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  • For the past 18 years, the authors of this course have been working as consultants on a quest to get healthy communities built. During that time, we came to realize, that equal to the importance of the principles of new urbanism, was the Charrette process, responsible for getting them designed, approved and built. The best plans in the world will get nowhere without treating people right. This course is about how we treat people
  • Here’s how this course fits in to our certificate program. Describe the NCI module system and program offerings. The Planner course teaches you about the charrette but more so how to prepare for a charrette. MGR is the real nuts and bolts for charrette managers about what to do during those 4 to 7 days. Promote facilitator course, May in Portland
  • I was trained as an urban designed when we were relearning the generalist approach to planning. There are 3 pillars that really make this work. You have to have good design principles, backed up by codes, and then we are the process part, Dynamic Planning or Enquiry by Design. It’s a holistic approach to people, to process. I would direct you to the form based codes institute.
  • I was trained as an urban designed when we were relearning the generalist approach to planning. There are 3 pillars that really make this work. You have to have good design principles, backed up by codes, and then we are the process part, Dynamic Planning or Enquiry by Design. It’s a holistic approach to people, to process. I would direct you to the form based codes institute.
  • This is the way things are a lot of places. We know very well that these people are hippies anymore, they are all kinds of people. People are on guard these days about planning.
  • We still find change hard we just find different ways to express it.
  • 10:00 If you are bringing change into people’s lives, you are behind from the start. Transitions are tough for people.
  • The resistance to smart growth project comes from the land development system itself. All systems resist change. Here are some of the areas of resistance in the land development system.
  • The problem is that people work in their own parts of the puzzle not seeing how they fit into a larger whole.
  • Transformative change requires collaboration between subsystems to created a shared vision.
  • When the pieces fit together, we get places like this.
  • When the pieces fit together, we get places like this.
  • NCI is interested in the process for turning this resistance into a positive collaborative movement.
  • The three phases with the charrette as the main event.
  • Here is one of many examples of a transformative community change. The Pleasant Hill Bart Station project. For many years people were deadlocked about what to do with the parking lot around this station. They tried different public processes, to no avail.
  • The answer came when the sponsors used a new urbanist approach with a 6 day charrette. People who were against it turned around and supported it. I challenge you to find a more difficult environment. It still has challenges today, but it is making it through.
  • The answer came when the sponsors used a new urbanist approach with a 6 day charrette. People who were against it turned around and supported it. I challenge you to find a more difficult environment. It still has challenges today, but it is making it through.
  • Describe the content of the morning course
  • The three phases with the charrette as the main event.
  • When we first started the institute, we knew we’d have to describe this in a linear fashion and like a cook-book, even though it is neither of those. The way we teach the tools and techniques is first to cover the charrette phase 2. Once you fully understand the charrette phase you will better understand phase one by knowing what it is that you are planning for. Before we cover the charrette I do want you to look at phase one and understand that all of this happens months before the charrette. You are basically getting the people and the information charrette ready.
  • This slide hits some points that you can use to convince people to do a charrette. Elected officials like to get votes, community members together. Developers love feasibility, that it will get done. Almost everyone likes doing things quicker, more efficiently. Sustainability and design-- design by committee doesn’t have to be the best plan, design by charrette, with many hands, can result in a better plan.
  • Let’s talk about values. Values are very important to how people behave. A successful project, one that has the best design while minimizing rework begins when the project team shares core values. Shared values result in projects that go really well. Among these values: Sustainable Community Health. A holistic approach to community planning. Collaboration: the people on the team recognize that it’s going to make it better. Getting those people involved actually makes this better. Transparency: once you open the door, you have to be transparent to a degree. Transparency is key. Shared learning: Value the ability to learn from each other. Changes in position occur when they hear other viewpoints in the context of a project. Direct, honest and timely communication. This is a course about holistic stakeholder involvement, not just public involvement. (9:27) Now I’m going to move into a little bit of theory.
  • OK know we can finally start talking about what is a charrette? People the word charrette do describe many things. NCI says…
  • I have to make sure you know origins the word as it is applied the design world. So, where did the word come from?. At the École des Beaux Arts in Paris during the 19th century, proctors circulated a cart, or charrette to collect final drawings while the students frantically put finishing touches on their work. (make it a great story, students up late, frantic finish…) Today the term is used to describe the final, intense work effort expended by art and architecture students to meet a project deadline. If you walk into an architecture school at 3 am and the place is full of students they will likely tell you they are on charrette. The NCI Charrette combines this creative, intense work session with a collaborative public workshop. Design-based public involvement.
  • You’re not going to use it for everything. What is it best used for?
  • And what can they do? All this and more….
  • There are some circumstances that don’t call for a large public-involvement process.. You may just have tenants and the client, or security situations with military or high-tech, you might just use this in-house. .
  • Just to let you know, we’ve been busy. We have been teaching charrettes to agencies with some effect
  • NCI was founded to set the standard for the Dynamic Planning and Charrette Process through research and education. The National Charrette Institute is a nonprofit educational institution. Our mission is to help communities achieve healthy transformation through the NCI Charrette, a collaborative planning process that harnesses the talents and energies of all interested parties to create and support a buildable plan. Our actions include: Teaching the art & science of Dynamic Planning and the Charrette process Advancing the field of community involvement And Facilitating collaborative problem-solving to promote health communities
  • 10:30 Now that we know how the charrette works within the context of Dynamic Planning, it’s time to examine the tools and techniques for each of the three phases in detail.
  • The three phases with the charrette as the main event.
  • When we first started the institute, we knew we’d have to describe this in a linear fashion and like a cook-book, even though it is neither of those. The way we teach the tools and techniques is first to cover the charrette phase 2. Once you fully understand the charrette phase you will better understand phase one by knowing what it is that you are planning for. Before we cover the charrette I do want you to look at phase one and understand that all of this happens months before the charrette. You are basically getting the people and the information charrette ready.
  • 11:30 now that we understand the details of the charrette we are going to step back to see how do you get ready to do one of these things? Dynamic Planning phase one is about getting the people and the data ready for the charrette. This takes place a minimum of 6 weeks to perhaps 9 months ahead of the charrette.
  • 11:30 Now that we know how a charrette works lets go back to phase one of Dynamic Planning, the Research, Education and Charrette Preparation. These are the 5 basic steps.
  • These are all tools conducted in the Project Assessment and Organization sub-phase. This work occurs anywhere from 6 weeks to 9 months prior to the charrette. I’m becoming more aware, by the way, that the experience of this class has a lot to do with how it goes in your group. Group dynamics are sort of a wildcard for me as a teacher. Sometimes it doesn’t always happen smoothly in the group. If you want to move around, let me know, that’s fine. But it seems like a pretty cheerful group of people here, I think we’ll get along. I’m aware of that dynamic and I want this to be a really good experience for you, and I think part of it will be a slightly smaller group.
  • The DP roadmap is the overall plan for all three phases. It locates the major events and tasks for the entire project.
  • Next is the charrette ready plan. What needs to happen to get all the right people and all the right information at the charrette. Once a team and a client understands these pieces, you know you have agreement on a a process.
  • Next is the roll-out of the plan. Once that stakeholder plan is handed off to the specialist…
  • We’ll be talking about who needs to be involved. Anecdote about Andres and the Texas project, where he wanted to get it done in a week. If we’re going to get it right the first time, we have to bring in the right people. Who can screw this up? Bring in the fire chief, anyone who could trip it up. Suddenly we created a collaborative process. The charge was not, let’s get everyone together, wouldn’t it be nice. It was, do it right the first time. You need collaboration.
  • When a community is not yet “charrette ready” you may have to hold some educational events such as of lectures, workshops, educational things, visual preference surveys.
  • Parallel to the stakeholder involvement the project team is doing basic base data research and analysis…
  • Now, a very useful tool…feasibility studies and research…
  • DEBRA DO THIS SECTION Charrette Logistics. You want to do this earlier rather than later. The charrette management course covers this in detail.
  • You find a good place wher eyou can work, receive people and have meetings.
