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE IT IS THE SAME AS THE LONGITUDE • ITS VALUE IS SAME AS CHART CONVERGENCE. SO ON A POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC WITH GRID NORTH COINCIDING WITH GREENWICH MERIDIAN IT IS = LONG E OR W ( WITH SIGN CHANGE IN NH) • GRID DIR+ CONVERGENCE = TRUE DIR • G C T V M D C 090(G) 45E 045(T) 20W 025(M) 3E 028(C)
    • GM 45 E 45 W 90 W 135 W 180 E/W 90 E 135 E NP A B
    • INSTRUMENTS • PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS Pressure Altimeter] Principal of op ASI ] Basic Construction VSI ]Use, Limitations & Machmeter ] Errors
    • Period 63&64 PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS  PRESSURE ALTIMETER PRINCIPAL OF OP BASIC CONSTRUCTION (SIMPLE, SENSITIVE, SERVO) CALIBRATION USES, LIMITATIONS & ERRORS EFFECTS OF VARIATIONS IN TEMP AND PR ALTIMETRY PROBLEMS
    • ALTIMETER (SCHEMATIC)
    • ALTIMETER 100 FEET POINTER 1000 FEET POINTER SUB SCALESUB SCALE SETTING KNOB
    • SENSITIVE ALTIMETER • ADDITIONAL 1000 FEET POINTER WARNING FLAG- YELLOW DIAGONAL LINES APPEAR BELOW 10000 FEET
    • PRESSURE ALTITUDE ERRORS INSTRUMENT ERROR PRESSURE ERROR BAROMETRIC ERROR TEMPERATURE ERROR TIME LAG BLOCKAGES
    • 7 1 50 1010 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 FIVE DIGIT COUNTER CROSS HATCHING APPEARS IN PLACE OF FIRST COUNTER WHEN BELOW 10000 Ft POWER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION WARNING: STRIPED FLAG APPEARS IN WINDOW POINTER COMPPLETES ONE REVOLUTION PER 1000 FEET SET PRESSURE SERVO ALTIMETER DIAL
    • ADVANTAGES OF A SERVO ALTIMETER • VERY SENSITIVE – CAN PICK UP A CAPSULE MOVEMENT AS LITTLE AS 0.0002Inches / Thousand Feet GIVING AN ACCURACY OF ± 100Feet at 40000 Ft • VIRTUALLY ELIMINATES TIME LAG • ELECTRICAL SYSTEM – SO CORRN FOR PE CAN BE MADE AND ALTITUDE ALERTING DEVICE CAN BE INCORPORATED • DIGITAL READOUT- LESS CHANCES OF MIREADING • POINTER AVAILABLE – USEFUL TO ASSESS RATE OF CHANGE OF HEIGHT SPECIALLY AT LOW LEVELS • CAPABLE OF HEIGHT ENCODING - SSR
    • • Period 65&66 PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS AIR SPEED INDICATOR(ASI) • PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION • BASIC CONSTRUCTION • CALIBRATION • USES, LIMITATIONS • ERRORS • IAS, RAS/CAS, EAS , TAS
    • AIR SPEED INDICATOR • PRINCIPLE: P = D + S • or D = P – S • CONSTRUCTION: • CALIBRATION : AS PER ISA PD = ½ ρ. V² 1 + V² 4C² PD IS THE DYNAMIC PRESSURE ρ IS THE AIR DENSITY V IS THE IAS CIS THE SPEED OF SOUND
    • ASI ERRORS • INSTRUMENT ERROR • PRESSURE ERROR POSITION OF STATIC VENT AIRCRAFT SPEED ANGLE OF ATTACK AND THE A/C MANEOUVRE AERODYNAMIC STATE , i.e. POSN OF FLAPS, U/C • DENSITY ERROR • COMPRESSIBILITY ERROR [1 + V² ] [ 4C² ] i.e. COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR • BLOCKAGES • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT SPEEDS RAS = IAS ± PE ( Including Inst Error) EAS = RAS+ COMPRESSIBILITY ERROR CORRN TAS = EAS+ DENSITY ERROR CORRN
    • • Period 69&70 PRESSURE INSTRUMENT MACHMETER PRINCIPAL OF OP BASIC CONSTRUCTION CALIBRATION USE, LIMITATIONS & ERRORS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IAS/TAS/MACH NO./ AND ALTITUDE/ TEMPERATURE TAT/OAT,FAT – RAT (RAM RISE)
    • MACHMETER • MACH NO. =. TAS i.e. V LOCAL SPD OF SOUND C • NEED: IN HIGH SPEED FLIGHT SHOCK WAVES ARE LIABLE TO BE SET UP AS THE SPEED APPROACHES THE SPEED OF SOUND AND CERTAIN AERODYNAMIC EFFECTS LIKE CONTROL FLUTTER/CONTROL REVERSAL CAN OCCUR. THESE EFFECTS OCCUR NOT AT ANY FIXED TAS OR IAS BUT AT FIXED V/C RATIO. MACHMETER CONTINUOUSLY MEASURES THIS RATIO AND DISPLAYS IT TO THE PILOT • MCRIT- CRITICAL MACH NUMBER : IT IS THAT FREE STREAM MACH NO. AT WHICH THE AIRFLOW OVER SOME PART OF THE AIRCRAFT REACHES MACH -1
    • • PRINCIPLE: M = V/C TAS - IS A FUNCTION OF P-S & ρ SP OF SOUND (C): FUNCTION OF S & ρ ρ , density being a common factor EQUATION Becomes M = P-S S AIR SPEED CAPSULE MEASURES “P- S” ALTITUDE CAPSULE MEASURES “S” MOVEMENT OF THE TWO CAPSULES IS COMBINED TO GIVE THE RATIO P-S S
    • CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION
    • VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR • PRINCIPLE : MEASURES RATE OF CHANGE OF PRESSURE TO INDICATE VERTICAL SPEED • CONSTRUCTION : CAPSULE METERING UNIT, TEMP/ PR Compensation • ERRORS : INSTRUMENT ERROR TIME LAG ERROR PRESSURE ERROR MANOEUVRE INDUCED ERROR BLOCKAGES
    • V S I DIAL POINTER MECHANICAL LINKAGE METERING UNIT CAPSULE VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR ( Schematic) UP DOWN
    • IVSI (INERTIAL- LEAD VSI)  TO GET RID OF TIME LAG  COSISTS OF TWO DASHPOTS, EACH WITH AN INERTIAL MASS – PISTONS BALANCED BY SPRINGS, ONE SPRING BEING STRONGER THAN THE OTHER  DURING CLIMB/DESCENT, ACCELERATION PUSHES THE PISTONS UP OR DOWN RESULTING IN INSTANTANEOUS READING OF CLIMB/ DESCENT  AFTER A FEW SECONDS, EFFECT OF ACCELEROMETER PISTON DIES OUT, BUT BY THEN NORMAL VSI OPERATION IS EFFECTIVE  ERRORS :INSTRUMENT AND PRESSURE ERRORS NO LAG OR MANEOUVER INDUCED ERRORS TURNING ERRORS
    • Inertial-lead V S I ( IVSI)
    • Period 71&72 GYROSCOPES • PROPERTIES – RIGIDITY AND PRECESSION • METHODS OF IMPROVING RIGIDITY • RULES OF PRECESSION • PRECESSION RATE • REAL WANDER • APPARENT WANDER • TYPES OF GYROSCOPES
    • GYROSCOPES • PROPERTIES – Rigidity And Precession • Methods of Improving RIGIDITY • Rules of Precession • Precession Rate • Real Wander • Apparent Wander • Types Of Gyroscopes
    • GYRO OPERATED INSTRUMENTS • Description • Principle of Operation • Use and • Limitations OF Direction Gyro Indicator Artificial Horizon Turn and Slip Indicator Turn Coordinator
    • Period 73&74 GYRO OPERATED INSTRUMENTS DIRECTION GYRO INDICATOR DESCRIPTION PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION USE AND LIMITATIONS LATITUDE NUT DRIFT AND TOPPLE PROBLEMS
    • DI
