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Excel Audit Software Aditya Presentations In Agra


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Presented at Agra Branch of CIRC of ICAI on Dec\'05

Presented at Agra Branch of CIRC of ICAI on Dec\'05

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  • 1. Application Management ServicesAgra Branch of CIRC of ICAI on 9th Dec’2005Using Excel as an Audit SoftwareCA Aditya SinghalM.Com, FCA, DISA(ICAI)+91 9972 82300Aditya.singhal@icai.orgJoin Excel professional group for regular Excel update: Confidential | March 2004 © 2004 IBM Corporation © 2005 IBM Confidential | Corporation
  • 2. Application Management Services CLASSIFICATION OF EXCEL COMMANDS  13. Auditing features  1. Split windows and freeze panes  14. Sort command  2. Hide and Unhide rows & columns  15. If function  3. Moving around a spreadsheet with Ctrl, Shift, and Arrow keys  16. Sum & If Sum  4. Name cells/ranges  17. And & Or functions  5. Toggling among relational and  18. Protecting cells and absolute references worksheets  6. Fill down and fill right commands  19. Group and Ungroup your spreadsheet  7. Insert Function command  20. Subtotal function  8. Paste Special command  21. Sum Product function  9. Change the case of text  22. Auto filter command  10. Editing multiple work sheets simultaneously  23. Conditional formatting  11. Customize tool bars  24. Count function  12 Shorts cuts Keys  25. Round, Roundup, Round down functions  26. Vlookup & Hlookup  27. Statistics  28. Pivot table  29. Attach file in Excel sheet  30. NPV Functions1 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 3. Application Management Services 1. SPLIT WINDOWS AND FREEZE PANES - Splitting a window allows you to work on multiple  Why you parts of a large spreadsheet simultaneously need to - Freezing the pane allows you to always keep one part know this of the spreadsheet (e.g., column or row labels) visible - Drag the split horizontal and split vertical icons to  How you the desires positions use this - Click on the freeze pane icon from the tool bar to feature freeze the panes Freeze pane icon Split screen icons - Split the screen so that:  Exercise The row with column labels shows up in the top pane The column with store names show up in the left pane - Freeze the panes2 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 4. Application Management Services 2. HIDE AND UNHIDE COMMAND - Allows you hide and unhide particular rows or  Why you columns need to Simplifies working with the spreadsheet know this Prevent certain information from being seen - Select the row(s) or column(s) to be  How you hidden/unhidden use this - Select Format : Row : Hide/Unhide or Format : feature Column : Hide/Unhide  Exercise - Hide the Avg Sale/Ticket column3 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 5. 3. MOVING AROUND AServices Application Management SPREADSHEET WITH CTRL, SHIFT,AND ARROW KEYS - Save you lots of time  Why you - Move the first or last cell of a contiguous data block need to without scrolling know this  How you - Ctrl-Arrow : Move to the first/last data cell in the arrow direction use this - Ctrl-Shift-Arrow : Selects the cells between the feature current cell and the first/last data cell  Exercise - Select all cells with data using the Ctrl, Shift, and Arrow keys4 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 6. Application Management Services 4. NAME CELLS/RANGES - Allows specific cells or cell ranges to be referred to  Why you by name need to - Allows you to write equations such as = know this Quantity*Cost instead of =$B$12*$C$4  How you - Select the cell or cell range - Select Insert : Name : Define from the menu use this bar feature  Exercise - Define cells A2:A125 as “Sequence”5 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 7. Application Management Services 5. TOGGLING AMONG RELATIONAL AND ABSOLUTE REFERENCES  Why you need to - Saves you lots of time know this  How you - F4 key toggles through the different options use this feature6 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 8. Application Management Services 6. FILL DOWN AND FILL RIGHT COMMANDS  Why you - Saves you lots of time need to - Allows for copying of cell content to contiguous cells with a single keystroke know this  How you - Select the cell with the content to be copied and drag to select the cells to which the content should be copied use this - Ctrl-R to fill right feature - Ctrl-D to fill down  Caution!! - Double-check your formulas for absolute vs. relative references!!  Exercise - Calculate the total daily sales for each store7 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 9. Application Management Services 7. INSERT FUNCTION COMMAND  Why you - What do you do if you do not know what functions need to are available or how to enter the arguments for a know this function? - Select the cell  How you - Select Insert : Function from the menu bar use this feature  Exercise - Calculate the median daily ticket count for all the stores8 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 10. Application Management Services 8. PASTE SPECIAL COMMAND - Saves you lots of time  Why you Retyping formulas need to Converts formulas into values know this Reformatting cells Transposing cells (i.e., convert row-entered data blocks into column-entered ones) - Copy the cells of interest  How you - Place the cursor where you want to past the information use this - Select Edit : Paste Special from the menu bar feature - Select the appropriate options from the dialog box that appears - Convert the Rounded Avg Sale/Ticket calculations into  Exercise values (i.e., get rid of the formulas) - Copy and paste the entire dataset into a new spreadsheet in