  • DEBRA The team is absolutely key to the success of the charrette. Good team players, social, good at what they do. Nothing wrong with some strong egos, strong discussions, but it has to work as a team. Putting that team together…
  • First let us understand the roles. The charrette team is made up normally of consultants. The team sets up the studio which is a working office on site where there team creates the plan from scratch. The studio is also the location for meeting with stakeholders (transition to next slide)
  • The other role is the stakeholder. Most of the stakeholders are not there all the time. There are scheduled meetings for stakeholders each day. The beauty of the charrette is that it involves a lot of hours and days to accommodate people’s schedules.
  • The Charrette itself contains its own phases of ITI. The intensification phase involves two sub-phases beginning with organization, education and vision and leading into concepts development. The transformation phase occurs somewhere in the middle of the Charrette where many alternative concepts are synthesized into a preferred design. This is where the real “heat” of the Charrette occurs and propels it forward in a positive and creative manner. This is the phase that Victor Dover has termed, “the scheduled train wreck.” Once the plan is synthesized, the Charrette enters into the integration phase where the design is fully developed and Charrette documents are produced and presented.
  • HAVE THEM LOOK AT THE COLORED HANDOUT NCI uses the classic 7 day charrette to explain dynamic planning This is the rolls-royce. Not all charrettes will include all of this nor be this long. The 7 day model allows us to show all the accessories if you will. The background colors. The second color is the alternative concept part. The third color, the red, the “scheduled train wreck,” let’s see what happens when the dust clears. Then things cool off, and then finally, the production. That’s the basic flow of a seven day charrette.
  • The charrette, no matter how many days, can take you through those a series of collaborative design and public input cycles for multiple, consecutive days. [click] On day 1, the public provides vision and project direction through a hands-on workshop. The design team takes this vision and creates a series of alternative plans [click] and then solicits public input at another public meeting. [click] This describes the first feedback loop, the central process of the charrette. This input is used to synthesis the alternatives into a preferred plan (click and stop to make the next point.) Processes that last two to three days can often produce a preferred plan that people like. But that plan may not have gone through the critical testing to assure feasibility. The designers may find themselves announcing at a later date that the preferred plan that everyone was so excited about has some fatal flaws. This can erode public confidence and require costly rework. The charrette doesn’t stop with the preferred plan. While you have all the specialist present you keep working for a few more days in order to develop, test, refine (click) and present a feasible plan. (click) At the end of the charrette you can look the stakeholder in the eye and say that at least back of the envelope the plan is feasible. Charrette plans have a very good track record of not requiring major redesign through engineering.
  • The other colors are the colors of the stakeholder meetings. That’s just to show you the for instance. Stakeholder meetings are peppered throughout the seven days.
  • In the first phase, which is generally the first day of the charrette, this is what happens…
  • The first phase is usually the first day
  • First we have the startup team meeting. The team is debriefed about the charrette process
  • Then some of them head out for a tour. Saw a very large area of memphis. Simultaneous with that…
  • The first set of meetings takes place on day one
  • Simultaneous with the tour a few team members are meeting with a the primary stakeholders. You don’t have any design to show them yet, these are political meetings. It is important to point out that this is not the first time that you have met these people. During the preparation phase you will have met with all stakeholders either in small or large meetings.
  • Evening meeting, public meeting number 1.
  • This meeting could also take place before the charrette as a public kick off meeting (more on that later)
  • The core of the meeting is the hands-on exercise wherein small groups draw vision ideas and record them on flip charts
  • Then the team goes into the concepts development phase.
  • This occurs over the next day or two
  • You start off with a team meeting. The project leader is working with the team to say, where are we going to go with this. The team works to distill the the themes into ideally three alternative concepts or directions. Marching orders are given for team members to pursue concepts.
  • At the end of this meeting you tell people: Wow we have a lot of work to do now. We will be creating alternative plans based on these ideas as well as project constraints. Please come to our next meeting were we will present the alternatives and make sure we’re listening to you. If you cannot come to the next meeting please come by the open studio.
  • In Memphis the team members began by investigating neighborhood structure using the five minute pedestrian shed.
  • After the team develops a full set of alternatives it is time to call in the key stakeholder reviews. (
  • The team then refines those alternatives based on stakeholder input. Make sure you have enough time before your next stakeholder meetings to refine them.
  • 11:00
  • This meeting should hook people on the charrette. It has only been two days and the team has developed an amazing set of alternatives that reflect the input from the public. People experience that they can actually have an impact during the design process. This is the power of the short feedback loop. We try to make it a really impressive amazing presentation. People feel like part of the creative process. If my retail person it still arguing with my transportation person, I’d like it to come out.
  • They work on preferred plan synthesis, what directions can we go in?
  • This is the middle part of the charrette where you should be narrowing down to a preferred plan.
  • The team works to juggle all the constraints, visions and objectives to arrive at a preferred plan. I’m going to talk about OMS later. Those things that you know you have to achieve.
  • The preferred plan reflects the input from multiple sources
  • Back to the schedule, the intermediate stakeholder reviews.
  • In the plan development phase, the team holds a plan development meeting, works on plan development, design refinement and stakeholder testing.
  • Plan development takes the third quarter of the charrette.
  • Plan development is the testing and detailing phase. It is this work that assures plan feasibility. For instance, in Memphis, the cathedral had land, wanted to do a catalytic project for the community, so a team member detailed a plan for that area. They also studied how porches could upgrade houses.
  • The retail people did the economic analysis development. Urban designers worked on neighborhood center details
  • The retail people did the economic analysis development. Urban designers worked on neighborhood center details
  • The retail people did the economic analysis development. Urban designers worked on neighborhood center details
  • Never too late for a another stakeholder meeting… if it will avoid potential rework.
  • In the final phase of the charrette, the team holds a production meeting, completes any necessary final Stakeholder reviews , produces the presentation and holds the Public Meeting
  • The final phase of the Charrette is to focus on producing the best drawings possible to show to the public. It is important to allow enough time for production.
  • This is the production part, which should nto be short changed. In fact, a good charrette manager is planning the final presentation two to three days ahead of time, designing the content and flow and preparing the powerpoint templates,
  • The final meeting is a comprehensive presentation of the evolution of the plan and the complete final documents This meeting should be an impressive, positive and persuasive event. A well orchestrated final charrette public meeting can provide tremendous momentum to help the project through the inevitable hurdles during implementation.
  • The preferred plan reflects the input from multiple sources
  • Retail analysis and streetscape studies
  • Here are a few examples of the types of drawings and documents that are created at the Charrette, including everything from master plans to economic analysis. It showed different parts of it to pass that feasibility test as well as we could at the time.
  • Retail analysis and streetscape studies
  • Retail analysis and streetscape studies
  • Retail analysis and streetscape studies
  • And not the least of which are these inspirational and informative renderings.
  • Retail analysis and streetscape studies
  • Retail analysis and streetscape studies
  • Now we’re going to jump to…now, what’s the deal after the charrette?
  • In this all important phase you need to pay attention to your communications and you need to refine your product and close out the process with a good set of documents.
  • There is a gap of 4-6 weeks after the charrette. We’re not done yet. We’re going to go back work on things, we want to hear from you, please come back to this meeting and we’ll show you any changes after you’ve slept on it.
  • During that period of time, things happen. This can be volatile. You take your eye off the ball. Somebody needs to be paying attention to what’s going on in the community. If you have a commiteee…
  • The communications themselves, at this stage, are absolutely key. For you to take the lead on the information on what happened at the charrette. If you don’t somebody else might. If you don’t set the table, some body else might. Get the word out, have a website. Load it up during the charrette. Constantly be leading.
  • At the same time…
  • Your team is refining what they did at the charrette…
  • Closing out the project with a report and documents that show a bullet-proof process. I like to document the project as clearly as possible.
  • Okay, last part of the presentation. I’m going to pull back and talk about 10 strategies.
  • Here’s 10 take-aways that are imbedded in the process I just explained to you.
  • I
  • If you don’t, they may end up being involved like this.