    • DRIFT DUE TO EARTH’S ROTATION ROTOR ALIGNED WITH LOCAL MERIDIAN ө өHDG 090°(T) HDG 090°(T) ONE HOUR LATER ROTOR REMAINS POINTING IN THE SAME DIRECTION INDICATED HEADING IS 090, i.e LESS THAN THE TRUE HEADING i.e.090+ өDeg DI DRIFT APPARENT DRIFT DUE TO EARTH ROTATION
    • DRIFT DUE TO AIRCRAFT CHANGE OF LONG DRIFT DUE TO EARTH’S ROTATION INDICATED HEADING AFTER ONE HOUR FLIGHT IN AN EASTERLY DIRECTION LESS THAN 090 DEG ANDLESS THAN STATIONARY AIR CRAFT ROTOR ALIGNED WITH LOCAL MERIDIAN Ф Ф ө ө өHDG 090°(T) HDG 090°(T) HDG 090°(T) DI DRIFT APPARENT DRIFT DUE TO AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT
    • • Period 75&76 GYRO OPERATED INSTRUMENTS ARTIFICIAL HORIZON DESCRIPTION PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION USES AND LIMITATIONS
    • ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
    • ARTIFICIAL HORIZON Indicating: (a) Level (b) Climb (c) Descent (a) (b) (c)
    • ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
    • Period 77&78 GYRO OPERATEDINSTRUMENTS • TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR DESCRIPTION PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION USE AND LIMITATIONS •TURN COORDINATOR
    • TURN INDICATOR • NEED: THE PILOT NEEDS TO KNOW AT AT WHAT RATE THE AIRCRAFT IS TURNING • RATE TURNS: • RATE 1 TURN IS WHEN A/C TURNS THRO’ 360 DEG IN TWO MINUTES OR 180 DEG IN 0NE MINUTE
    • Rate Of Turn Indicator
    • TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR (TSI)
    • Period 79&80 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF OPERATION AND USE
    • Period 81&82 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM/ INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION & • ITS USES
    • RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION
    • Period 83&84 • PROPERTIES OF RADIO WAVES • NATURE OF RADIO WAVES • DEFINITIONS AMPLITUDE CYCLE FREQUENCY WAVE LENGTH • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAVE LENGTH AND FREQUENCY & THEIR CONVERSION • FREQUENCY SPECTRUM • POLARISATION • PRINCIPLES OF RADIO TRANSMISSION  GROUND WAVE PROPAGATION FACTORS AFFECTING RANGE DIFFRACTION ATTENUATION EFFECT OF TYPE OF SURFACE ON PROPAGATION  RANGES OBTAINABLE AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES
    • PROPERTIES OF RADIO WAVES • Nature of Radio Waves • Definitions Amplitude Cycle Frequency Wave length • Relationship Between Wave length and Frequency & their Conversion • Frequency Spectrum • Polarisation
    • PHASE & PHASE DIFFERENCE 0 90 180 270 360 O N E C Y C L E WAVE LENGTH ( DISTANCE) λ WAVES ARE IN PHASE WAVE LAGS 90 DEG / 180 DEG A M P L I T U D E
    • Electro Magnetic Waves Vertical PLANEHorizontal plane POLARISATION VERTICAL
    • FREQUENCY BAND DESIGNATOR Freq Band Name Abbr. Frequencies Wave Lengths Very Low Freq VLF 3 – 30 KHz 100Km – 10 Km Low Freq LF 30 – 300 KHz 10 Km – 1Km Medium Freq MF 300 – 3000KHz 1 Km – 100M High Freq HF 3 – 30 MHz 100M – 10 M Very High Freq VHF 30 - 300 MHz 10 M – 1 M Ultra High Freq UHF 300 – 3000 MHz 1M - 10Cm Super High Freq SHF 3 - 30 GHz 10 Cm – 1Cms Extremely High Freq EHF 30 – 300 GHz 1 Cm –1 mm
    • • Principles of Radio Transmission Ground Wave Propagation Factors Affecting Range Diffraction Refraction Reflection Attenuation Fading Effect of Type of Surface on Propagation  Ranges Obtainable at Different Frequencies
    • Period 85&86 SKY WAVE PROPAGATION  IONOSPHERE DEFINITION VARIATION WITH TIME OF DAY, SEASONS AND LATITUDE  REFRACTION AND ABSORPTION WITHIN THE IONOSPHERE  CRITICAL FREQUENCY / CRITICAL ANGLE  SKIP DISTANCE AND DEAD SPACE  PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES DIRECT WAVE PROPAGATION  FACTORS AFFECTING RANGE  DUCT PROPAGATION
    • • Sky Wave Propagation  Ionosphere Definition Variation With Time of Day, Seasons and Latitude Refraction and Absorption Within the Ionosphere Critical Frequency / Critical Angle Skip Distance and Dead Space Performance At Different Frequencies
    • • Direct Wave Propagation Factors Affecting Range Duct Propagation
    • MODULATION OF RADIO WAVES • NEED FOR MODULATION • AMPLITUDE MODULATION • FREQUENCY MODULATION • PHASE MODULATION • PULSE MODULATION
    • DIRECTION FINDING / ADF • PRINCIPLE • ELEMENTS OF DF • 180° AMBIGUITY AND ITS RESOLUTION • NIGHT EFFECT REFRACTION • QUADRANTAL ERROR • COASTAL • EFFECTS OF HIGH GROUND/ TERRAIN EFFECT • RANGE AND ACCURACY • AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • FREQUENCY BAND • TUNING AND IDENTIFICATION • LIMITATIONS • USES – HOMING, TRACKING, & ORIENTATION
    • DIRECTION FINDING ADF • Principle: BEARING BY LOOP D/F • Elements of DF • 180° Ambiguity and Its Resolution • Night Effect Refraction • Quadrantal Error • Coastal • Effects of High Ground/ Terrain Effect • Range and Accuracy
    • • NON DIRECTIONAL BEACON (NDB) A GROUND BASED TRANSMITTER WHICH TRANSMITS VERTICALLY POLARISED RADIO WAVES AT A UNIFORM SIGNAL STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTIONS IN THE LF AND MF BANDS THE ADF EQUIPMENT IN THE AIRCRAF,T WHEN TUNED TO THE SPECIFIC NDB FREQUENCY , INDICATES THE DIRECTION FROM WHICH THE RADIO WAVES ARE COMING i.e. THE DIRECTION OF THE NDB A “CONE OF SILENCE” EXISTS OVERHEAD THE NDB WHERE THE AIRCRAFT DOES NOT RECEIVE ANY SIGNALS. THE DIA OF THE CONE INCREASES WITH INCREASE IN HEIGHT
    • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION BEARING BY LOOP DIRECTION FINDING: IF YOU PLACE ALOOP AERIALIN THE PLANE OF A RADIO WAVE A VOLTAGE WILL BE PRODUCED IN THE VERTICAL MEMBERS MAX EMF INDUCED NO EMF INDUCED
    • • IF THE LOOP IS ROTATED THE VOLTAGE INDUCED WILL DECREASE UNTIL IT IS ZERO WHEN
    • ADF – THE LOOP AERIAL -+
    • ADF – THE LOOP AERIAL -+ +
    • - + + +
    • RELATIVE BEARING INDICATOR 000 180 090270 030 060 120 150210 240 300 330 RBI
    • ADF • FREQ BAND: 2OO – 1750 KHz • EMISSION: NON AIA, NONA2A, A2A • RANGE: 200 NM BY DAY(DO NOT USE OUTSIDE PROTECTED RANGE) , 70 NM BY NIGHT • FACTORS AFFECTING RANGE: Tx POWER, FREQ, NIGHT EFFECT, EMISSION, TERRAIN • ACCURACY: ± 5° (WITHIN PROTECTED RANGE) • FACTORS:N/EFFECT, TERRAIN, STATIC, QE, STN INTERFERENCE, ALIGNMENT • FAILURE WARNING: NIL • BFO: NON A1A –TUNING AND IDENTIFICATION NON A2A – TUNING ONLY A2A – BFO NOT TO BE USED