transposed manner9 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 11. Application Management Services 9. Change the case of text Why you need to For Formatting text know this  How you use this Formula Description (Result) feature =UPPER(A2) Changes text to all UPPERCASE (NANCY AVOLIO) =LOWER(A2) Changes text to all lowercase (nancy davolio) =PROPER(A2) Changes text to Title Case (Nancy Davolio)  Exercise Change case of text10 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 12. Application Management Services 10. EDITING MULTIPLE WORKSHEETS SIMULTANEOUSLY  Why you - Avoid having to redo your work on multiple need to spreadsheets in a single workbook know this  How you - Select the first spreadsheet to be edited use this - Hold the Ctrl key while clicking on the additional spreadsheets feature - Do your editing  Exercise - Try it11 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 13. Application Management Services 11. CUSTOMIZE TOOL BARS - How many icons on the tool bar to you use regularly?  Why you - How often do you have to use the menu bar or mouse need to to do something you wish were accessible with a single know this click? - Select View : Toolbars : Customize  How you - Click on the Commands tab use this - Drag items on and off the toolbar as you wish feature  Exercise - Modify your toolbar as desired12 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 14. Application Management Services 12. Shorts cuts keysFunction keys in Microsoft Other than Function Keys Excel  Enter data by using shortcut keys  Work in cells or the formula bar by using shortcut keys  Format data by using shortcut keys  Edit data by using shortcut keys  Insert, delete, and copy a selection by using shortcut keys  Move within a selection by using shortcut keys  Select cells, columns, rows, or objects in worksheets and workbooks by using shortcut keys  Select cells with special characteristics by using shortcut keys  Select chart items by using shortcut keys  Move and scroll on a worksheet or workbook by using shortcut keys  Work with databases, lists, and PivotTables by using shortcut keys  Keys for windows and dialog boxes  Print and preview a document by using shortcut keys  Outline data by using shortcut keys  Keys for toolbars  Keys for using the Office Assistant13 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 15. Application Management Services 13. AUDITING FEATURES  Why you - Quickly find the cells referenced by a formula and/or need to quickly find which cells reference a particular cell of know this interest - Select View : Toolbars : Customize from the menu  How you bar. Check the Auditing box from the Toolbars tab use this - Click on the cell of interest feature - Select the Trace Precedents or Trace Dependents icon from the Auditing Toolbar  Exercise - Find the cells that references the Daily Ticket Count for the Ansan store14 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 16. Application Management Services 14. SORT COMMAND  Why you - Correctly sorting a series of rows or columns need to without disassociating the data is critical to many know this modeling efforts - Select all cells in the data range to be sorted  How you - Select Data : Sort from the menu bar use this feature  Exercise - Sort the dataset by ascending store name15 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 17. Application Management Services 15. IF FUNCTION  Why you - Conditional comparisons are used in virtually all spreadsheets need to - Knowing how to use IF in a nested manner and in know this combination with other functions will save hours of time - IF(Comparison,TrueAction,FalseAction)  How you - IF(Comparison,TrueAction,) ==> Cell shows 0 if use this condition is false feature - IF(Comparison,TrueAction,””) ==> Cell shows blank if condition is false - Create a “Seoul” variable  Exercise 1 if the store is in Seoul 0 if the store is in other places16 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 18. Application Management Services 16. SUM AND SUMIF FUNCTIONS  Why you - SUM is used in virtually all spreadsheets need to - SUMIF can save lots of time in most spreadsheets if know this you know how to use the function - SUM(Range1,Range2,Value1,…)  How you - SUMIF(Range,”Comparison”,SumRange) use this If a SumRange IS NOT specified, SUMIF sums the cells feature meeting the Comparison criteria in the specified Range If a SumRange IS specified, SUMIF sums the cells in SumRange where the corresponding cells in Range meets the Comparison criteria - NOTE: The “” signs must be used for the Comparison value - Calculate the total store space for stores larger than  Exercise 50 pyungs - Calculate the total daily sales for all stores larger than 50 pyungs17 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 19. Application Management Services 17. AND & OR FUNCTIONS  Why you - Used with the IF function to enable more complicated need to logical comparisons know this  How you - AND(Comparison 1,Comparison2,Comparison3,…) use this - OR(Comparison 1,Comparison2, Comparison3,…) feature - Create a variable that calculates daily sales per  Exercise pyung only for: KFC stores in Seoul with size larger than 50 pyung All BK stores18 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 20. Application Management Services 18. PROTECTING CELLS AND WORKSHEETS - Sometimes you want to give your Excel file to someone else  Why you and prevent them from changing the formulas for seeing some need to hidden cells know this - Protecting a spreadsheet or workbook involves two steps  How you Designating which cells to be locked or hidden use this Protecting the spreadsheet or workbook feature - Note several weird peculiarities: The default for all cells in a spreadsheet if LOCKED. So if you want the receiver of your worksheet to change the content of a cell, unlock the cell before protecting the spreadsheet The formulas in a cell can be seen even if the spreadsheet is lock - - UNLESS you hide that cell before protecting the spreadsheet - To lock/unlock and hide/unhide a cell, select the cell(s) and select Format : Cell. Select the Protection tab when the dialog box appears - To protect/unprotect a spreadsheet, select Tools : Protection : Protect Sheet  Exercise - Protect the dataset spreadsheet Allow the user to change the data Lock and hide the formulas you entered19 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 21. 