I feel myself proud and privileged to make this project “HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI ON DIASASTER MANAGEMENT” and express my gratitude to one and all for encouragement , help and blessings. My special thanks to my class teacher“SHAIBAL SIR” and my parents who guided me very Well . Without the help of my parents , I will not be able to complete this project. I hope you will enjoy this project. THANK YOU
The survivor have suffered physically fromCataracts , leukemia and other cancer , malformedoffspring and premature agingAnd also emotionally from social discrimination . Withina few months of the nuclear explosions , leukemia beganto appear among the survivors at an abnormally highrate .Some , leukemia victims were within their monthbombs when exposed to radiation . One child who walearn in two days after the Hiroshima and explosions . Ae , leukemia eventually died of acute , leukemia at age oeighteen . The no. of leukemia cases has declined withtime , but the incidence of lung cancer , breast cancercancers and cancers of other organs has increasedamong the survivors.
CONDITION FOR FIRST FOUR MONTHS Within the first four two to founder months of the bombings , the acute effects killed 90,000-160,000 people in Hiroshima 60,000-80,000 in Nagasaki with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. the Hiroshima and Nagasaki prefectural health department estimates that of the people died on the day of explosion ,60%died from the flash or flame burns , 30%from falling debris and from other causes. During the following months , large no. of people died from the effect of burn(RADIATION,SICKNESS) and other injuries compounded by illness. In a US estimate of
Many people at Hiroshima and Nagasaki died not directly from the radiation released as a result of the explosion .For example a fourteen old boy was admitted to a Hiroshima and Nagasaki hospital 2 days after the explosions suffering from a high fever and nausea .Nine days later his hair began to fall out . His supply of white blood cells dropped lower and lower . On the next day he died. At Hiroshima and Nagasaki . The few surviving doctors observed the symptoms of radiation sickness for the first time.
We were now able to label our unknown adversary ‘atomic disease or radio active contamination among other names . But they were labels we know cause or cure………Within seven to ten days after a bomb explosion , began to die in swift succession . They died of burns that covered their bodies and of acute atomic disease . Innumerable people who had been burnt turn a mulberry color like worms and died . Doctors and nurses had no idea of their own bodies had been affected by radioactivity . In fact ten people who had fled from Hiroshima to Nagasaki survived in both bombs.
BLOOD DISORDERS-According to Japanese data there was an increase in anemia among persons exposed to the bomb . In some cases the decrease in white and red blood cells lasted for up to ten years after the bombing. CATARACTS-There was an increase in cataract rate of the survivor Hiroshima and Nagasaki at who were partly sailed & suffered partial hair loss. Malignant-All ionizing radiation is carcinogenic but some tumor types are more readily generated than others . A prevalent type is leukemia .The cancer incidence among the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is significantly larger than that of the general population & a significant correlating between exposure level °ree of incidence had been reported for the thyroid cancer , breast cancer , lung cancer & cancer of salivary gland . Often a decade or more passes before radiation caused malignancies appear.
Fallout particles-Fallout particles are especially hazardous biologically. Some of the principal radioactive elements are as follows-: Tritium 90 is very long with a half life of 28 years. It is chemically similar to calcium causing to accumulate in growing bones. This radiation can cause tumors , leukemia &other blood abnormalities. Iodine131 has a half life of8.1days.Injestion of it concentrates in the thyroid gland . The radiation can destroy all or
THYROID The certain body parts are more specifically affected by exposure to different types of radiation sources. Note-By taking potassium iodine can reduce the effect of exposure.
Certain body parts are more specifically affected by exposure to different types of radiation sources . Several factors are involved in determining the potential effects to exposure to radiation . These includes The size of the dose. The ability of the radiation to harm human tissue. Organs are affected.
The most important factor is the amount of the dose – the amount of energy actually deposited in your body . The more energy absorbed by cells , greater the biological damage . Health physicist refer to the amount absorbed by the body as the radiation dose.
The atomic bomb was created in the western desert of the united state top secret conditions . The Mahatma Project was run by Dr . Robert oppenheimer , a German Jew who had fled the Nazi’s. The Germans who and Americans had been racing to complete the bomb first but with Germany’s destruction and the persecution of many of her top scientists who were Jeursh the German effort was severely hampered.
The army estimated that it would have cost between 500,000 to 1,000,000 soldiers life to mount a successful scab invasion of Japan. Truman wanted on unconditional surrender of Japan.
The Truman issued his execution order to drop the bomb on July 26, 1945. The army created a list of 5 military targets and the bomb would be dropped depending on weather condition. The bomb was dropped on Nagasaki on August 6 1945.The bomb nickname was “LITTE BOY” .
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were utterly destroyed . Over thirty thousand were killed at Nagasaki. Over the span of four months ten thousand people more died of various illness that can attributed to radiation exposure The day after Nagasaki Japan signaled its unconditional surrenders to the United States. America sent a strong message to Joseph Stalin that we had a weapon that he could couter . It was a strong signal that we were the worlds only Nuclear Power.
According to the Japanese Ministry of International Affairs and communication , the population in Japan Oct 1940was estimated at 71,998,104 . Japan was visibly a thriving that was hit very hard by bombing.
Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6 ,with the Rookery and Nagasaki being alternative targets .August 6 was chosen because clouds had previously the target . The 393 D Bombardment Squadment B29 Enola Gay, piloted and commanded by , about 509 composite group commander cannel Pal Tub bets , was launched from North Field airbase on Tinian is the West Pacific about six hours flight from Japan .During the journey , navy captain William parsons had armed the bomb which had Ben left unnamed to minimize the risk during take off.