    • 0365.5 FREQUENCY TEST TONE OFF ADF ANT GAINOFF ADF CONTROL UNIT A D F
    • ADF Frequencies : Allocated Freq 190-1750 KHz Normally most NDBs 250-450 KHz Types of NDBs: Locator - Low Powered 10- 25nm Enroute – More power giving ranges of 50nm-Hundreds of miles AIRCRAFT EQPT: A LOOP AERIAL A SENSE AERIAL A CONTROL UNIT A RECEIVER
    • ADF • Emission Characteristics: • ALL NDBs have 2 or 3 Letter Identification • and two types of emission NON A1A and NON A2A • “NON” PART OF THE EMISSION IS UNMODULATED CARRIER WAVE, WHICH WILL NOT BE DETECTED ON A NORMAL Rx. SO A BFO IS PROVIDED ON ADF EQUIPMENT. WHEN BFO IS “ON” IT PRODUCES AN OFFSET FREQ in the receiver WHICH IN COMBINATION WITH THE RECEIVED FREQ PRODUCES A TONE OF SAY 400 OR 1020 Hz • “A1A” PART IS IS THE EMISSION OF AN INTURRUPTED CARRIER WAVE WHICH REQUIRES THE BFO TO BE ON FOR AURAL RECEPTION. • “A2A” IS THE EMISSION OF AN AMPLITUDE MODULATED CARRIER WHICH CAN BE HEARD ON A NORMAL RECEIVER
    • ADF • WHEN USING NON A1A Beacons - BFO‘ON’ For manual Tuning, Identification and Monitoring • WHEN USING NON A2A Beacons – BFO ‘ON’ For Manual Tuning But Off For Identification And Monitoring PRESENTATION OF INFO RBI - GIVES RELATIVE BEARING RMI – RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR: COMBINES RELATIVE BEARING INFO FROM THE ADF WITH HEADING MAGNETIC
    • Relative Bearing 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 ADF Indicator
    • RELATIVE BEARING INDICATOR RMI HDG(M) 000 180 090 270 030 060 120 150 210 240 300 330
    • Period 91&92 VOR (VERY HIGH FREQ OMNI RANGE ) • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • FREQUENCY BAND • RANGE – LINE OF SIGHT • TUNING AND IDENTIFICATION • RANGE – LINE OF SIGHT RANGE CALCULATION • USES • ADVANTAGES • ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY • D VOR
    • TO/ FROM INDICATION
    • VOR • VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL RANGE – STD SHORT RANGE NAV AID BY ICAO -1960 • GIVES 360 RADIALS, EACH 1° APART STARTING FROM MAGNETIC NORTH AT VOR LOCATION • VHF AND HENCE VOR IS FREE FM STATIC INTERFERENCE, NO SKY WAVES SO CAN BE USED DAY AND NIGHT • VOR FREQ CAN BE PAIRED WITH CO- LOCATED DME GIVING INSTANTANEOUS Rho-Theta FIX
    • • VOR • Frequency (Band) (VHF) 108.00-111.95MHz using even decimals, 112.00-117.95MHz using all • Emissions A9W • Range VHF formula - 12√F(flight level), or accurately 1.25 √H1=1.25 √h2 • DOC (Designated Operational Coverage) • Range factors Transmission power, station elevation, aircraft altitude • Accuracy ±5º on 95% of occasions • Accuracy factors Beacon alignment, site error, propagation error, airborne equipment error, pilotage • Failure warning : Warning flag appears if: Low signal strength Airborne equipment failure Ground equipment failure Indicator failure Low or no power Tuning in progress • Test VOR VOT – Preflight check, 000º from or 180º TO, ±4º
    • VOR USES • MARKING BEGINNING/END OF AIRWAYS • FOR TERMINAL LET-DOWN PROCEDURES • AS HOLDING POINT / MARK HOLDING PATTERNS • FOR ENROUTE POSITION LINES
    • VOR PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • BEARING BY PHASE COMPARISON • VOR TX Transmits two SIGNALS a) A 30 Hz FM Omni-directional REFERENCE SIGNAL PRODUCES A CONSTANT PHASE , IRRESPECTIVE OF THE Rx BRG FM VOR Tx b) A 30 Hz AM VARIABLE PHASE (Directional) SIGNAL created by a rotating transmission pattern (LIMACON) • BOTH a) and b) above are synchronised such that i) THE TWO ARE IN PHASE WHEN THE A/C VOR Rx IS DUE MAGNETIC NORTH OF THE VOR Tx ii) THE PHASE DIFFERENCE MEASURED AT ANY POINT WILL EQUATE TO THE AIRCRAFT’S MAGNETIC BEARING FROM THE VOR
    • 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 VOR Radials VOR (QDR) MAG NORTH
    • VOR : FREQUENCIES • OPERATE IN VHF BAND( 30 to 300 MHz ) • ALOTTED Freq : 108 To 117.95 MHz • a) 40 CHANNELS - 108 – 112 MHz PRIMARILY ILS BAND Short Range & Terminal VORs ( Even Decimal Digits for VOR) i.e. 108.0, 108.05, 108.2, 108.25, 108.4 etc (ODD Decimal Digits ARE USED BY ILS) b) 120 CHANNELS 112 to 117.95 • EMISSION CODE: A 9 W • A- Main carrier is amplitude modulated • 9 – Composite System • w - COMBINATION OF TELEMETERY, T-PHONY & T-GRAPHY
    • VOR (Very High Freq Omni Range ) • Principle Of Operation: BRG BY PHASE COMPARISON • Frequency Band: 108 – 117.95 MHz 108- 112 SHARED WITH ILS-VOR EVEN DECIMAL(108.20, 108.25….) AND ILS ODD DECIMAL (108.10, 108.15……) • Range – Line of Sight Range Calculation • Uses: Navigation(Position Line), HOMING, TRACKING OUT, • Advantages • Accuracy And Reliability • D VOR
    • Period 93&94 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION/ APPLICATION OF • RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI) • HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
    • Relat 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210
    • OBSSELECTION FROM TO 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210
    • OBS SELECTION FROM TO 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210
    • Phase QDR QDM HDG Rel OBS To/ L/R Diff (M) Brg From Dots A = B±180=C = D + E F±90= 050 010 240 035 005 To Fly left 2 dots 216 040 035 225 050 To Center 020 030 To Full scale Fly Left 070 075 240 250 240 250 020 020 From Fly left 1 dot
    • Phase QDR QDM HDG Rel OBS To/ L/R Diff (M) Brg From Dots 050 050 230 010 220 240 To Fly left 5 dots 035 035 215 210 005 219 To Fly left 2 dots036 036 216 040 176 035 From Fly left 1/2 dots225 225 045 355 050 045 To Center 200 200 020 030 350 030 To Full scale Fly LrftFly left 5
    • Phase QDR QDM HDG Rel OBS To/ L/R Diff (M) Brg From Dots 050 050 230 010 220 240 To Fly left 5 dots 035 035 215 210 005 219 To Fly left 2 dots 036 036 216 040 176 035 From Fly left 1/2 dots 225 225 045 355 050 045 To Center 200 200 020 030 350 030 To Full scale Fly Lrft 070 070 250 075 175 240 240 Fly left 5 dots 250 250 070 240 190 250 From Center 020 020 200 180 020 018 From Fly left 1 dot