  • If you don’t you may end up with a project designed in the hands of someone who doesn’t really understand what is needed to do a decent job (they only have one specialty). Her you have a zone that is probably posted at 25, but they go at 45. They don’t care about the sidewalk enough to get the post out of the way. The space between intersections is so long so you have to front or back the lots. Given the character, no one will front on it. One specialty not really thinking through what everyone needs.
  • They facilitate problem solving, reduce unconstructive negotiation tactics. This is a picture of Apollo 13 where the team on the ground had to work in a compressed time session to save these guys.
  • The fourth key strategy is to communicate in short feedback loops. Regular stakeholder reviews quickly build trust in the process and foster true understanding and support of the product.
  • A series of at least three feedback loops is perhaps the most important aspect of the Charrette. Planners often just have one feedback loop, starting at vision and ending in plan. People want to be involved in the design process. In these three major feedback cycles, design ideas are created based upon a public vision, and presented within hours for further review, critique, and refinement. These feedback cycles foster a holistic understanding of complex problems by all participants and form the basis of a plan that reflects all vital viewpoints. It results in true buy-in by everyone involved, and participants are thereby inspired to support the plan, helping it to overcome the inevitable challenges on its path to implementation. The first part of the feedback loop is created when a proposal is made to a group of key stakeholders. There is a collaborative discussion of the merits of the proposal and recommended changes. The author of the proposal modifies it according to the input and it is then re-presented to the key stakeholders. The degree to which the stakeholders become invested in the process is in part directly effected by the length of time that elapses between the presentations. In other words the length of the loop.
  • True buy-in and assured feasibility can only be achieved by designing in detail. This way, critical issues are brought to the surface and addressed completely. This can only be accomplished by looking at the details, for example building types, block sizes, and public space, and the big picture, such as site circulation, transit, land use, and major public amenities, concurrently. Studies at these two scales also inform each other and reduce the likelihood that a fatal flaw will be overlooked in the plan.
  • If you don’t study a proposal in detail you may for instance get mixed-use that looks like this Conventional planning that is limited to one or two scales of investigation risks creating expectations or agreements that will in the future fail once the complete story is made known. Unless you speak to the details, you sacrifice the ability to establish the complete and accurate perceptions of the stakeholders. If you don’t get into the details at the beginning, you will get into them further along in the process when perceptions and understandings are more difficult to change.
  • Having the goal of creating a feasible plan creates a focus and adds rigor to the process. This underscores the importance of getting everyone’s input and buy-in from beginning to end. There are constant reminders along the lines of, “Hey folks, this has to work.” This makes the creative process about more than what people want, it’s also about what can actually be built. It creates a higher level of seriousness and engagement when people know that the result is going to be an actual construction project, which in turn heightens their level of participation.
  • Design is a powerful tool for establishing a shared vision. Drawings help illustrate the complexity of the problem and can be used to resolve conflict by proposing previously unexplored solutions that represent win/win outcomes. The charrette design team specializes in capturing ideas quickly in drawings that help educate and focus the discussion. One of the most important ground rules used throughout the Charrette is “talk with your pen.” This applies not only to designers but to all Charrette participants.
  • This is probably the most often ignored strategy in well-intentioned but marginally successful workshop processes. Most charrettes require between four and seven days, allowing for three feedback loops. Three loops allow for a change in participants’ perceptions and positions. However, only simple projects with little controversy should be attempted in four days. More complicated projects typically take seven days. The more difficult the problem, the longer the charrette.
  • NO matter how successful a meeting appears, one can never be certain of what people really thought, especially those who don’t say anything. Without the ability to engage these people again quickly, you risk the possibility that their misperceptions will be crystallized and that they will possibly begin a negative campaign against the project and process. The opportunity to work with people over the course of several days allows you to address concerns as they arise, and will keep rumors and negative press from taking hold.
  • Working on site fosters the design team's understanding of local values and traditions, and provides the necessary easy access to stakeholders and information. Therefore, the studio should be located in a place where it is easily accessible to all stakeholders and where the designers have quick access to the project site. Charrette studios have been located in empty main street storefronts, community centers, high schools, and armories.
  • When a team doesn’t work on site, they miss the opportunity to fully understand the psyche of the place and to gain the trust of community members. They lose the advantages associated with creating stronger relationships with stakeholders. Opportunities to build trust are diminished and the distance between the design team and stakeholders leaves more room for miscommunication and misunderstandings. In short, there is no substitute for sustained personal contact with stakeholders.
  • Here’s 10 take-aways that are imbedded in the process I just explained to you.
  • Describe the topics of the morning session, remind them that it is a lecture that sets the framework for the case study work beginning after lunch.
  • Dysfunction within the project team Team members lacking a shared understanding of mission and process question strategy mid-course Team members work within their silos causing poor design and rework Stakeholders/community members undermining the project Stakeholders do not share/own the mission and work at cross-purposes Community members do not trust the process and undermine project late in the game
  • Insufficient resources for community organizing and outreach Without the resources for conducting effective outreach and relationship building it is difficult to achieve a cross-section of stakeholder participation. Poor Data Design is based on incomplete or incorrect data Data arrives late causing design changes
  • Time Project takes years to complete New players lack project understanding and undermine efforts Meeting fatigue
  • 11:30 Now that we know how a charrette works lets go back to phase one of Dynamic Planning, the Research, Education and Charrette Preparation. These are the 5 basic steps.
  • Project partners share values and understand and own the project process Hold a work session with decision makers and staff to create project goals, guiding principles and the process map. Project process map is informed by all relevant viewpoints Involve all relevant specialties in the process planning from the beginning. (Transportation, environmental, economics, urban design…)
  • Project partners share values and understand and own the project process Hold a work session with decision makers and staff to create project goals, guiding principles and the process map. Project process map is informed by all relevant viewpoints Involve all relevant specialties in the process planning from the beginning. (Transportation, environmental, economics, urban design…)
  • Project partners share values and understand and own the project process Hold a work session with decision makers and staff to create project goals, guiding principles and the process map. Project process map is informed by all relevant viewpoints Involve all relevant specialties in the process planning from the beginning. (Transportation, environmental, economics, urban design…)
  • The anchorage planner came up with this in the meeting, a mission that was very clarifying.
  • Here is an example of an OMS showing the city’s viewpoint. This can be created in focus groups, in meetings with key players, and even in a public setting.
  • The other colors are the colors of the stakeholder meetings. That’s just to show you the for instance. Stakeholder meetings are peppered throughout the seven days.
  • Next is the charrette ready plan. What needs to happen to get all the right people and all the right information at the charrette. Once a team and a client understands these pieces, you know you have agreement on a a process.
  • Poor attendance Not enough people Only the usual meeting goers, potentially only the opposition Imbalanced representation Incomplete demographic representation Whole groups/viewpoints left out Confused meeting participants Incorrect understanding of meeting purpose Incorrect understanding of their role in the decision process Poor communications re: meeting purpose/process Incorrect understanding of stakeholder positions, issues   Participants lack knowledge to make decisions Poor education on the subject A key specialist or field is missing (transportation or economics)   Poor meeting facilitation Individuals or groups allowed to dominate the meeting Unable to establish a shared purpose among the participants
  • Image credit: public domain http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Train_wreck_at_Montparnasse_1895.jpg By Studio Lévy and Sons (Studio Lévy & fils) [2] ([1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • There are five basic decision-making options to draw upon and a number of variations from this theme. It is critical that the option(s) be decided before the meeting. It is also critical that in the meeting start-ups the chosen option(s) are announced, understood, and agreed to, including the fallback option, if there is need for one. Being clear up front about how you will make a decision is a very significant prevention. Factors to consider when choosing an option: • Time • Experience • Team development • Impact of decision • Broader context for decision • Organizational constraints
  • 11:15 Refer to teachers exercise instructions Go to slide 50 Have students turn to the exercise page in their course books
  • We’ll be talking about who needs to be involved. Anecdote about Andres and the Texas project, where he wanted to get it done in a week. If we’re going to get it right the first time, we have to bring in the right people. Who can screw this up? Bring in the fire chief, anyone who could trip it up. Suddenly we created a collaborative process. The charge was not, let’s get everyone together, wouldn’t it be nice. It was, do it right the first time. You need collaboration.
