The evolution of kin selection

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The evolution of kin selection

  1. 1. The Evolution of Kin Selection<br />By Aditya Kuroodi<br />Period 5<br />
  2. 2. Key Vocab<br />Fitness of an Animal: How many offspring it has, which leads to number of genes present<br />Individual Fitness: Number of own offspring and genes passed on<br />Inclusive Fitness: Ind. Fit. + Number of identical offspring and genes passed on<br />Altruism: Selfless concern for the welfare of others<br />
  3. 3. Kin Selection<br />Kin selection is a theory about the evolution(persistence) of altruism<br />When animal risks itself to help relatives survive<br />Since they’re related, some of that animal’s genes still get passed on<br />Altruistic animals still persist because their genes are present in the relatives they save<br />
  4. 4. Kin Selection<br />Natural selection technically shouldn’t allow for evolution of altruistic animals<br />But kin selection theory proved that it could<br />Kin selection says that relatives also might contain the “altruistic gene” <br />Thus, offspring still receive gene, and altruism continues<br />Altruism is preferred on a group basis, not an individual one, unless it has to do with kin<br />
  5. 5. Fire Ants<br />All ants are Euosocial<br />Have sterile workers and Queen to reproduce<br />Because they are haplodiploid<br />Normally, no one would be sterile<br />Sisters share 75% genes w/ each other<br />More effective to help Queen make sisters than have own offspring<br />This is kin selection at its finest<br />
  6. 6. Alarm Calls in Squirrels<br />Many squirrels have alarm calls when they sense danger<br />The squirrel that makes the call puts itself in risk, but saves others around it<br />The closest animals around it are most probably kin<br />The kin survive, and the ability to make an alarm call persists<br />Also, scientists have discovered that some squirrels change the call if relatives aren’t around<br />
  7. 7. Cool Squirrels<br />
  8. 8. Cool Squirrels<br />
  9. 9. Scientists<br />The idea of kin selection was pondered at first by Darwin<br />“a tribe including many members who...were always ready to give aid to each other and sacrifice themselves for the common good, would be victorious over most other tribes; and this would be natural selection” (p.166)<br />Darwin thought altruism was caused by group selection<br />
  10. 10. Evidence against Group Selection<br />The idea of group selection was quickly discarded<br />Idea of “free riders” cashing in on groups of altruists (Dawkins)<br />They would have huge advantage and take over; altruism would be run over by selfishness <br />This was from works of John Maynard Smith, Richard Dawkins, W.D. Hamilton and G.C. Williams<br />
  11. 11. W.D. Hamilton<br />Main man in the world of kin selection<br />Used inclusive fitness to support theory<br />Inspired by Haldane, and R.A. Fisher<br />His rule RB>C explains when altruism would continue<br />R is how related the animals is (brother vs cousin, etc)<br />B is benefit to group(Inclusive fitness)<br />C is cost to individual ( Loss of Individual Fitness)<br />
  12. 12. Contribution of Kin Selection Theory<br />Kin selection puts a new spin on the classic ideas of natural selection Darwin imposed<br />It differs from the view that evolution and life is on a strict individual basis<br />Relationships in animals plays a major role in evolution<br />There could be an “Altruistic Gene” that is passed on or not<br />
  13. 13. Timeline<br />
  14. 14. Works Cited<br />http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/altruism-biological/<br />http://taumoda.com/web/PD/library/kin.html<br />http://es.rice.edu/projects/Bios321/eusocial.insect.html<br />http://www.animalbehavioronline.com/haplodiploidy.html<br />www.Wikipedia.com<br />

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