    • 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 2 1 OBS 075
    • 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210
    • OBS COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI) VOR 060
    • RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR RMI
    • • RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI) HDG(M) 2 Presentation And Interpretation 1 N E W S 30 6 3 12 15 21 24 33 1
    • HDG(M) N E W S 30 6 3 12 15 21 24 33 1 21
    • 000 030 330 060 090 300 120 180 270 150 240 210 Rel Brg Ind
    • VOR SUMMARY • CHARECTARISTICS: MAG BRGs, Day&night • FREQ : 108 TO 119.75 MHz; 160 Channels • USES : Airways, Airfield Let Downs, Holding Pts , En-route Navigation • PRINCIPLE OF OP: Brg by Phase Comp OF TWO 30 Hz SIGNALS • IDENTIFICATION: 3 Letter aural Morse or Voice every 10 sec, Cont TONE for VOT Also ATIS using AM on Voice • MONITORING: Auto Site Monitor +/- 1 Deg Ident Suppressed at St By Initial Sw On
    • • TYPES: CVOR - Ref Sig FM, Var Sig AM • Limacone Polar Diagram Rot. Clockwise • DVOR – More Accurate, less site error • Ref Sig AM, VarSig FM, rot anti-clock. • TVOR: Low Power Tx at Airfields • VOT : TEST VOR giving 180 Radial • a/c Eqpt should give < ± 4 Deg error • OPERATIONAL RANGE: Tx Power. LoS.DOC • ACCURACY :Affected by, Site Error, Scalloping • Airborne Eqpt Error +/- 3 Deg • CONE of CONFUSION: OFF Flag may appear
    • HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator) • Presentation • Modes of Operation • Interpretation and Apllication
    • MODES • Modes of Operation OFF HDG VOR/NAV GS GS AUTO ALT APPR APPR II GA IAS VS MACH
    • Period 95&96 INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS) PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION COMPONENTS – GROUND INSTALLATION COVERAGE AND RANGE GLIDE PATH ANGLE, FALSE GLIDE PATH FREQUENCIES: LOCALISER & GLIDE PATH PAIRING TUNING & IDENTIFICATION RECEIVER & CONTROLS DATA PRESENTATION AIRCRAFT HANDLINGWITH REFERENCE TO ILS INDICATIONS PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES
    • ILS ( Instrument Landing System) • Principle of Operation • Components – Ground Installation • Coverage and Range • Glide path Angle, False Glide path • Frequencies: Localiser & Glide path Pairing • Tuning & Identification • Receiver & Controls
    • ILS - PRINCIPLE • ILS IS A PRECESSION APPROACH AID BASED ON BEARING BY LOBE COMPARISON • IT PROVIDES GUIDANCE TO THE PILOT BOTH IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE (DEVIATION FROM EXTENDED RUNWAY CENTER LINE) AND THE VERTICAL PLANE (DEVIATION FROM THE GLIDE PATH) • IT PROVIDES VISUAL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE PILOT RIGHT DOWN TO DH/DA.
    • ILS - COMPONENTS GROUND INSTALLATION • LOCALISER • GLIDE PATH • MARKER BEACONS • BACK COURSE APPROACHES • LOCATOR BEACONS • DME ILS FREQUENCIES • LOCALISER –108 –111.975( ODD 1st decimal) • GLIDE PATH - 329.15 –335 MHz(Paired with L)
    • LOCALISER LOBES & THEIR COVERAGES 150 Hz 90 Hz LOCALISER Tx Coverage Within +/- 10 deg ------25 NM Within 10 – 35 deg -------17 NM Outside 35 deg ------------10 NM 20 Deg 25 NM 17 NM 35 Deg BEYOND 35 Deg 10 NM
    • Lclzr MHz G’Path 108.10 334.70 108.15 334.55 108.3 334.10 108.35 333.95 108.5 329.90 108.55 329.75 108.7 330.50 108.75 330.35 108.9 329.30 108.95 329.15 109.1 331.40 109.15 331.25 109.3 332.00 109.35 331.85 109.50 332.60 109.55 332.45 109.70 333.20 109.75 333.05 109.90 333.80 109.95 333.65 110.1 334.40 110.15 334.25 110.3 335.00 110.35 334.85 110.5 329.60 110.55 329.45 110.70 330.20 110.75 330.05 110.90 330.80 110.95 330.65 111.10 331.70 111.15 331.55 111.30 332.30 111.35 332.15 111.50 332.9 111.55 332.75 111.70 333.5 111.75 333.35 111.90 331.1 111.95 330.95 Frequency Pairs Allocated For ILS
    • 90 Hz 150 Hz GLIDE PATH – LOBES & THEIR COVERAGES LINE ALONG WHICH EQUAL 90 Hz AND 150Hz SIGNAL IS RECEIVED OR DDM IS ZERO 27 GP Tx UPTO 10 NM WITHIN 8 DEG IN AZIMUTH EITHER SIDE VERTICAL PLANE COVERAGE FROM 0.45 θ TO 1.75 θ ABOVE THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE θ IS THE GLIDE SLOPE ANGLE
    • ILS • Data Presentation – Display System • Data Interpretation • Aircraft Handling With Reference To ILS Indications • Performance Categories
    • MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM
    • Period 97&98 VHF MARKERS • PURPOSE • FREQUENCY AND RADIATION PATTERNS • RANGE • COCKPIT INDICATIONS • LOW / HIGH SENSITIVITY SELECTION RADIO ALTIMETERS • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • FREQUENCY MODULATION & ITS APPLICATION TO HEIGHT MEASUREMENT • USES • ADVANTAGES AND • LIMITATIONS
    • VHF MARKERS • Purpose • Frequency and Radiation Patterns • Range • Cockpit Indications • Low / High Sensitivity Selection
    • • Marker Passage Indications Marker Code Light • OM - - - BLUE • MM • - • - AMBER • IM • • • • WHITE • BC • • • • WHITE
    • RADIO ALTIMETERS • Principle of Operation • Frequency Modulation & Its Application to Height Measurement • Uses • Advantages and • Limitations
    • RADIO ALTIMETER INDICATOR WARNING FLAG DECISION HEIGHT INDICATOR DECISION HEIGHT SETTING KNOB TEST
    • Period 99&100 RADAR • PRINCIPLE MEASUREMENT OF RANGE MEASUREMENT OF BEARING • RADAR PARAMETERS FREQUENCY RANGES PULSE WIDTH PRF
    • RADAR • Principle Measurement of Range Measurement of Bearing Radar Parameters Frequency Ranges Pulse Width PRF
    • RADAR – RAdio Detection And Ranging • Developed before WW – II • USED on Ground and in Air • Initially Only PULSE Radars Later CW • Today Extensively used by Civil/ Mil/ Wx etc • PRINCIPLE • EM Energy Transmitted in Short Pulses : They get Reflected by Target A/C . Reflected pulses Picked up by the Rx at the Tx Locn. Time taken for the energy to travel to and fro depends on the distance. The direction in which the antenna is pointing at the time of the Reception gives the direction of the Target Aircraft.