  • Show this slide during the exercise Students turn to page 94
  • Next is the roll-out of the plan. Once that stakeholder plan is handed off to the specialist…
  • … in stakeholder involvement. May use any of these techniques of outreach. Focus on getting beyond stakeholder “consent” to “commitment” (esp.re: sustainability)
  • When a community is not yet “charrette ready” you may have to do something that we call vision development. It’s under the category of lectures, workshops, educational things, visual preference surveys.
  • Get experts to come lecture on key subjects like affordable housing or round-abouts. Possibility of remote educational sessions with PowerPoint, video conferencing, speaker-phone.
  • You can also do stakeholder tours. Take people around on a bus. Do it virtually, on a website.
  • Another useful method is the neighborhood walk. Neighborhood walks are carefully organized, with walking groups that are no larger than 8 people. There is a walk group leader, a recorder, and a sketcher. Stops are scheduled along the way where the leader asks questions to initiate lively discussions about growth in these areas. The recorder keeps track of these discussions and the sketcher draws the suggested ideas. Afterward, the whole effort is put together into a booklet that it a very useful tool throughout the project
  • Some communities celebrate the charrette.
  • Thin: One channel to convey information Thick: Many channels to convey information Talking in person vs talking on the phone vs email
  • Source = Multnomah County Public Health, Community Health Assessment Quarterly, Fall 2008 And ten percent of its youth are overweight or obese. An additional 10-15 percent of youth are at risk of becoming obese or overweight. Why should I care? Being obese or overweight leads to increased risks for a number of chronic diseases, reduced quality of life, and even early death.
  • Source = Multnomah County Public Health, Community Health Assessment Quarterly, Fall 2008 And ten percent of its youth are overweight or obese. An additional 10-15 percent of youth are at risk of becoming obese or overweight. Why should I care? Being obese or overweight leads to increased risks for a number of chronic diseases, reduced quality of life, and even early death.
  • The Portland Plan will be a blueprint for public and private development and conservation for the next 25 years. Together, the City of Portland, Multnomah County, the school districts, Trimet, and Metro collectively spend billions each year within the boundaries of this city. What if we could align just a fraction of that spending toward a common purpose? City government, other governments, residents, businesses, institutions and organizations will use this blueprint to align efforts to manage change, make investments, design programs and provide responsive services—consistent with our values and in an effort to realize our shared vision of a thriving and sustainable city.
  • 3:00 Now refer to the teachers exercise instructions page Students turn to page 80
  • And then the ground rules. What I like to do is present a set of ground rules for them to consider and add to. Ask if anyone has some to add. Ask for permission to enforce the rules.
  • Usually we don’t present this many at once, but start with the most important ones and leave it open so the group can add some.
  • If we get anything tonight that’s not on our agenda, we’re not going to lose it, we’re going to put it in the parking lot and either deal with it or defer it in some way before the end of tonight. So those are the start-ups. What a difference it is for me as a facilitator to be able to point to these things, instead of just trying to do it on my own. How many of you run meetings in front of lots of people? Any of you who do, I really recommend good books and courses, there are a lot out there. See appendix for books. Image credit: Public domain By P.Ctnt (Template:Self-mae) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Korean_Traffic_sign_%28Bicycles_Parking_Lot%29.svg
  • The Food for Thought Lecture: the basics of good neighborhood planning, reflecting old Memphis and the good Memphis that was still there. That went on for about 40 minutes. That’s about as long as you want to go. If you have a hostile crowd, you might want to talk at them less.
  • The core of the meeting is the hands-on exercise wherein small groups draw vision ideas and record them on flip charts
  • The highlight of the evening is where community members report back. This really emphasizes that they are the experts for the evening. It makes it their meeting.
  • This is not Memphis but it shows the use of the video camera to enlarge the small table drawings. 2:45 BREAK AND SET UP MATERIALS
  • By completing this CD, you have finished the first module of the Charrette Planner certification. For more information about the certification and other programs, please visit our website at www.charretteinstitute.org

Nci workshop brazil1 Nci workshop brazil1 Presentation Transcript

  • AGENDAI. Introductions.II. Overview of the NCI Charrette System. a. What is the nature of the problem? b. What is a charrette? c. What is the NCI charrette system? d. How do charrettes work?III. Tools & Techniques for Collaborative Solutions. a. How do we know if a project is ready for a successful charrette? b. Project assessment and team organization: “Project start-up intensive.” c. Designing the process: making meetings work. d. Stakeholder analysis. e. Stakeholder outreach, education and communication strategies.IV. Hands-on Exercise.V. Discussion.
  • The National Charrette Institute• The National Charrette Institute (NCI) is an IRS 501(c)(3) nonprofit educational institution• We teach professionals and community leaders the NCI Charrette System™, a design-based, accelerated, collaborative project management system that harnesses the talents and energies of all interested parties to create and support a feasible plan• We advance the fields of community planning and public involvement through research, publications and facilitation
  • 20 years of healthy communitytransformation Design + Codes + Process = Transformation Downcity, Providence, RI
  • NCI Charrette SystemNCI Management & Facilitation• Portland, DC, Harvard, Miami, Vancouver BC, UK• Also available on-site for your organization
  • NCI Training History• 1st public training offered in 2002• NCI Training Certificates: 2,194Data through 12/11
  • NCI Charrette System CourseDay One: Day Three:• Three phases of the NCI Charrette • Project Organization System – Charrette system road map• Practice public “hands-on” – Charrette ready plan meeting exercises – Team formation – Charrette scheduleDay Two: • Plan Implementation• Case studies presentations • Lessons learned• Project assessment exercises – Guiding principles – Objectives & measures – Stakeholder analysis – Charrette purpose and products – Project complexity
  • NCI Charrette Management and FacilitationCourseDay One: Day Two:• General charrette management • Charrette design decision process• Studio set-up & management • Charrette team design pin-up• Public gallery management simulation• Communications and the press • Production and presentation• Public meeting facilitation skill management building exercise
  • The Situation in a Nutshell Forbes Magazine
  • The general situation.• Fear of growth, in spite of economic dependence on its continuation.• Fear reinforced by environmental rhetoric that emphasizes the damage.• Bad democracy: emphasis on quantity and not quality or functioning of public participation.
  • The politics of planning...• Citizen intervention focused on technical and procedural means to stop projects.• Technical discussions become politically charged, political decisions become technically obscure.• Political paralysis reinforces “business as usual” development patterns.• Pervasive fear among developers of “meeting the neighbors.”• Breakdown of faith in democratic process on all sides.
  • The ironic results of misunderstandingdemocracy.• In the name of procedural fairness and democracy, we’ve created an unreliable process that undermines civic capacity and leads to reactionary politics (NIMBY).• Public involvement has become part of the problem, not part of the solution.
  • Change is hard for everyone
  • The community development system resiststransformative change • Outdated codes and standards • Narrow financing conventions • Public fear of new development • Lack of a shared community vision
  • The work of specialists• Solving each problem, one at a time, with technical skill and precision.• Each “solution,” dictated by its own “necessity,” creates new problems.
  • The problem with a system of experts• Diane Vaughn, The Challenger Launch Decision.• The best technical knowledge often produces well- supported decisions that add up to disaster.
  • Complex projects and problems requirecollaborative solutions.• Create an exemplary plan that leads to implementation• Create positive ongoing working relationships• Save time and money: good government• Build community trust in government• Complex problems require collaboration
  • Goals of a collaborative planning process• Create an exemplary plan• Stakeholders own and support the plan• Avoid costly rework• Implement the plan
  • Why is collaboration so difficult?• History of bad process, endless unproductive meetings• The “trained incapacity” of specialists.• Diversity of viewpoints.• Pervasive suspicion of full collaboration.• Fear of unbridled democracy– the rule of “the mob.”• Requires good leadership, process, facilitation with the resources to make it happen
  • Strategies and tools for collaborationHolistic Collaborative Process•Inclusive, cross-disciplinary, transparent, timely – Tools: ex. NCI Charrette System, Integrated DesignCollaborative Project Start•Commitment to robust inclusive process – Tool: Project start-up intensive – Tools: Guiding principles, objectives and measures, stakeholder analysis, project roadmapWell-run Public Meetings•Input with potential for impact – Tools: Skilled facilitation of hands-on workshops
  • Each puzzle piece protects its domain. engineering zoning residential transit construction marketing open space transportation environmental utilities retail public politics pub involvement li c sp ace architecture affordability density sales p a rk cing ing f i nan
  • When each piece sees it’s place in thewhole… engineering zoning residential transit construction marketing open space transportation environmental utilities retail public space public politics involvement architecture affordability financing density parking sales
  • A coherent vision is supported … engineering residential zoning transit construction marketing open space transportation environmental utilities retail public space public politics involvement architecture affordability financing density parking sales
  • … and the community is transformed. engineering residential zoning transit construction marketing open space transportation environmental utilities retail public space public politics involvement architecture affordability financing density parking sales
  • How can resistance turn into collaboration andpositive community transformation?
