Powe and politics


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Powe and politics

  1. 1.  Presented By- Kuldeep singh Pradeep singh 13–1
  2. 2. Power and Politics
  3. 3.  Definition Introduction Values Introduction power and politics Models Evolution Contingencies Sources Tactics Case study 13–3
  4. 4. PowerA capacity that A has to influence the behavior of Bso that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.DependencyB’s relationship to A when A possesses somethingthat B requires. 13–4
  5. 5. Introduction to Organisational Power and Politics Jeffrey Pfeffer: ‘Unless and until we are willing to come to terms with organis- -ational power and influence, and admit that the skills of getting things done are as important as the skills of figuring out what to do, our organisations will fall further and further behind.’ 13–5
  6. 6. The Value of Politics Political forces provide a critical source of dynamic energy for strategic organisational change (Hardy, 1996) Politics can be used to counter the use of otherwise legitimate means to non-legitimate ends Political debate helps make explicit all the dimensions of an argument Political action may be required to remove bureaucratic blockages raised by the legitimate system Political tactics can be used to facilitate the implementation of decisions reached by legitimate means. 13–6
  7. 7. Introduction to Organisational Power Power is ‘the capacity to influence the behaviour of others’ . – Mark Holden: • 100% of respondents thought workplace politics were common • 85% thought it was necessary to be political to get ahead in organisations • 67% agreed that organisations would be happier places to work without politics. 13–7
  8. 8.  Some people may not want to become powerful – McClelland’s N.Power dimension – however if they wish to be effective there may be little choice but to be involved in the organisation’s power dynamics N.Power should, perhaps, bedifferentiated from N.Mach.Power 13–8
  9. 9.  Power  Used as a means for achieving goals.  Requires follower dependency.  Used to gain lateral and upward influence. Research Focus  Power tactics for gaining compliance 13–9
  10. 10.  The General Dependency Postulate  The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B.  Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful.  Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power. What Creates Dependency  Importance of the resource to the organization  Scarcity of the resource  Nonsubstitutability of the resource 13–10
  11. 11. Models of PowerSources PowerOf Power over others Contingencies Of Power Importance Scarcity Substitutability 13–11
  12. 12. Sources of Power Alliances &  Position/legitimate networks  Processes Charisma  Resources Credibility  Rewards Expertise  Strategic Group support contingencies Information  Symbols Political access 13–12
  13. 13. Contingencies of Power Importance: interdependence between power holder and others A function of: – Ability to reduce uncertainty for others – Number of people affected by your actions – How quickly people are affected by your actions 13–13
  14. 14. Contingencies of Power Scarcity: Control over scarce (limited) resources, including: – Expertise (many occupations do this) – Information – Money – Schedules and deadlines – Meaning 13–14
  15. 15.  Substitutability: Power decreases with the ability to substitute the valued resource Non substitutability can be enhanced by: – Controlling tasks – Controlling knowledge – Controlling labour 13–15
  16. 16. The Evolution of Power: From Domination to Delegation (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2000) Power DistributionHigh Followers granted authority to make decisions. Power Sharing Degree of Empowerment Manager/leader and followers jointly make decisions. Power Distribution Followers consulted but leaders make decisions. Authoritarian Power Manager/leader imposes decisions.None Domination Consultation Participation Delegation 13–16
  17. 17.  Think big and win big Gain control of organisational resources Develop powerful alliances Form coalitions and obtain cooptations Conduct a mass, concentrated offensive Avoid decisive engagement Use constructive chaos Groom princes and princesses 13–17
  18. 18.  Maintain a mystique about your job Work on key problems Bend rules at the right time Bring in an outside expert Play the power game Be feared rather than loved Give proof of prowess Control the agenda 13–18
  19. 19. Impressing the Higher-Ups Shine at meetings Show that you identify with management Appear cool under pressure Talk big, shun trivia Show an interest in your firm and its products Contact newly arrived senior executives Display business manners and etiquette 13–19
  20. 20.  Sequencing of tactics  How the request is perceived  Softer to harder tactics  Is the request accepted as works best. ethical? Skillful use of a tactic  The culture of the  Experienced users are organization more successful.  Culture affects user’s Relative power of the tactic choice of tactic user  Country-specific cultural  Some tactics work better factors when applied downward.  Local values favor certain The type of request tactics over others. attaching to the tactic  Is the request legitimate? 13–20
  21. 21. Political BehaviorActivities that are not required as part of one’s formalrole in the organization, but that influence, or attemptto influence, the distribution of advantages ordisadvantages within the organization.Legitimate Political BehaviorNormal everyday politics.Illegitimate Political BehaviorExtreme political behavior that violates the impliedrules of the game. 13–21
  22. 22. Limiting Negative Political Behaviour Provide Remove Sufficient Political Norms Resources Hire Introduce Low-Politics Clear Rules Employees Increase Free Flowing Opportunities Information for DialogueManage Change Peer Pressure Effectively Against Politics 13–22
  23. 23.  Case studies on Power and politics.   Mr Kabir was working In a Administration Department as officer Administration. He was responsible for keeping account of all the Vehicles of the company apart from other arrangements including the guesthouse of the company. Mr Kabir has been working in the company for 6 years in the same grade without promotions. He was supposed to be very honest in his job. Once the GM of the factory Mr Rakesh Gupta , requested for the company car during office time for his personal work. Mr Kabir refused it saying that it can not be given during the office work as the work would suffer due to its duty to go to bank. Mr Gupta became quite upset and asked his boss MR srivastava to give the car .Mr Sk Srivasatava ( Sr Manager Admn ) was too happy to oblige Mr Gupta as he wanted one of his relatives to be employed as Officer. Hence he fired Mr Kabir for his disobedience and threatened to transfer him to stores if he continued to show disrespect to Senior officers Kabir was also active member of staff union. He immediately went to the Union President and informed him about the misuse of the company car for private purpose by GM at the cost of the office work. It was decided that Kabir would send a note in writing to Mr Srivastava asking him to approve sending the car to the house of Mr Gupta . Mr Srivastava understood the repercussions and refused to sign the approval. He lent his own car to Mr Gupta .  Questions  1. What power was being used by Kabir ? 2. What power Mr Srivastav was using ? 3. What was the game Kabir played when Srivatava ordered the car ?
  24. 24.  Mr. kabir - Administrator officer Mr. Rakesh gupta- G.M Mr. SK srivastav- Kabir Boss Staff union. 13–24
  25. 25. 13–25