    • • TYPES OF RADAR • PRIMARY RADAR- TRANSMIT ENERGY( EM WAVES) IN PULSES ENERGY REFLECTED BY OBJECTS IN THEIR PATH THIS IS PICKED UP BY THE Rx AND DISPLAYED GIVING DIRECTION AND RANGE (DIST)
    • • SECONDARY RADAR • A SECONDARY RADAR TRANSMITS ON ONE FREQ BUT RECEIVES OS A DIFFERENT FREQ. • SYSTEM USES AN INTERROGATOR AND A TRANSPONDER. • TRANSPONDER MAY BE ON THE GROUND OR IN THE AIRCRAFT
    • PULSE WIDTH PULSE RECURRENCE INTERVAL OR PULSE RECURRENCE PERIOD 1 2 PULSE WIDTH + 0 - + 0 - TIME
    • • First Symbol • This tells the type of modulation on the main carrier wave. This includes: • N No modulation. • A Amplitude modulated, double sideband. • H Amplitude modulated, single sideband and carrier wave. • J Amplitude modulated, single sideband, suppressed carrier wave. • F Frequency modulated. • G Phase modulated. • P Pulse modulated, constant amplitude. • K Pulse modulated, amplitude modulated.
    • • Second Symbol • This designates the nature of the signal or signals modulating the main carrier: • 0 No modulating symbol. • 1 Single channel containing quantised or digital information without the use of a modulating sub-carrier. • 2 Single channel containing quantised or digital information, using a modulating sub-carrier. • 3 Single channel containing analogue information. • Two or more channels containing quantised or digital information. • Two or more channels containing analogue information. • Composite system comprising 1, 2 or 7 above, with 3 or 8 above. • X Cases not otherwise covered.
    • • Third Symbol • Type of information transmitted. (This does not include information carried by the presence of the waves.) • N No information transmitted. • A Telegraphy - for aural reception. • B Telegraphy - for automatic reception. • C Facsimile. • D Data transmission, telemetry, telecommand. • E Telephony (including sound broadcasting). • F Television (video). • W Combination of the above. • X Cases not otherwise covered.
    • • Ground Waves The term ‘ground wave’ is used to describe all types of propagation except sky waves. Thus, a surface wave is also a ground wave, so is a space wave. • Direct wave and } + } Ground reflected wave } = Space wave } + } and Surface wave } = Ground wave
    • Period 101&102 DME ( DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT) PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • USES • RANGE • ACCURACY AND • LIMITATIONS
    • DME - PRINCIPLE • DME IS A SECONDARY RADAR SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDES THE RANGE FROM THE GROUND STATION USING THE PULSE TECHNQUE. • IN CONJUNCTION WITH A CO-LOCATED VOR IT GIVES A RHO-THETA ( RANGE AND BEARING ) FIX • MILITARY EQUIVALENT IS THE TACAN (VORTAC – VOR AND TACAN CO- LOCATED BEACON )
    • DME - CHANNELS • SECONDARY RADAR – FREQ BETWEEN 962 MHz TO 1213 MHz (UHF) • DIFFERENCE OF ± 63 MHz BETWEEN Tx AND Rx FREQUENCY • CHANNELS NUMBERED 1 TO 126 X AND 1 TO 126 Y (MIL AIRCRAFT USE CHANNELS AND CIVIL AIRCRAFT TUNE VOR/ DME PAIRED FREQUENCY) • WHEN PAIRED WITH ILS LOCALISER, IT GIVES PILOT DISTANCE TO GO TO RUNWAY THRESHOLD
    • DME - USES • PROVIDES ACCURATE SLANT RANGE – SO A CIRCULAR POSITION LINE • CAN GIVE G/S AND ELAPSED TIME WHEN SUITABLE COMPUTER SYSTEM IS FITTED • ACCURATE HOLDING PATTERNS & DME ARCS CAN BE FLOWN • RANGE AND HT CHECKS (NON PREC APP) • ACCURATE RANGES TO THRESHOLD (MARKER BEACONS CAN BE DISPENSED) • EXACT RANGE ENABLES IMM RADR IDENT
    • • BETTER SEPARATION POSSIBLE IN NON-RADAR AIR SPACE • VOR/DME FIXES PROVIDE BASIS FOR SIMPLEST FORM OF R-NAV (AREA NAV) • PROVIDES ACCURATE RANGE INPUTS TO MORE ACCURATE AND ADVANCED R-NAV SYSTEMS (DME/DME FIXES )
    • BASIC WORKING – RANGE DETERMINATION • RANGE BY PULSE TECHNIQUE (SLANT RANGE) • AIRCRAFT INTERROGATOR TRANSMITS STREAM OF OMNI DIRECTIONAL PULSES, SIMULTANEOUSLY RECEIVER STARTS A RANGE SEARCH • GROUND BEACON (TRANSPONDER) RE- TRANSMITS THE RECD PULSES AFTER DELAY OF 50 MICRO SEC AT A FREQ ±63 MHz OF RECD FREQ • AIRBORNE EQPT IDENTIFIES OWN UNIQUE STREAM OF PULSESAND MEASURES THE TIME INTERVAL , ELECTRONICALLY & DISPLAYS IT AS RANGE ACCURATELY (±0.2NM)
    • • THEORETICALLY UPTO 100 AIRCRAFT CAN USE ONE DME TRANSPONDER, SO AIRCRAFT RECEIVES OWN RESPONSE PULSES AS WELL AS OTHER AIRCRAFT RESPONSE PULSES • INTERROGATION PULSES 3.5 MICRO SEC TRANSMITTED IN PAIRSWITH INTERVAL 12 M/SEC FOR X CHANNELS AND 36 M/SEC FOR Y CHANNELS • TO AVOID AMBIGUITY, EACH AC TRANSMITS ITS PAIRED PULSES AT RANDOM INTERVALS ( JITTERING )
    • • AT TRANSMISSION TIME, RECEIVER SETS UP GATES TO MATCH THE RANDOM PRF OF TRANSMITTED TWIN PULSES • THE RESPONSE INCLUDES THOSE FM OWN AC PAIRED PULSES & THOSE FM OTHER AC P/ PULSES • THE RECEIVING EQPT IS DESIGNED TO RECEIVE RESPONSES WHICH MATCHITS OWN RANDOMISED PRF. WHEN THIS HAPPENS, A LOCK-ON IS ACHIEVED AND DME ENTERS TRACKING MODE • AS AC RANGE INC/DEC THE GATES SHIFT TO ACCOMMODATE THE CORRESPONDING INC/DEC. THIS LOCK AND FOLLOW ENSURESRETURNING TWIN PULSES ARE CONTINUOUSLY TRACKED • RANGE IS DISPLAYED BASED ON OFFSET BETWEEN TX & RX PULSE PAIRS