  • The NCI Charrette System
  • Pleasant Hill Bart Station, 2000 • 25-year deadlock • Organized citizen opposition controlling the press • Challenging deal (developer, County, BART) • Boycott of charrette threatened
  • Pleasant Hill Bart Station, 2005 • Unanimous adoption with no opposition • Design maintained with new architect • Head NIMBY chairs Urban Advantage committee • Survived 5-year lag • Construction begins Lennertz Coyle & Assoc.
  • 75% Completion, 2010
  • Observed problems with charrettes.• Highly variable in form, content, and success.• Lack of clarity with respect to public expectations.• Difficulty with follow-through to implementation.• The need to cultivate local champions, not always achieved by out-of-town consultants.• Disappointment and disillusionment, often proportional to the excitement of the charrette itself.• Weak preparation.
  • The NCI Charrette System™• What is the NCI Charrette System?• What is a NCI Charrette?• Charrette System Tools and Techniques• Nine Charrette System Strategies
  • The NCI Charrette System
  • The Charrette System Phasesresearch, education, plancharrette preparation charrette implementation 1 1-9 months 2 2-4 months 3Project Assessment and Organization, Education, Project StatusOrganization Vision CommunicationsStakeholder Research, Alternative Concepts Product RefinementEducation, Involvement Development Presentation andBase Data Research and Preferred Plan Synthesis Product FinalizationAnalysis Plan DevelopmentFeasibility Studies andResearch Production and PresentationCharrette Logistics
  • Strengths of the Charrette System Support • Mobilizes the collective energy of all interested parties Feasibility • Addresses all aspects of feasibility concurrently Time and Money • Reduces project timeline, increases productivity, reduces costly rework Sustainability and Design • Seeks the best sustainable solution, not the lowest common denominatorLCA Town Planning and Architecture
  • Charrettes accelerate timelines
  • NCI Charrette System Core ValuesSustainable Community Planning• Holistic planning solutions support socially, economically and environmentally sustainable communities.Collaboration•Each individual’s unique contribution supports the best outcome.Transparency•Clarity in rules, process and roles is essential to collaboration.Shared Learning•Including all viewpoints assures reduced rework and facilitatesimplementation.Direct, Honest, Timely Communication•Respectful communication fosters an environment of trust andreduces rework.
  • What is a NCI Charrette?• The NCI charrette is a multi-day collaborative planning event that engages all affected parties to create and support a feasible plan that represents transformative community change Drawn for The Washington Post, 1988, by Roger K. Lewis, FAIA, Professor, U. Maryland School of Architecture
  • Origin of the term “charrette” • At the École des Beaux Arts in Paris during the 19th century, proctors circulated a cart, or “charrette,” to collect final drawings while the students frantically put finishing touches on their work La Charrette, by Alexis Lemaistre c.1889
  • Misconceptions about the term “charrette”A NCI charrette is not:• A one-day workshop• A multi-day marathon meeting involving everyone all the time (stakeholders participate at key moments)• A “visioning session” without an action plan and implementation strategy
  • When should you use a charrette?Charrettes are best for:• High stakes projects• Volatile, yet workable, political environments• Complex design problems• Projects that include imminent development
  • What can a charrette do?Charrettes result in feasible plans for:• Revitalization and infill• Sustainable communities• Economic development• Regional visions and plans Kendall, FL• Comprehensive plans• Form-based codes• New neighborhoods• TOD plans Hillsborough Co., FL Kentlands, MD
  • In-house Charrettes• A charrette is not necessarily a public event if all stakeholders are “in-house”• The public-at-large does not have to be involved in a project when the public is not an “affected party” Examples: – LEED building design – Military construction – Hi-tech manufacturing
  • Charrette TrendsGovernment agencies requiring charrettes:• Baltimore County, MD• Davidson, NC• Belmont, NC• Sarasota County, FLRecent RFPs requiring charrettes:• Renaissance Project, Baltimore, MD• Columbia Town Center, Columbia, MD• City Center Housing, Santa Monica, CA• Spokane Valley, WA• Providence, RI• Chico, CA• Montgomery County, MD• Surfside, FL• Takoma Park, MD
  • Charrette Request for Proposal TemplateA complete framework forspecifying a NCI charretteprocess in a RFPFree for download at:charretteinstitute.org
  • NCI Charrette SystemTools and Techniques
  • The NCI Charrette System
  • The Charrette System Phasesresearch, education, plancharrette preparation charrette implementation 1 1-9 months 2 2-4 months 3Project Assessment and Organization, Education, Project StatusOrganization Vision CommunicationsStakeholder Research, Alternative Concepts Product RefinementEducation, Involvement Development Presentation andBase Data Research and Preferred Plan Synthesis Product FinalizationAnalysis Plan DevelopmentFeasibility Studies andResearch Production and PresentationCharrette Logistics
  • The NCI Charrette SystemPhase One: Charrette Preparation
  • Research, Education, Charrette Preparation Tools and Techniquesresearch, education, plancharrette preparation charrette implementation 1 2 3Project Assessment andOrganizationStakeholder Research,Education, InvolvementBase Data Research andAnalysisFeasibility Studies andResearchCharrette Logistics
  • 1.1 Project Assessment and Organization Tools and Techniques project set-upand organization stakeholder base feasibility charrette involvement information studies logistics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Guiding Principles Objectives, Measures, Strategies Draft Stakeholder Analysis Charrette Purpose and Products Complexity Analysis Charrette System Road Map Charrette Ready Plan
  • Charrette System Road Map
  • Charrette Ready Plan Schedule
  • 1.2 Stakeholder Research, Education, and Involvement Plan Tools and Techniques project set-upand organization stakeholder base feasibility charrette involvement information studies logistics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Outreach and Engagement Engagement and Information Exchange Secondary Stakeholder Analysis Educational Events
  • Stakeholders’ unique contributions Fire Chief Transportation engineers Developer Business ownersElected officials Environmentalists Neighbors Urban designers
  • 1.2 Stakeholder Research, Education andInvolvement PlanTool: Educational EventsPurpose: To establish a description of a future state based on shared community values that acts as a guide for the project decision making process surveysProcess: One or a number of efforts including educational lectures, workshops, neighborhood walks, and preference surveys
  • 1.3 Base Data Research and Analysis Tools and Techniques project set-upand organization stakeholder base feasibility charrette involvement information studies logistics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Base Data Research and Gathering SWOT Analysis
  • 1.4 Feasibility Studies Tools and Techniques project set-upand organization stakeholder base feasibility charrette involvement information studies logistics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Conceptual Sketching and Testing Pre-charrette Project Brief
  • 1.5 Charrette Logistics Tools and Techniques project set-upand organization stakeholder base feasibility charrette involvement information studies logistics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Studio Logistics and Set-up Charrette Team Formation Charrette Scheduling Meeting Planning Pre-charrette Logistics Summary
  • 1.5 Charrette LogisticsTool: Studio Logistics and Set-upPurpose: To provide a functional space for charrette team work and public participation Charrette galleryProcess: The charrette manager works with local staff to organize all charrette logistics to support a sustained, focused effort Charrette studio
  • 1.5 Charrette LogisticsTool: Charrette Team FormationPurpose: The assembly of a cross- disciplinary charrette team is informed by the skills required to complete the desired products, and to assure holistic, diverse feedbackProcess: Based on the project complexity analysis and the charrette products list, the charrette manager appoints a diverse team of specialists
  • The Charrette
  • Charrette Roles and ProcessCharrette Team• The multidisciplinary charrette team works uninterrupted to produce the plan at the charrette studio
  • Charrette Roles and Process The Stakeholder’s Role • Stakeholders provide vision, input and review at key moments during scheduled and impromptu, meetings • They are not there all the time! Dover Kohl LCA Town Planners Urban Design AssociatesStakeholder meeting Public meetings Drop by the studio(Scheduled) (Scheduled) (Unscheduled)
