**Intelligence is the ability to learn fromexperience, solve problems , and use ourknowledge to adapt to new situation .
What is intelligence?• Is intelligence one general ability or several specificabilities?• Intelligence and creativity• Is intelligence neurologically measurable?*
*Assessing Intelligence:*The origins of intelligence testing*Modern tests of mental abilities*Principles of test constructionThe dynamics of intelligence*Stability or change?*Extremes of intelligence
**Genetic influences*Environmental influences*Group difference in intelligence test scores*The question of bias
**Since people’s mental abilities are so diverse,it may not be justifiable to label those abilitieswith only one word, intelligence?
**The idea that general intelligence(g) existscomes from the work of Charles Spearman whodeveloped the factor analysis approach instatistics.
**Spearman proposed that general intelligence islinked to many clusters that can be analyzedby factor analysis.*For example, people who do well onvocabulary examinations do well on paragraphcomprehension examinations, a cluster thathelps define verbal intelligence. Other factorsinclude a spatial ability factor, or a reasoningability factor.
**L.L. Thurstone, a critic of spearman, analyzed his subjectsNOT on a single scale of general intelligence, but on sevenclusters of primary mental abilities, including:1. Word fluency2. Verbal comprehension3. Spatial ability4. Perceptual speed5. Numerical ability6. Inductive reasoning7. Memory
**Howard Gardner supports thurstone’s idea that intelligencecomes in multiple forms. Gardner notes that brain damagemay diminish one type of ability but not others.People with savant syndrome excel in abilities unrelated togeneral intelligence.
*Gardner proposes eight types of intelligencesspeculates about a ninth one – existentialintelligence. Existential intelligence is theability to think about the question of life,death and existence.*
*Sternberg also agrees with Gardner, but suggeststhree intelligences rather than eight.1. Analytical intelligence: Intelligence that isassessed by intelligence tests.2. Creative Intelligence: Intelligence thatmakes us adapt to novel situations,generating novel ideas.3. Practical Intelligence: Intelligence that isrequired for everyday tasks.
*Wechsler developed the Wechsler AdultIntelligence Scale ( WAIS) and later the WechslerIntelligence Scale for Children, an intelligencetest for preschoolers.
**WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11other aspects related to intelligence that aredesigned to assess clinical and educationalproblems .
*No other topic of psychology is so passionate lyfollowed as the one that asks the question, “Isintelligence due to genetics or environment?”
**Studies of twins, family member, and adoptedchildren together support the idea that there issignificant genetic contribution to intelligence.
*1. Races are remarkably alike genetically2. Race is a social category3. Asian students outperform North Americanstudents on math achievement and aptitudetest4. Today’s better prepared population wouldoutperform population of the 1930’s onintelligence tests
5. White and black infants tend to score equally well on testspredicting future intelligence.6. Different ethnic groups have experienced periods ofremarkable achievement in different eras.
*There are seven ways in which male and female differ invarious abilities:1. Girls are better spellers2. Girls are verbally fluent and have large vocabularies3. Girls are better at locating objects4. Girls are more sensitive to touch, taste and color.5. Boys outnumber girls in counts of underachievement
6. Boys out perform girls at math problem solving, but underperform at math computation7. Women detect emotions more easily than men do.