    • DME – TWIN PULSES • THE USE OF TWIN PULSES ENSURES THAT THE RECEIVER NEVER ACCEPTS PULSES WHICH MAY BE MATCHING BUT WHICH ARE SINGLE , FOR EXAMPLE THOSE IN RESPONSE TO OTHER AIRCRAFT RADARS OR OTHER RANDOM TRANSMISSIONS
    • DME – RANGE SEARCH • TO ACHIEVE A LOCK-ON, DME INTERROGATOR TRANSMITS 150 PULSE PAIRS PER SEC FOR 100 SEC. • IF NO LOCK-ON IN 100 SEC, IT REDUCES TO 60 PP/SEC • ONCE LOCK-ON ACHIEVED, IT REDUCES TO 25 PP/SEC • DURING RANGE SEARCH COUNTERS/ POINTER ROTATE RAPIDLY FROM 0 TO MAX RANGE (4 TO 5 SEC IN MOD DME & 25 TO 30 IN OLDER SYSTEMS) • IF NO LOCK-ON, DROPS TO 0 AND STARTS AGAIN
    • DME – BEACON SATURATION • GROUND STATION OUTPUT IS KEPT CONSTANT AT 2700 PULSES/SECIF LESS NUMBER OF AC ARE USING THE DME TRANSPONDER, IT ADJUSTS ITS GAIN UPWARDS • IF 2700 PULSES ARE BEING RECD, THE BEACON IS SAID TO BE SATURATED AND GAIN IS REDUCED • THIS WILL CUT OFF RECEPTION FM THE FARTHEST ( WEAKEST ) AC • THIS MEANS APPROX 100 AC CAN USE A DME TRANS PONDER AT ANY GIVEN TIME ie 95% OF AC IN LOCK-ON MODE AND 5% IN SEARCH MODE . AVERAGE 27 PP/SEC
    • DME – STATION IDENTIFICATION • 3 LETTER CALL SIGN TRANSMITTED EVERY 30 SEC (USUALLY IN CONJUNCTION WITH A VOR ) • DURING IDENTIFICATION TX , THE RANDOM PULSES ARE REPLACED BY REGULARLY SPACED PULSES, SO RANGE INFO IS NOT AVAILABLE • EQPT IS PROVIDED WITH 10 SEC MEMORY WITHIN WHICH TIME PP TRANSMISSIONIS RESUMED AND EQPT DISPLAYS RANGE
    • DME/VOR FREQUENCY PAIRING • DME IS NORMALLY CO-LOCATED WITH VOR AND IS FREQ PAIRED WITH IT. SELECTING THE VOR AUTOMATICALLY SELECTS THE FREQ PAIRED DME
    • DME – RANGE MEASUREMENT FOR ILS • WHEN PAIRED WITH ILS, DME IS GENERALLY CO-LOCATED WITH THE LOCALISER. BUT TRANSPONDER IS ADJUSTED TO GIVE THE AC RANGE FROM THE THRESHOLD • DME RANGES CAN THEREFORE BE USED IN PLACE OF THE MARKER BEACONS
    • DME RANGE AND COVERAGE LINE OF SIGHT RANGE (UHF BAND) INTERVENING OBSTRUCTIONS WILL REDUCE RANGE IN CASE OF BANK ANTENNA MAY BE SHIELDED AND SOINTERRUPTION MAY OCCUR (10 SEC MEMORY WILL MAINTAIN LOCK-ON) ECHO PROTECTION CIRCUIT IS PROVIDED –
    • DME – SYSTEM ACCURACY • ON A 95% PROBABILITY, ± 0.2 NM ACCURACY • FOR OLDER AIRCRAFT (PRE 1989) ±0.25 NM + 1.25 % OF RANGE , SO AT 100 NM 0.25 + 1.25 NM = 1.5 NM • THIS IS ALL INCLUSIVE, AIRBORNE EQPT ERRORS, GRD EQPT ERRORS, PROPAGATION AND RANDOM PULSE INTERFERENCE ETC
    • DME – SLANT RANGE/ GROUND RANGE ACCURACY • DME MEASURES SLANT RANGE • AT GREATER RANGES DIFF BETWEEN THE TWO IS NEGLIGIBLE • AS THE RANGE REDUCES ERRORS BECOME INCREASINGLY RELEVENT • WHEN OVER THE BEACON, INDICATED RANGE =AC HEIGHT
    • DME – GROUND SPEED COMPUTATION • G/S COMPUTATION DONE BY THE COMPUTER DEPENDING ON RATE OF CLOSING/ OPENING • SO ACCURATE ONLY WHEN HEADING DIRECTLY TOWARDS THE BEACON OR AWAY FROM THE BEACON
    • Period 103&104 WEATHER RADAR • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • USES AND • LIMITATIONS
    • • Principle of Operation: Need, Wx Hazards • Freq. 10 GHz i.e. Wavelength 3 cms • Conical Beam: 3 to 5 Deg Beam Width, Tilt +/- 15 deg • Cosec ² θ Beam: For Mapping • Displays : B&W, Iso-Echo Contour, Colour Display- Green,Yellow, Red/Magenta, Ranges ( up to 150 ) and Azimuth Coverage • Turbulence indication – close contours, hooks • Avoidance – Below FL 200 by atleast 5NM add 5 NM for each 5000 Feet
    • • RELATIVE HEIGHT CALCULATION • Mapping Display • Cockpit Controls: • Windshear Detection:
    • Period 105&106 ARSR / PAR • PROCEDURE FOR USE • LIMITATIONS
    • ARSR / PAR • Procedure for Use • Limitations
    • Period 107&108 SSR (SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR) • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION • USES AND • MODES
    • Period 109&110 CRT (CATHODE RAY TUBE) • CONSTRUCTION AND • USES
    • CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) • Construction and • Uses
    • The cathode ray tube (CRT), invented by German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 1897, is the display device that was long used in most computer displays, video monitors, televisions, radar displays andoscilloscopes. The CRT developed from Philo Farnsworth's work was used in all television sets until the late 20th century and the advent of plasma screens, LCD TVs, DLP, OLED displays, and other technologies. As a result of CRT technology, television continues to be referred to as "the tube" well into the 21st century, even when referring to non-CRT sets. A cathode ray tube technically refers to any electronic vacuum tube employing a focused beam of electrons. This Lesson will concentrate on the families of cathode ray tubes used as displays in the instruments used in aviation
    • • A cathode ray tube technically refers to any electronic vacuum tube employing a focused beam of electrons. This study will concentrate on the families of cathode ray tubes used as displays for aircraft instruments, radar, oscilloscopes etc.