  • Charrette PhasesThe Five Phases of the Charrette
  • Charrette Phases
  • Charrette Work Cyclespublic meeting public meeting open house public meeting vision review review confirmation alternative preferred plan concepts plan development
  • Charrette Stakeholder Meetings
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, Vision Tools and Techniquesorganization, alternative preferred plan production and education, concepts synthesis plan presentation vision development development 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5Start-up TeamMeetingCharrette TeamTourPrimaryStakeholderMeetingsCharrette PublicMeeting #1
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, Vision Toolsand Techniques
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, VisionTool: Start-up Team MeetingPurpose: To orient and introduce team membersProcess: Base data debrief and review of schedule, roles, and responsibilities
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, VisionTool: Charrette Team TourPurpose: To assess, document and measure the project site and contextProcess: The team and stakeholders tour the site, the surrounding area and local examples of smart development
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, VisionPrimary Stakeholder Meetings
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, VisionTool: Primary Stakeholder MeetingsPurpose: Check in with important people before the first public meeting to assure that they will attend and to gather last minute adviceProcess: The charrette manager sets up meetings based on the stakeholder analysis typically with elected officials, landowners and community leaders
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, VisionPublic Meeting #1
  • 2.1 Organization, Education, VisionTool:• Charrette Public Meeting #1Purpose:• Explain the project and process• Introduce the charrette team• Provide the technical background• Teach basic good planning principles• Solicit a project vision from the public• Inspire a sense of “a historic moment”Process:• Brief presentation by team• Small table public workshop• Report back
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:Hands-on Exercise• Groups work on visioning exercises at tables
  • 2.2 Alternative Concepts Development Tools and Techniquesorganization, alternative preferred plan production and education, concepts synthesis plan presentation vision development development 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Concepts Team Meeting Alternative Concepts Development Initial Stakeholder Reviews Alternative Concepts Refinement Public Meeting #2 or Open House
  • 2.2 Alternative Concepts Development Toolsand Techniques
  • 2.2 Alternative Concepts DevelopmentTool: Concepts Team MeetingPurpose: Distill the prominent themes for development into conceptsProcess: Review of hands-on drawings and flip charts from public meeting
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:Hands-on Exercise Results
  • 2.2 Alternative Concepts DevelopmentTool: Alternative Concepts DevelopmentPurpose: Create a large set of plan options that reflect all the input gathered to dateProcess: The charrette team begins concept development based on team meeting direction
  • Alternative Concepts Development
  • 2.2 Alternative ConceptsInitial Stakeholder Reviews
  • 2.2 Alternative Concepts DevelopmentTool: Alternative Concepts RefinementPurpose: Reduce the alternative concepts to a manageable numberProcess: The charrette team identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each alternative with the aim of merging good ideas, eliminating bad ones, and developing new ideas
  • 2.2 Alternative ConceptsPublic Meeting #2
  • 2.2 Alternative Concepts DevelopmentTool: Public Meeting #2 or Open HousePurpose: Present the design alternatives and solicit participant feedback for incorporation into the next round of revisionsProcess: Evening publicmeeting wherein the teampresents the work to dateand receives feedback
  • 2.3 Preferred Plan Synthesis Tools and Techniquesorganization, alternative preferred plan production and education, concepts synthesis plan presentation vision development development 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Plan Synthesis Team Meeting Concept Synthesis Into Preferred Plan Intermediate Stakeholder Reviews Public Open House
  • 2.3 Preferred Plan SynthesisTools and Techniques
  • 2.3 Preferred Plan SynthesisTool: Concept Synthesis Into Preferred PlanPurpose: Synthesize the alternative concepts into a preferred planProcess: The charrette team arrives at a preferred plan by considering the project constraints as well as accumulated stakeholder input
  • 2.3 Preferred Plan SynthesisSustainability Stakeholder Surveys The Preferred Plan reflects multiple viewpointsTransportation Objectives & Measures
  • 2.3 Preferred PlanIntermediate Stakeholder Reviews
  • 2.4 Plan Development Tools and Techniquesorganization, alternative preferred plan production and education, concepts synthesis plan presentation vision development development 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Plan Development Team Meeting Plan Development and Refinement Intermediate Stakeholder Reviews
  • 2.4 Plan DevelopmentTools and Techniques
  • 2.4 Plan DevelopmentTool: Plan Development and RefinementPurpose: To perform design studies on the preferred plan that address issues essential to its advancementProcess: Each design team member performs detailed design studies of the preferred plan
  • Plan Development StudiesExisting condition Proposed infill plan
  • Plan Development StudiesUrban design rendering
  • Plan Development StudiesExisting condition Proposed infill plan
  • 2.4 Plan DevelopmentIntermediate Stakeholder Reviews
  • 2.5 Production and Presentation Tools and Techniquesorganization, alternative preferred plan production and education, concepts synthesis plan presentation vision development development 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Production Team Meeting Final Stakeholder Reviews Production Final Charrette Public Meeting
  • 2.5 Production and PresentationTools and Techniques
  • 2.5 Production and PresentationTool: ProductionPurpose: To complete the assigneddrawings and documents to arefined level capable of informingand inspiring the publicProcess: The charrette managercarefully orchestrates theproduction to allow time forrehearsal and final review by theclient
  • 2.5 Production and PresentationFinal Charrette Public Meeting
  • 2.5 Production and PresentationTool: Final Charrette Public MeetingPurpose: Illustrate and explain thecomplete plan drawings and supportivedata, inform and inspire all participantsto support their planProcess:• Charrette team presentation – project summary, charrette log, evolution of plan, final plan• Q&A and public input• Open house
  • Example Charrette Products
  • Example Charrette Products
  • Example Charrette Products
  • Example Charrette Products Sustainability – Local Food
  • Example Charrette ProductsSustainability – Rainwater Treatment
  • Example Charrette Products Existing open spaces Proposed open spaces
  • Example Charrette Products
  • Example Charrette Products
  • Example Charrette ProductsMaking it Happen:• Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA)• Comprehensive Plan• Land Development Code• Tax Increment Financing• Code Enforcement• Enterprise Zone• Brownfields• Future Rail Transportation
  • Phase Three: Plan Implementation
  • 3.0 Plan Implementation Tools and Techniquesresearch, education, plancharrette preparation charrette implementation 1 2 3 Project Status Communications Product Refinement Presentation and Product Finalization
  • 3.0 Plan Implementation Tools and Techniques 4-6 weeks max.Charrette begins with input session, then design begins Review & Final Revise Review
  • 3.1 Information and Relationship StrategyTools and Techniques presentation project status product and productcommunications refinement finalization 3.1 3.2 3.3Project ManagementTeam DebriefingPublicCommunications
  • 3.1 Project Status CommunicationsTool: Public CommunicationsPurpose: Continue to inform the key stakeholders and public on the outcome of the charrette, the next steps, and how they can be involvedProcess: Disseminate information though e-mails, websites, and publications such as The Town Paper
  • 3.2 Product Refinement Tools andTechniques presentation project status product and productcommunications refinement finalization 3.1 3.2 3.3 Document Review and Feedback Document Revision
  • 3.2 Product RefinementGoal• Ensure that the Charrette Plan is feasibleTools• Document Review and Feedback• Document Revision
