Architectural conservation


Published on

A beginners' reference presentation for getting an idea of architectural conservation.

Published in: Education, Business

Architectural conservation

  1. 1. Architectural Conservation Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.) By: Ar. Aditi T Koshley Lecturer Architecture Deptt. NIT Raipur(CG)
  2. 2. Architectural Conservation: Syllabus1. Definition and various aspects of conservation of natural and man made environment including importance & need of their conservation.2. Survey & search of architectural heritage along with historical cultural and archeological significance.3. Measures of conservation i.e. protection, maintenance, restoration, reconstruction, adoption and adaptation.4. Methods and technology for protection, maintenance, restoration & reconstruction of buildings and environments.5. Architectural thought, procedure & concept regarding adoption and adoption with or without change in mode of utilization for exemplary buildings & environments based on assignments. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  3. 3. ARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATIONArchitectural conservation describes the process through which the material,historical, and design integrity of mankinds built heritage are prolonged throughcarefully planned interventions.Architectural conservation deals with issues of prolonging the life and integrity ofarchitectural character and integrity, such as form and style, and/or its constituentmaterials, such as stone, brick, glass, metal, and wood. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  4. 4. Preservation/Conservation vs. RestorationPreservation/Conservation were used interchangeably to refer to the architectural schoolof thought that either encouraged measures that would protect and maintain buildings intheir current state, or would prevent further damage and deterioration to them. Thisschool of thought saw the original design of old buildings as correct in and of themselves.Two of the main proponents of preservation and conservation in the 19th century were artcritic John Ruskin and artist William Morris.Restoration was the conservationist school of thought that believed historic buildings couldbe improved, and sometimes even completed, using current day materials, design, andtechniques. In this way its very similar to the Modernist architectural theory, except itdoesnt advocate the destruction of ancient structures. One of the most ardent supportersof this school of thought in the 19th century was French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  5. 5. The Department of the Interior of the United States defined the following treatment approaches to architecturalconservation:Preservation, "places a high premium on the retention of all historic fabric through conservation, maintenanceand repair. It reflects a buildings continuum over time, through successive occupancies, and the respectfulchanges and alterations that are made.“Rehabilitation "emphasizes the retention and repair of historic materials, but more latitude is provided forreplacement because it is assumed the property is more deteriorated prior to work. (Both Preservation andRehabilitation standards focus attention on the preservation of those materials, features, finishes, spaces, andspatial relationships that, together, give a property its historic character.“Adaptive reuse refers to the process of reusing an old site or building for a purpose other than which it wasbuilt or designed for. Along with brownfield reclamation, adaptive reuse is seen by many as a key factor in landconservation and the reduction of urban sprawl. However adaptive reuse can become controversial as there issometimes a blurred line between renovation, facadism and adaptive reuse. It can be regarded as acompromise between historic preservation and demolition.Façadism (or Façadomy) is the practice of demolishing a building but leaving its facade intact for thepurposes of building new structures in it or around it.Restoration "focuses on the retention of materials from the most significant time in a propertys history, whilepermitting the removal of materials from other periods.“Reconstruction, "establishes limited opportunities to re-create a non-surviving site, landscape, building,structure, or object in all new materials."^ a b c d "Introduction: Choosing an appropriate treatment". Secretary of Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. U.S. NationalPark Service. Retrieved April 5, 2011. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  6. 6. CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES: ANCIENT STONE STRUCTURESMost ancient buildings are constructed of stone and have survived from antiquity as a result ofthe stability of this building material. However, stone can deteriorate rapidly withoutprotection, particularly in our modern era of pollution and climate change.Architect Susan Rebano-Edwards details a simple technique for preserving stone in ancientbuilding structures. She supports treatment that is effective in stopping deterioration anddurable in its protective effort while changing the appearance of stone as little as possible. Itshould be simple to apply, and comparatively inexpensive and reversible.[14]The process is as follows:1. Clean the material with soft brushes to remove ingrained dirt. Do not use dust cloths. If dirtis extensive, use a paste jelly formula such as EDTA ammonium carbonate.2. Wash with distilled water by brushing, spraying or by immersion or paper pulp method onstones showing symptoms of salting.3. Sterilize by brushing or spraying with a minimum 25% to 36% hydrogen peroxide stonesaffected by presence of organic growths such as mosses and lichens.4. Consolidate by brushing, spraying or injecting (or by impregnating, filling, grouting, jointingor pin dowel adhesive) on very dry stone using a consolidant such as Rinforzante H or ethylsilicate for siliceous stone (granite, sandstone). Consolidation is recommended when thecohesive strength of stone has weakened and there is a need to consolidate or bind togetherthe disintegrated material.5. Gap filling, replacement and/or retouching of missing parts.6. In appropriate circumstances, water repellents may be applied. Spray or brush protectivefilms or water repellents on stone affected by chemical integration and biological attack.Common protectants are waxes, acrylic and silicon resins. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  7. 7. The Criteria for SelectionTo be included on the World Heritage List, sites must be of outstanding universalvalue and meet at least one out of ten selection criteria. These criteria are explained inthe Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World HeritageConvention which, besides the text of the Convention, is the main working tool onWorld Heritage. The criteria are regularly revised by the Committee to reflect theevolution of the World Heritage concept itself.Until the end of 2004, World Heritage sites were selected on the basis of six culturaland four natural criteria. With the adoption of the revised Operational Guidelines forthe Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, only one set of ten criteriaexists. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  8. 8. Selection criteria:i. to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;ii. to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;iii. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;iv. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;v. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;vi. to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);vii. to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance; Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  9. 9. Selection criteria:viii. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earths history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;ix. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;x. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.xi. The protection, management, authenticity and integrity of properties are also important considerations.xii. Since 1992 significant interactions between people and the natural environment have been recognized as cultural landscapes Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)
  10. 10. Assignment• Ratanpur and other visited site documentation .•Any one monument (Indian) from UNESCO World Heritage list is to beselected and based on it a precise and comprehensive report submission. Lecture I for Sem X B.Arch, NIT Raipur(C.G.)