    • CATHODE RAY TUBE EMPLOYING ELECTROMAGNETIC FOCUS AND DEFLECTION
    • • Cathode rays exist in the form of streams of high speed electrons emitted from the heating of a cathode inside a vacuum tube, at its rear end. The emitted electrons form a beam within the tube due to the voltage difference applied across the two electrodes (the CRT screen typically forms the anode). The beam is then perturbed (deflected), either by a magnetic or an electric field, to trace over ('scan') the inside surface of the screen (anode). The screen is covered with a phosphorescent coating (often transition metals or rare earth elements), which emits visible light when excited by the electrons.
    • • In television sets and modern computer monitors, and many other display systems , the entire front area of the tube is scanned systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster. An image is produced by modulating the intensity of the electron beam with a received video signal (or another signal derived from it). In all modern TV sets, the beam is deflected with a magnetic field applied to the neck of the tube with a "magnetic yoke", a set of wire coils driven by electronic circuits. This usage of electromagnets to change the electron beam's original direction is known as "magnetic deflection".
    • • The source of the electron beam is the electron gun, which produces a stream of electrons through thermionic emission, and focuses it into a thin beam. The gun is located in the narrow, cylindrical neck at the extreme rear of a CRT and has electrical connecting pins, usually arranged in a circular configuration, extending from its end. These pins provide external connections to the cathode, to various grid elements in the gun used to focus and modulate the beam, and, in electrostatic deflection CRTs, to the deflection plates. Since the CRT is a hot-cathode device, these pins also provide connections to one or more filament heaters within the electron gun.
    • • When a CRT is operating, the heaters can often be seen glowing orange through the glass walls of the CRT neck. The need for these heaters to 'warm up' causes a delay between the time that a CRT is first turned on, and the time that a display becomes visible. In older tubes, this could take fifteen seconds or more; modern CRT displays have fast-starting circuits which produce an image within about two seconds, using either briefly increased heater current or elevated cathode voltage. Once the CRT has warmed up, the heaters stay on continuously. The electrodes are often covered with a black layer, a patented process used by all major CRT manufacturers to improve electron density.
    • Electron Gun
    • • The interior side of the phosphor layer is often covered with a layer of aluminium. The phosphors are usually poor electrical conductors, which leads to deposition of residual charge on the screen, effectively decreasing the energy of the impacting electrons due to electrostatic repulsion (an effect known as "sticking"). The aluminium layer is connected to the conductive layer inside the tube, and disposes of this charge. Additionally, it reflects the phosphor light in the desired direction (towards the viewer), and protects the phosphor from ion bombardment.
    • THE FUTURE OF CRT TECHNOLOGY In recent years technologies such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs), and other newer technologies have made CRT- based displays mostly obsolete for mainstream users. The new screens are less bulky, consume less power and have a larger display area; LCDs are becoming directly comparable in price to CRTs of the same display area. However, color CRTs still find adherents in computer gaming, due to their high refresh rates, and higher resolution, and in the printing and broadcasting industries as well as in the video and photoshopping community, for the CRT's greater color fidelity and contrast. Improvements in LCD technology increasingly alleviate these concerns and demand for CRT screens is falling rapidly . Aircraft Displays have almost entirely changed over to LCD Displays
    • Y- Plates X-Plates 1st Anode 3rd Anode 0 V 2nd AnodeGrid Graphite Coating Cathode Heater Fluorescent Screen CRT SCHEMATIC -4 kV - 2 kV -3 kV -4.02 kV (variable) Deflecting Plates
    • • TYPES of CRT • Electro static CRT (ESCRT) • Electromagnetic CRT (EMCRT)
    • Raster Screen (USED IN TV Displays) SAW TOOTH VOLTAGE
    • TIME BASE • LENIAR Time Base: Saw Tooth Voltage • Circular Time Base: Sin And Cos Waves • PPI : 0 25 50 75 100
    • X X Y Y a b c d e f g h a a b c d e f g h CIRCULAR TIME BASE Y X
    • Period 111&112 GPWS / EGPWS (GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM / ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY SYSTEM) • PRINCIPLE AND OPERATION
    • GPWS / EGPWS Ground Proximity Warning System / Enhanced Ground Proximity System • Principle and Operation
    • Period 113 MLS (MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM) • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND • USES
    • MLS Microwave Landing System • Principle of Operation and • Uses
    • Period 114&115 DOPPLER PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF GROUND SPEED AND DRIFT
    • DOPPLER • Principal of Operation for Measurement of Ground Speed and Drift
    • Period 116 OMEGA • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND USES
    • OMEGA • Principle of Operation and Uses
    • Period 117&118 GNSS/GPS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM) PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND USES
    • GNSS/GPS Global Navigation Satellite System) (Global Positioning System) • Principle of Operation and Uses
    • Periods 119&120 FMS (FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND USES
    • FMS (Flight Management System) • Principle of Operation and Uses