  • 3.3 Presentation and Product FinalizationTools and Techniques presentation project status product and productcommunications refinement finalization 3.1 3.2 3.3 Final Project Public Meeting Project Closeout
  • 3.3 Presentation and Product FinalizationGoals• Solicit a final round of public input• Complete the full set of charrette drawings and documentsTools• Final Project Public Meeting• Project Closeout
  • 3.3 Presentation and Product FinalizationTool: Project CloseoutPurpose: Complete the charrette report and code documents required for a feasible planProcess: The charrette manager directs the completion and distribution of documents
  • Principles of theNCI Charrette System
  • Charrette System Strategies1. Work collaboratively2. Design cross-functionally3. Compress work sessions4. Communicate in short feedback loops5. Study the details and the whole6. Produce a feasible plan7. Use design to achieve a shared vision and create holistic solutions8. Conduct a multiple day charrette9. Hold the charrette on or near the site
  • Charrette System Strategies1. Work collaboratively• Collaboration is based on valuing each individual’s unique contribution• Anyone who might build, use, sell, approve, or attempt to block the project is involved before the start of design and throughout the project
  • Risks of not working collaboratively• Conventional processes involve people after the planning has started, resulting in a loss of trust from which it is very hard to recover
  • Charrette System Strategies2. Design cross-functionally• A multi-disciplinary team method results in decisions that are realistic avoiding costly rework• Teams typically include planning, architecture, environmental, transportation, economics
  • Risks of segregating work according tospecialty• When a key specialty is left out of the planning and design process, there is risk of major rework or project failure
  • Charrette System Strategies3. Compress work sessions• Time compression facilitates creative problem-solving by accelerating decision-making and reducing unconstructive negotiation tactics• Compressed work sessions promote “out-of-the-box” thinking Apollo 13
  • Charrette System Strategies4. Communicate in short feedback loops• Regular stakeholder reviews quickly build trust in the process and foster true understanding and support of the product Dover Kohl
  • Charrette Feedback CyclesParticipants work in a series of short feedback loops public reviewconcepts alternatives refinement plan public review public review
  • Charrette System Strategies5. Study the details and the whole• Designs at varying scales inform each other and reduce the likelihood that a fatal flaw will be overlooked that could result in costly rework
  • Risks of not studying the details• Conventional planning limited to “bubble” scale study may not deliver the desired community vision
  • Charrette System Strategies6. Produce a feasible plan Summary Sheet Escalator Year 1 Stabilized Year Income Proforma (Year 3)• To create a feasible plan, every Leased Uses At Net Rents Period Square Feet Efficiency Rent/SF Rent Leasable SF Restaurant/Ent 3 - 100% $ 17.00 Restaurant/Ent NNN - $ - Office 3 61,000 85% $ 22.00 Office FS 51,850 $ 1,140,700 Rental Residential 1 - 87% $ 12.00 Rental ResidentialFS - $ - Townhouses 1 48,000 NA NA Townhouses $ - decision point must be fully Retail/Storefront 3 16,000 95% $ 17.00 Retail/Storefront NNN 15,200 $ 258,400 Other Uses 3 - 100% $ 17.00 Other Uses NNN - $ - 125,000 Parking Revenue 156 $ 59,931 Income Escalator 3.0% Target Return Rate 12% Gross Income $ 1,459,031 informed, especially by the legal, Stabilized Year Net Income $ 1,193,161 Plus CAM Charges 12% of NNN Comml $ 167,892 Capitalized Value at 9.0% 13,257,000 Less Vacancy/Credit Loss5% $ (81,346) Total Loan Amount Available at 75% $ 9,942,750 Effective Gross Income $ 1,545,576 Project Cost Less General Partner Exp 3.5% $ (54,095) financial, and engineering Land 150,000 $ 10 $ 1,500,000 Less Office Expenses $ 5.50 per SF $ (270,916) Construction Parking Expenses $ 176 per Space $ (27,404) Demolition 37,500 $ 6 $ 225,000 Less Residential Expenses 34% $ - Sitework Outside of Building - $ 4 $ - Plaza - $ 15 $ - disciplines Landscaping 44,000 $ 7.00 $ 308,000 Net Operating Income $ 1,193,161 Streetlighting & Signal - $ 5,000 $ 200,000 Plus Startup Reserve 69,955 Street Sidewalks 3,000 $ 7 $ 21,000 Less Debt $ (793,800) Restaurant/Ent - $ 95 $ - Office 61,000 $ 95 $ 5,795,000 Cash Flow Before Tax $ 469,316 Office Tenant Improvements 51,850 $ 25 $ 1,296,250• The focus on feasibility brings a Rental Residential - $ 90 $ - Stabilized Cash on Cash Return 15.5% Townhouses 48,000 $ 95 $ 4,560,000 Retail/Storefront 16,000 $ 75 $ 1,200,000 Retail Tenant Improvements 5,200 1 $ 25 $ 380,000 Other Uses - $ 75 $ - Features - $ 50 $ - level of seriousness and rigor to On Grade Pkg 36,000 $ 8 $ 288,000 Parking Structures 32,000 $ 38 $ 1,216,000 Below Grade Pkg Structure - $ 47 $ - Construction Subtotal $ 15,489,250 Soft Costs 27% $ 4,162,736 the process for everyone Construction Contingency 7.5% 1,161,694 Total Project Cost With Land125,000 $ 179 $ 22,313,679 Less Residential Sales 215 $ (10,320,000) Plus Residential Brokerage Fees 6% $ 619,200 involved Less Energy Systems Equity Plus Startup Cost $ 349,775 Credit Enhancement/TIF $ - Adjusted Total Project Cost $ 12,962,654 Less Allowable Debt $ (9,942,750) Cash/Equity Required $ 3,019,904 Loan Rate (current CMBS rate) 7.00% Loan Term in Years 30 Annual Debt Service $ (793,800) Financial feasibility analysis
  • Charrette System Strategies7. Use design to achieve a shared vision and create holistic solutions• Design illustrates the complexity of the problem and can be used to resolve conflict by proposing previously unexplored solutions that represent win/win outcomes Urban AdvantageExisting Condition Proposal - Computer Simulation
  • Charrette System Strategies8. Conduct a multiple day charrette• Most charrettes require more than four days, allowing for three feedback loops Urban Design Associates
  • Risks of charrettes that are too short• When feedback loops are too far apart, there is a risk that misunderstandings and concerns cannot be addressed in a timely fashion• People can become set in their negative opinions and become obstructive
  • Charrette System Strategies9. Hold the charrette on or near the site• Working on site fosters the charrette teams understanding of local values and traditions, and provides the necessary easy access to stakeholders and information LCA Town Planning and Architecture
  • Risks of not working on site• High stakes projects require frequent discussions with stakeholders which can be made difficult if the charrette is not on or near the site.
  • Charrette System Strategies1. Work collaboratively2. Design cross-functionally3. Compress work sessions4. Communicate in short feedback loops5. Study the details and the whole6. Produce a feasible plan7. Use design to achieve a shared vision and create holistic solutions8. Conduct multiple day charrette9. Hold the charrette on or near the site
  • Available at NCI Website
  • Are you ready for a charrette?
  • Key Factors in Charrette Readiness• Will the key stakeholders participate in a charrette fully and in good faith?• Are there political and/or relationship issues that must be solved before a charrette can begin?• Where does a charrette fit into a broader process? – It is important to be clear about the goals and purpose of the charrette in relation to the overall project.
  • Current CBISituation Assessment: Charrette Charrette •Initiate •Gather •Analyze •Design Consensus Consensus Charrette Charrette Implementation Implementation •Share Building Building Consensus Consensus Building Building
  • Top Reasons Projects Fail1. Unclear project mission• The project sponsor does not have, and/or does not communicate, a clear project mission, guiding principles and desired outcomes. – Project team dysfunction – Stakeholders/community members undermine the project
  • Top Reasons Projects Fail2. Insufficient community organizing and outreach• Without the resources for conducting effective outreach and relationship building, it is difficult to achieve a cross- section of stakeholder participation 3. Poor Data• Design is based on incomplete or incorrect data• Data arrives late resulting in design changes
  • Top Reasons Projects Fail4. Time• Project takes years to complete• New players lack project understanding often requiring project restart• Project loses momentum• Meeting fatigue
  • Focus: Four elements in preparation forsuccessful charrettes.• Project assessment and team organization. – “Project start-up intensive.”• Designing the process: making meetings work.• Stakeholder analysis. – Assessment of current issues and conflicts for “charrette readiness.”• Stakeholder education. – Outreach and communication strategies based on stakeholder analysis.
