Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, practice, or study, or by being taught. E-learning is Internet-enabled learning http://www.cisco.com
TheoryConstructive AlignmentConstructivist Theory
Presentation on Learning Theory andPedagogical Design in e-Learning Theory. Prepared by: Azada Maqsoodi 08 February, 2013
Learning Theory and Pedagogical Design1. The Associationist Perspective2. The Cognitive Perspective3. The Situative Perspective
Learning Theory and Pedagogical Design Certain Traditions in Educational theory derived from different IdeasTheory as set of compatible explanation Competing Ideas for the same Phe Theory Theory Theory Theory Phenomena Phenomena Phenomena Phenomena
Learning Theory and Pedagogical DesignThe approach of Greeno et al. (1996) which identified 3 Clusters or Broad Perspectives;1. The Associationist Perspective2. The Cognitive Perspective3. The Situative Perspective
The Associationist Perspective The associationist approach models learning as the gradual building of patterns of associations and skill components. The learning happened through connecting elementary mental and behavoural units by different activities/feedback. Associationist theory requires subject matter to be analyzed (developed by Gagne “1985”) Analyzed; 1. Discriminations 2. Classification 3. Response sequences SeparatingLearning tasks are arranged based on their complexity as per the task analysis, with simpler components as prerequisites. Showing connecting
The Associationist Perspective The Associationist Theory Neural Network Theory (Hinton 1992) It models knowledge states as patterns of activation in a network of elementary units. This approach is not applied to educational issues, although it is very significant. It suggests as analysis of knowledge, rather than in term of task components Connecting Basic Ideas
The Associationist Perspective The Associationist TheoryNeural Network Theory (Hinton 1992)
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Cognitive Perspective Perception, thinking,GENERAL language & reasoning became seen as output of individual’sSHIFT IN attention, memory & concept formation processes.1960S Gave rise to new approaches to pedagogy.
Sub-area of cognitive researchHighlighted as Knowledge acquisition wasparticularly viewed as the outcome of an interaction between newinfluential e.g experiences & the structuresschema theory, for understanding that haveinformation been already taken.processing etc.,
BUILDING EXPERTISEActivities of constructing:1. Interaction with material systems & concepts in the domain.2. Interactions in which learners discuss their developing, understanding with competence.
SITUATIVE PERSPECTIVE Subjected to social & cultural influences Shifts onto patterns of successful practice.
Barab & Duffy (2000) distinguishes asSocio-psychological viewConcept of a community of practice
Lave & Wenger (1991) It is not just the meaning CMC – Computer to be attached to an Meditated activity….. Communication. ………. Relationship to the community itself
Overt activityInclude Blended Element
Focus on different perspective Learning as iterativeProceeds from Novice to Expert Pedagogy based
Three perspectives as cycle
Application of the New Learning Current landscape e-learning another kind of model suggest itself Start with social – motivation- community and peers-situative perspective Gradually, personal ownership of the learning activities become necessary for the derivation of meaning and construction of understanding
The TESEP Project Scottish e-learning transformation project Effective –learning through application of a pedagogy Raising awareness and skill level in internet- based learning