    • FMS (Flight Management System) OVER THE YEARS RELATIVELY SIMPLE AUTOPILOT SYSTEMS HAVE GIVEN WAY TO COMPLEX SYSTEMS THAT AUTOMATICALLY CONTROL ALL ASPECTS OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHT IN TERMS OF LATERAL (LNAV ) AND VERTICAL ( VNAV) AND SPEED FROM IMM AFTER T/O TO THE END OF THE LANDING ROLL AND EVEN BEYOND THAT. TO ACHIEVE THIS, INPUTS ARE NEEDED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES – NAV AIDS, BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL, AND THE ENGINE THRUST NEEDS TO BE MAINTAINED AT THE OPTIMUM LEVEL TO OBTAIN OPTIMAL ECONOMY. ALL MODERN LARGE PASSENGER A/C USE A COMPUTERISED FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WHICH AIMS AT REDUCING THE CREW WORKLOAD WHILE GIVING THE BEST POSSIBLE FUEL ECONOMY THUS ENSURING MINIMUM OPERATING COSTS. TYPES SIMPLE SYSTEM – MAY BE PURELY AS ADVISORY UNIT PROVIDING SETTINGS REQUIRED FOR OPTIMUM FUEL ECONOMY DURING CLIMB, CRUISE AND DESCENT FULLY INTERFACED SYSTEM - PROVIDES FULL CONTROL FOR LNAV AND VNAV USING OPTIMUM THRUST SETTINGS TO GET THE BEST FUEL ECONOMY
    • CRUISECLIMB T/O DESCENT LATERAL FLIGHT PLAN VERTICAL FLIGHT PLAN MAP GO AROUND ARRIVAL PROCEDURES APPR STAR TRANS ENROUTE PROCEDURES DEP PROCEDURE RWY SID TRANS RWY RWY TYPICAL FMS FLIGHT PROFILE
    • Flight Management Computer MCDU Inertial Reference System Integrated Display System Electronic Interface Unit EGPWS EFIS Digital Clock Mode Control Panel Flight Control Computer ILSDMEPILOTSVORADF Auto- throttle Servo Electronic Engine Controls Fuel Quantity Indicators Weight & Balance Computer Air Data Computer Central Maint Computer Flight Director System FMS DATA INTERFACING
    • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z INIT REF RTE DEP ARR ATC VNAV FIX MENU PREV PAGE NEXT PAGE LEGS HOLD FMC COMM PROG EXEC NAV RAD SP DEL CLR/ BRT A N N U N C I A T O R S A N N U N C I A T O R S . 0 1 +/- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TITLE FIELD LEFT FIELD RIGHT FIELD SCRATCH PAD L I N E S E L E C T L I N E S E L E C T K E Y S K E Y S R-1 TO R-6 L-1 TO L-6
    • MCDU (Multipurpose Control and Display Unit)  USED BY THE PILOTS TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE FMS  DISPLAY SCREEN TITLE FIELD LEFT & RIGHT HAND FIELDS SCRATCH PAD  FUNCTION KEYS EXEC, NEXT PAGE, PREV PAGE, CLR, DEL  MODE KEYS INIT REF, RTE, DEP ARR, ATC, VNAV, FIX, LEGS, HOLD, FMC COMM, PROG, MENU, NAV RAD  LINE SELECT KEYS  BRIGHTNESS CONTROL  ANNUNCIATORS DSPL, FAIL, MSG, OFST  ALPHA-NUMERIC KEYS INCLUDE 0 to 9, A to Z, SPACE, DEL, / (SLASH) & + / - KEYS
    • ENG OUT CRZ C R Z A L T FL 3 3 0 M A X A L T F L 1 8 7 E N G O U T S P E E D 2 3 4 K T C O N N 1 9 1 . 9 %
    • Periods 121&122 TCAS (TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM) • BASIC KNOWLEDGE
    • TCAS TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM • Basic Knowledge
    • Period 123&124 BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON • ACARS (AUTOMATED COMMUNICATION ADDRESSING AND REPORTING SYSTEM) • SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM • EDP (ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING) • DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
    • COMMUNICATIONS • Achieved by Voice Modulation of radio waves • Future – Data Transfer • VLF TO HF BANDS ONLY USEFUL, beyond that line of sight ranges only. • VLF –Needs very large aerials, so choice between MF and HF. HF preferred because • Shorter aerials, less static, longer ranges with lesser power, higher freq suffer less attenuation in ionosphere, efficiency can be increased by beaming • Short Range Commn: VHF • Long Range Commn: HF
    • ACARS (Automated Communication Addressing and Reporting System) • Basic Knowledge
    • EDP Electronic Data Processing • Basic Knowledge
    • DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
    • Period 125&126 LORAN(LONG RANGE NAVIGATION SYSTEM) AND DECCA HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS (OBSOLETE) • PRINCIPLE • BASIC KNOWLEDGE • FREQUENCY BAND
    • LORAN (Long Range Navigation System) • PRINCIPLE OF OP: Diff range by pulse Tech Master sends Coded Pulse Groups, Slave Delays, Retransmits.Time Diff Gives Hyper Line Indexing provides freedom fm sky wave interfer. • FREQ BAND: LF (100 KHz) • RANGE : 2000 NM • ACCURACY : 1 NM or Better at 1000 NM. Less Accurate Sky Wave Positioning • FAILURE IND : Chain Transmits Warning Sig • DISPLAY : OLD - CRT or Time Diff Read out • NEW – Computerised Read out of Lat/Long • COVERAGE : Pacific , N Atlantic, Mediterranean, Arabia • CHAYKA – Russian Equivalent of Loran-C
    • • INDICATIONS : Measures Position Within Lanes (1/2 Wavelengthof Comparison Freq. wide) • LINE IDENTIFICATION: Once Per Minute, Ea slave Transmits Signal to Give 1f(Others off) Compares with Master Giving 1f, Gives Decimals of Zone – Know which lane • RANGE : 300 nm by Day, 200 nm by night • ACCURACY : 1 nm by Day(95%) , 5 nm by Night within Range, Less Accurate Along Baseline • ERRORS : Height Error – Max Above Tx Night Error- sky waves possible beyond 200 nm Lane Slip – May reselect wrong lane after Ident , Max along Baseline
    • • V-CHAINS : OLD SYSTEM AS ABOVE, V1 OR V2 DEPENDS ON LANE IDENTIFICATION SPACING • LOCKED OSCILLATOR: REDUCES LANE SLIP BY CONTINUING SIGNALS DURING IDENTIFICATION • MULTIPULSE : i) SHORT PULSE DRIVESOSCILLATORS TO BE PHASE LOCKED TO TRANSMISSION • ii) EXTRA 8.2f TRANSMISSIONS ALLOW COMPARISON AT 0.2f FOR ZONE IDENT Tiii)
    • SAT 1 SAT 2 RANGE 2 RANGE 1 SPHERE OF POSN 1 SPHERE OF POSN 2 CIRCLE OF POSN
    • SAT 1 SAT 2 RANGE 2 RANGE 1 SPHERE OF POSN 1 SPHERE OF POSN 2 CIRCLE OF POSN SPHERE OF POSN 3
    • A B C 1/4 1/2 3/4 Closing Angle = 5 Deg D E F Closing Angle = 10 Deg
    • • Q No Ans Q No Ans Q No Ans • 1 (b) 11 21 (a) • 2 (a) 12 (c) 22 (c) • 3 (b) 13 (d) 23 (c) • 4 (a) 14 (b) 24 (b) • 5 (b) 15 (a) 25 (b) • 6 (d) 16 (c) 26 (c) • 7 (b) 17 (d) 27 (a) • 8 (a) 18 (c) 28 (d) • 9 (a) 19 (c) 29 (b) • 10 153º 03’ W 20 (d) 30 (a)
    • • Q No Ans Q No Ans Q No Ans • 31 • 32 • 33 • 34 • 35 • 36 • 37 • 38 • 39 • 40
    • Hdg 110 W /V 050/30 Along Tr Component Across TR Component 60 3o 90 A B c ACROSS TR COMP AC/AB = Sin 60 ° Therefore AC = ABx Sin 60° ALONG TR COMP BC/AB = Cos 60 ° Therefore BC = AB x Cos 60 °
    • 000 180 090270 030 060 120 150210 240 300 330 RELATIVE BEARING INDICATOR
    • 0 90 180 270 360/0 90 180 270
    • 360
    • FUEL DISTRIBUTION VENT TANK VENT TANK OUTER TANK OUTER TANK CENTER TANK INNER TANK INNER TANK