democracy• Democracy is originated in ancient Greecearound 7th century.• democracy is the combination “demos” and “kratos” which means people rule.
Forms oF government• Democracy –In democracy ,the supreme power belongs to people . Common people have right to vote.• Dictatorship – in this form of government all power lies one person or party . The dictator is ultimate power and no one can question his decisions.• Absolute monarchy-in this form of government the monarch (head) enjoys absolute power.
rule oF lawRule of law is an important feature in democracy . Rule of law means all citizens are subject to same laws, all are equal before law, it also means that the state cannot act arbitrarily as its powers are limited by the constitution . Rule of law distinguishes from other forms of governments
decision making in democracyIn a democracy, the government isaccountable to all its citizens andresponsible to their needs and demands.this is only possible by decision-makingmechanism. decision making consiststhree main organs of governmentlegislature , executive , judiciary.
promoting tolerance and human dignity• Promoting tolerance and human dignity are key principles of democracy. Tolerance is accepting and respecting views of others even if they are different from yours.• In democracy people enjoy the freedom of speech and expression. It is likely that the views of one may not be similar to others.
elections in democracy• Elections were used early in history in ancient Greece and Rome and throughout medieval period to select rulers as holy roman emperor the pope. Elections were also used to select rajas , caliph. in this people enjoy the right to vote without discrimination.
political parties in democracy• Political parties are an important feature of any democratic government. Political parties in India have been greatly fluenced by cultural diversity, caste, community, and religion and ideology. the predominance of a single national party continued for many years. But in view of vastness many regional parties emerged , as national parties are not able to concentrate specific issues and concerns of particular state
coalition government• If no single party gets majority votes required to form a government to form a government, then some political parties form an alliance with like-minded parties to achieve majority and form government. this kind of government is called Coalition government.
coalition government in indiaTill1967,there was a dominance of single party system both at central and state levels. after 1967 ,non-congress coalition governments came into existence.In 1977general elections, the janata party entered in coalition with other political. their coalition defeated congress party and first coalition government formed in central level. From 1989 elections, no single party was able to win a majority so, coalition government became a norm.