The evolution of kin selection

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  • 1. The Evolution of Kin Selection
    By Aditya Kuroodi
    Period 5
  • 2. Key Vocab
    Fitness of an Animal: How many offspring it has, which leads to number of genes present
    Individual Fitness: Number of own offspring and genes passed on
    Inclusive Fitness: Ind. Fit. + Number of identical offspring and genes passed on
    Altruism: Selfless concern for the welfare of others
  • 3. Kin Selection
    Kin selection is a theory about the evolution(persistence) of altruism
    When animal risks itself to help relatives survive
    Since they’re related, some of that animal’s genes still get passed on
    Altruistic animals still persist because their genes are present in the relatives they save
  • 4. Kin Selection
    Natural selection technically shouldn’t allow for evolution of altruistic animals
    But kin selection theory proved that it could
    Kin selection says that relatives also might contain the “altruistic gene”
    Thus, offspring still receive gene, and altruism continues
    Altruism is preferred on a group basis, not an individual one, unless it has to do with kin
  • 5. Fire Ants
    All ants are Euosocial
    Have sterile workers and Queen to reproduce
    Because they are haplodiploid
    Normally, no one would be sterile
    Sisters share 75% genes w/ each other
    More effective to help Queen make sisters than have own offspring
    This is kin selection at its finest
  • 6. Alarm Calls in Squirrels
    Many squirrels have alarm calls when they sense danger
    The squirrel that makes the call puts itself in risk, but saves others around it
    The closest animals around it are most probably kin
    The kin survive, and the ability to make an alarm call persists
    Also, scientists have discovered that some squirrels change the call if relatives aren’t around
  • 7. Cool Squirrels
  • 8. Cool Squirrels
  • 9. Scientists
    The idea of kin selection was pondered at first by Darwin
    “a tribe including many members who...were always ready to give aid to each other and sacrifice themselves for the common good, would be victorious over most other tribes; and this would be natural selection” (p.166)
    Darwin thought altruism was caused by group selection
  • 10. Evidence against Group Selection
    The idea of group selection was quickly discarded
    Idea of “free riders” cashing in on groups of altruists (Dawkins)
    They would have huge advantage and take over; altruism would be run over by selfishness
    This was from works of John Maynard Smith, Richard Dawkins, W.D. Hamilton and G.C. Williams
  • 11. W.D. Hamilton
    Main man in the world of kin selection
    Used inclusive fitness to support theory
    Inspired by Haldane, and R.A. Fisher
    His rule RB>C explains when altruism would continue
    R is how related the animals is (brother vs cousin, etc)
    B is benefit to group(Inclusive fitness)
    C is cost to individual ( Loss of Individual Fitness)
  • 12. Contribution of Kin Selection Theory
    Kin selection puts a new spin on the classic ideas of natural selection Darwin imposed
    It differs from the view that evolution and life is on a strict individual basis
    Relationships in animals plays a major role in evolution
    There could be an “Altruistic Gene” that is passed on or not
  • 13. Timeline
  • 14. Works Cited