19. GROUP/UNGROUP PARTS OF Application Management Services SPREADSHEETS - How often would you like to hide or unhide parts of a  Why you complex spreadsheet? need to - If your answer is “very often”. You will like to know this group/ungroup function instead of the hide/unhide command, since you will be able to toggle between hidden or displayed columns or rows. - Mark the row or column that you would like to “fold”,  How you I.e. hide for the moment. use this - Click on Data: Group and Outline: Group feature - To “fold” click now on the “minus” sign outside of your column or row - You may also group or ungroup hierarchically - Group some parts in your spreadsheet  Tip - Also try to remove the grouping - Use the two “arrow” buttons, which you find on the  Exercise pivot table toolbar (right click on any toolbar and select PivotTable)20 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 22. Application Management Services 20. SUBTOTALS FUNCTIONS - Want to add lines with subtotals in your P&L or  Why you balance sheet, but still need to run the total over all need to numbers? Don‟t want to get confused with nested know this subtotals and totals in your spreadsheet? - Instead of „=sum(range)‟ add „=subtotal(9, range)‟  How you where you need a subtotal or total. use this - You may nest this function as you like. Excel keeps feature track of everything - Create a simple column with various numbers  Exercise - Add various subtotals running over various parts of your spreadsheet and finally over the whole column21 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 23. Application Management Services 21. SUMPRODUCT FUNCTION  Why you - If you need to multiply two column and need the sum need to of the multiplication, sumproduct comes easy. know this  How you use this - Insert =sumproduct(range1, range2) feature  Exercise - Multiply two columns or rows and get the sum of it22 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 24. Application Management Services 22. AUTOFILTER COMMAND  Why you - You have a huge pile of data and quickly want to find need to some specific information, e.g. all sets that meet a know this criteria or the top 10 items etc. - Click into your table or better mark the data area and  How you select Data: Filter: Autofilter use this - Using the drop-down boxes per item allows you to feature display only specific filtered information - Selecting multiple matches (up to 3 maximum with autofilter) you can narrow down your search - Or add your own criteria for filtering by clicking on the custom criteria - Find the stores who belong to the top 10% in terms of  Exercise average sales per ticket AND the top 10 in terms of store size in pyung23 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 25. Application Management Services 23. CONDITIONAL FORMATTING  Why you - Sometimes you would to color the output of cells in need to different colors, e.g. negative numbers in red, positive know this numbers in black, or add a frame, etc. - Mark the relevant fields and select Format:  How you Conditional Formatting use this - Select the criteria for the format and adjust the format. feature You can actually change the font, the border and the color - Click on Add to select additional criteria for the formatting - Format a cell to be in red font, with blue background  Exercise for negative numbers and in bold font with thick border, if the value is above 1024 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 26. Application Management Services 24. COUNT FUNCTIONS  Why you - Prevents you from wasting time counting items need to manually or creating dummy variables to count such know this items - COUNT(Range1,Range2,Value1,...) ==> count the  How you number of cells containing numbers use this - COUNTA(Range1,Range2,Value1,...) ==> count the feature number of non-empty cells - COUNTBLANK(Range) ==> count the number of empty cells in the range - COUNTIF(Range,”Criteria”) ==> count the number of cells in the Range containing the Criteria. NOTE: The “” signs must be used for the Criteria value  Exercise - Calculate the number of KFC stores in the dataset25 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 27. Application Management Services 25. ROUND, ROUNDUP AND ROUNDDOWN FUNCTIONS  Why you - Many situations exist when you need to have exact numbers instead of various fractions in your need to calculations (e.g., there cannot be 536.235 bank know this branches) - ROUND(Number,Digits) ==> Round the number (or  How you cell) to the specified number of digits use this If Digit = 0, then Number is rounded to nearest integer feature If Digit > 0, then Number is rounded to the specified number of decimal places If Digit < 0, then Number is rounded to the specified number of digits left of the decimal place - ROUNDDOWN(Number,Digits) and ROUNDUP(Number,Digits) work the same way as ROUND, but the direction of rounding is specified by the function  Exercise - Calculate a rounded Avg Sale/Ticket variable, rounding to the nearest 10 Won26 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 28. Application Management Services 26. VLOOKUP AND HLOOKUP FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED) - Allows you to automatically lookup a particular cell  Why you of data from a larger data range. This is especially need to useful when you have know this A large data section that contains information for multiple records somewhere on the spreadsheet (e.g., a small database) A calculation area somewhere else, and you need to refer to some specific data elements for specific records27 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 29. 