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Figure 1: Schematic and Mass Balance of Composting Produced The composting process is started
by blending together different types
of wastes. The focus of compost
recipe development is to find a
blend of wastes with sufficient
nutrients and moisture as well
Water as enough porosity so that the
composting mass can become
and remain aerobic. Nitrogen-rich
and carbon-rich wastes are
blended together to optimize
nutrient levels for the composting
microorganisms The carbon-rich
wastes also serve to help absorb
Wastes Composting Mass Finished Compost
moisture and provide porosity in the
Mass Start 100% Finish 50% The naturally occurring
Volume Start 100% Finish 20% microorganisms present in
-sw will start to
decompose the wastes. This
microbial activity is manifest by the release of energy in the form of heat. The process goes through a
number of characteristic temperature phases. It starts off at ambient temperature but then increases rapidly
as microbial activity increases. During high rate composting, when microorganisms are decomposing the
most easy to break down parts of the waste stream, process temperatures increase. Temperatures up to 70º
C are not uncommon. These high temperatures kill human and plant pathogens in the wastes.
After high rate composting, the microorganisms are left with less
easy to break down parts of the waste stream to decompose. This
results in a reduction of microbial populations and a reduction, over
time, of process temperatures. This is referred to as the curing
process. This is an essential part of the composting process and
important in terms of compost stability and maturity.
The entire composting process with OS1 can take anywhere
from 30 to 45 days to complete.
Compost is a soil conditioner and can be used to improve soil
quality and health. Its benefits include increase in organic matter,
soil porosity, and water holding capacity.
Mass of Waste
of foul odor
++ Produces a
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Overview of OS Composting Technology
1. Food Mix (Raw Materials)
For Fast Composting, it is very important to have the right kind of mix of wastes.
The initial mix must have the proper moisture and air content, and organic matter that provide a rich food
(energy) source for the microorganisms to grow and in turn decompose the organic matter.
A list of food materials is given below. They are separated into “Energy Materials”, “Bulking Agents” and
Bulking Agents Energy Materials Balanced Materials
Low to medium moisture
Wheat or Paddy
Mixing the energy materials with balanced materials and bulking agents provides the right kind of air,
moisture and nutrients required for rapid composting
MSW collected at the city level (centralized) has the right blend of wastes.
2. Pile Dynamics
Pile Size – The pile must be big enough to hold heat. A hot pile decays much faster than a cold pile. We
usually make piles as high as 2-2.5 mtrs.
Moisture – All materials in the pile must be moist but not soaking wet. This is a very important factor to be
kept in mind when spraying OS1dmsTM
-sw. The moisture to be maintained is 55-60%, the material should feel
moist, but one should not be able to squeeze water out.
Aeration – There are many ways of allowing enough air into the pile. One is to use enough bulking agents to
make the pile porous. The other way is to make a honey combed brick structure for layer method. It is also
important to turn the pile to facilitate aeration.
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OS1 acts like a catalyst to rapidly decompose the organic matter into compost. OS1 consists of a symbiotic
mixture of various naturally occurring microbes which repopulates the local environment with healthy and
beneficial microbes. OS probiotic technology works in the manner opposite to anti-bacterial products in that it
introduces beneficial microbes in a living system rather than killing the bad bacteria. The repetitive introduction of
Probiotics ensures that healthy microbes dominate the disease causing populations. Consequently, OS
Probiotics technology provides sustainable solutions to the system without causing any downstream problems.
Benefits of OS1 Composting
1. Faster Composting
Compost can be made within 30-40 days from any type of organic waste like garbage, kitchen waste, garden
waste and press mud, etc. Faster decomposition leads to saving in space and faster turnaround time and
2. Foul Odor Suppression
The volume of harmful green house gases like CH, H2S, NH4, CO etc is reduced with the application of OS1,
which also leads to suppression of foul odor in a matter of few hours. The mechanism behind foul odor
suppression is as follows-
a. Odor Substances are weak alkaline in nature and are primarily represented by ammonia. It is
neutralized with the organic acids present in OS1dms®.
b. The enzyme and antioxidants reduce odor in a synergetic way, a sort of a buffer effect
c. Foul odor is emitted by putrefactive type of microbes. When OS1 is applied to a system, the process
moves towards fermentation instead of rotting and the beneficial microbes dominate over the
3. Control of Vectors
Population of vectors like mosquitoes and flies that spread various diseases is suppressed. OS1 essentially helps
to control the growth of larvae population, thus inhibiting their growth.
4. Usage at any scale of operations
The technology can be scaled to any size of operation – from centralized large scale composting plants to
decentralized household level.
5. Efficient Treatment of Leachate
It treats the leachate emanating from solid waste, which can otherwise pollute the environment.
6. Easier Segregation of Waste
Segregation is easier due to reduced quantity and suppression of foul odor.
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