26. VLOOKUP AND Services Application Management HLOOKUP FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED) - VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP allows you to find a specific cell of  How you data in a larger data range use this Use VLOOKUP when each row contains a separate record and the feature associated columns contain data for that one record Use HLOOKUP when each column contains a separate record - VLOOKUP(SearchValue,Range,ColumnNumber,Error) ==> look for a value in the row specified by SearchValue and the column specified by ColumnNumber SearchValue indicates the “match key” (i.e., find the row that contains the SearchValue in the first column) Range specifies the cells containing the data ColumnNumber specifies the column that contains the data element you want Error determines what happens when Excel does not find the exact SearchValue you want. FALSE leads Excel to display a #N/A when an exact match cannot be found. TRUE leads Excel to display the next smaller value than SearchValue - HLOOKUP(SearchValue,Range,RowNumber,Error) ==> look for a value in the column specified by SearchValue and the row specified by RowNumber  NOTE: The 1st column of data must be sorted in ascending order when using VLOOKUP, and the 1st row of data must be sorted if using HLOOKUP28 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 30. 26. Application Management Services VLOOKUP AND HLOOKUP FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED) - Define a name for the cells containing the data and use that name as the Range. Do not include the  Tip row/column label in the named range because this would break the ascending sort rule above. - Insert an extra row above your column label to number the columns - Use VLOOKUP to find out how many seats are in the  Exercise Duksung store? How passers-by for the store?29 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 31. Application Management Services 26. VLOOKUP AND HLOOKUP FUNCTIONS Number the columns to Define a easily check name for your cells in your formulas data Range Need to sort in ascending order for VLOOKUP function to work properly30 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 32. Application Management Services 27. STATISTICS Why you need to - Calculates various statistics. Regarding data such as average, high, low, standard deviation, etc. for a set of Know this numbers.  How you - In order to calculate statistics in Excel, you will need to add a piece of software that comes with the standard use this version of Excel. To use this add-in, go to the Tools menu feature in Excel and select Add-Ins. Then , when prompted, select the Analysis Tool Pack and press OK. This will add to the bottom of your Tools menu as item named Data Analysis.31 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 33. Application Management Services 28. PIVOT TABLES - Most powerful tool to arrange huge amounts of data in a more  Why you structured way than pure sorting. In particular helpful to run quick need to sums, averages, distributions, etc. in combination with a structure know this criteria, e.g. total number and average sales per store size band - Select Data: PivotTable Report…  How you use this feature Step 2: Select - Step 3: Drag and drop data Step 1: Microsoft the relevant elements on row and column (this is Excel list data area your table structure), the data you want to analyze on the data area - Step 4: Just press Finish32 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 34. Application Management Services 28. PIVOT TABLES - Draw a distribution chart for the number of stores per size in pyung bucketed each 10 pyung wide  Exercise - Arrange the store distribution by store size (each 10 pyung) and daily tickets (each 100 tickets) and show the number of stores per each category33 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 35. Application Management Services 29. ATTACH FILE WITH EXCEL SHEETS  Why you - Keep working sheets with main file need to know this - Click Insert from tools Bar  How you - Select Object…… use this - Create from file >>>>>>>>> Browse feature – Link to file – Display as icon  Exercise - Insert one file into another Excel file34 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 36. Application Management Services 30. NPV FUNCTION  Why you - Of course you can create your own discounting table need to and then calculate the NPV of your cash flow series or know this just use the NPV function - Insert =NPV(discount rate, cash flow numbers, ...)  How you - The discount rate is in percent use this - The cash flow numbers are either an array or feature individual numbers in individual cells - Attention: The first cash flow number is in period 1, e.g. the end of the period. If you have for example an initial investment in period 0, just type =NPV(…)+period 0 payment in your calculation  Exercise - Create a list of random cash flows and calculate the NPV with the NPV function35 © 2005 IBM Corporation
  • 37. Application Management Services Thanks a lot……….CA Aditya SinghalM.Com, FCA, DISA(ICAI)+91 93412 41747Aditya.singhal@icai.orgJoin Excel professional group for regular Excel update:36 © 2005 IBM Corporation