  • Research, Education, Charrette Preparationresearch, education, plancharrette preparation charrette implementation 1 2 3 Project Assessment and Organization Stakeholder Research, Education, Involvement Base Data Research and Analysis Project Feasibility Studies and Research Charrette Logistics
  • Preventing project failure.Collaborative project start-up:• Project partners share values and understand and own the project process• Project process map is informed by all relevant viewpoints• It is best to do this before setting the schedule and budget
  • Project start-up “intensive.”Key factors for success• Leadership supports the start-up process• Decision makers attend along with key staff• No primary partner is left out – All key partners – Includes decision makers – Multi-disciplinary
  • Project start-up “intensive.”Process• Establish understanding of roles• Create project purpose elements• Co-author guiding principles, objectives and measures• Agree on involvement plan – Conduct stakeholder analysis• Agree on project process – Co-author project roadmap
  • Guiding Principles• Guiding principles keep the project team and charrette participants on task, are used to resolve conflicts of opinion and help avoid costly rework and unnecessary effort that stems from following tangents to the core purpose of the project
  • Objectives & Measures DraftObjective MeasureImprove pedestrian, bicycle and Traffic speedsvehicular safety, especially in relation Pedestrian crossing distancesto pedestrian/vehicle interactionsTreat storm water on site Acreage of natural filtering areaProvide for affordable housing Housing prices as percent of median incomeEconomic feasibility Project proforma, ROI (return on investment)Provide easy, safe access to the Number of connections to trailregional trail system Distance to trail from housing and commercial
  • Holistic Planning Process ChecklistEducation and Research  The stakeholder involvement effort is properly funded  Project partners commit to early and frequent stakeholder involvement Stakeholder involvement plan is aimed at broad demographic representation Advisory committee members commit to being informed project champions Base data research is cross-functional, collaborative and strategic
  • Designing the process(making meetings work)
  • NCI Collaborative Design System
  • Charrette Stakeholder Meetings
  • Charrette Ready Plan Schedule
  • Top Reasons Public Meetings Fail• Poor attendance• Imbalanced community representation• Decision makers are not in attendance• Participants lack knowledge to make informed decisions• Poor meeting facilitation
  • Meeting Facilitation: Preventions• Preventions = things to do to keep the meeting on track• Examples: – Meeting planning – Meeting “start-ups” – Check agreement throughout – Next steps – Meeting evaluation (+/∆)
  • Meeting Purpose and Outcomes.Why meet?• Be clear on the purpose of the meeting before you start planning• Communicate the meeting purpose in meeting invitations and up front at the beginning of every meeting
  • Facilitator Goals• Protect the people and the process• Create an atmosphere of trust and respect• Establish a safe environment for everyone to participate – no one person or group dominates• Help people feel that it was worth their time to participate because – they had a chance to provide meaningful input – their input has potential to make an impact – the meeting was well-run – and, the FOOD was great
  • What type of meeting do you need?It depends! Type of Decision Stakeholder Characteristics Phase of the Project
  • Framework of Engagement presentation One-way newsletter speech marketing open house Two-way Q&A conversation survey focus group Multi-way deliberative dialogue collaborative activity workshops dialogue charrettes
  • Type of Decision Routine ControversialTechnical Decision Values-Based Decision Known, accepted Values in conflict values
  • Decision Phase / Implementation Issues Decision already Decision needs to be made made Single entity can Implementation requires implement multi-party collaboration Implementation Goal Setting, Idea Stage Generation, Selection of Alternatives People agree Legitimacy of sponsorsponsor has right to action is in question act Sponsor has legal Sponsor needs others to authority to make take legal action decision
  • Decision-making Method(s)• Top down: Leader decides and announces.• Consultative: Leader solicits input and decides.• Consensus. “It may not be my top choice, but I am willing to support and help implement the solution.”• Always have a “fall-back” option.
  • Stakeholder Identification and Analysis
  • Stakeholders’ unique contributions Fire Chief Transportation engineers Developer Business ownersElected officials Environmentalists Neighbors Urban designers
  • Stakeholder Analysis• The Stakeholder Analysis lists the relevant viewpoints to be represented, the people, their affiliation, what a “win” is for each, and the level of engagement required for holistic, diverse feedback. This is the basis of the public involvement process.Who are stakeholders?• Decision makers• People who may supply valuable information• People who will be affected by the outcome• People who have power to promote the project• People who have power to block the project
  • Stakeholder Levels of Involvement vo s d in les lve vo e d in mor lve Primary Stakeholders Secondary StakeholdersAll are involved at Generalkey decision points Stakeholders
  • Stakeholder Levels of InvolvementStakeholder Level Example Positions Suggested InvolvementPrimary Elected and appointed officials Interviews before the charrette, (city council, planning meetings during the charrette, should commissioners, steering attend all public events, may drop into committee members), agency the studio anytime staff (departments of transportation, EPA, transit authorities), site property ownersSecondary Non-governmental Interviews before the charrette, possible organizations (historic and art meetings during the charrette, should groups, churches, attend all public events, may synagogues), individuals with businesses or residences directly affectedGeneral Community members Should attend all public events, may drop into the studio anytime Source: The Charrette Handbook p.38
  • Sample Stakeholder AnalysisViewpoint Person / Issues Win Level Outreach Charrette Affiliation Strategy ParticipationElected Official Lucinda Wallis, 25 years of A plan and codes agreed Primary Email, phone Daily Team Capital County controversy, with upon by the developer, Meetings nothing to show. and the neighborhood. A Wallis is the project bulletproof public “champion.” process. A national exemplar project.Elected Official Percival Concerned about A project that can be Primary Email, phone Public Meetings Moccasin, Capital project costs. approved and supported County Interested in a non- by neighbors. controversial outcome.Neighborhood Carrie Snodgras, Deep distrust of Minimal traffic impacts, Secondary Emails, Separate MeetingActivists Kris Tal, Terry County Supervisors maximum housing, low letters Jensen, Medford and staff. Traffic, buildings across from District visual impacts, neighborhood, pedestrian Improvement property values, access, local retail only, Association safety. no increase in transit parking. The County must keep its promise and build the regional trail.Neighboring Katrina Workers have limited Compatible uses with Secondary Emails, Separate MeetingCommercial Moskawitz, local services. existing business, lettersOwners Hollywood amenities for office Boosters workers, traffic management.Developer Tom Bates, Dick Last development Economic and market Primary Email, phone Daily Team Bernard, Big Sky proposal failed. feasible plan. Meetings Development and Reviews
  • Stakeholder Characteristics Known, easy to Unknown, hard to identify identify Small number Large number Homogenous Diverse Equal power and Unbalanced power and resources resources Important Important stakeholdersstakeholders have outside power structure power
  • 1.2 Stakeholder Research, Education, and Involvement Plan Tools and Techniques project set-up base data feasibilityand organization stakeholder research and studies and charrette involvement analysis research logistics 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Outreach Engagement and Information Exchange Secondary Stakeholder Analysis Educational Events
  • Keys to Successful Public Participation• Commit to collaboration and relationship building• Commit sufficient resources• Use people with local on-the-ground knowledge• Dig deep into the community• Engage the community before starting design• Work at three levels – Person to person – Group meetings – Community-wide meetings
  • Advisory Committees as Champions• Represent a cross-section of the community• All relevant viewpoints represented• Geographical and demographic representation• Advisory only• Fully educated on the project issues• Project champions committed to outreach and education
  • Stakeholder Outreach and EngagementMethodsOutreach:• Phone calls• Faxes, e-mails• Web notices• One-on-one meetings• Confidential Interviews• Mailings• Signs• Newsletter announcementsEngagement:• Neighborhood meetings• Meetings at churches and local organizations• “Living room coffees”
  • 1.2 Stakeholder Research, Education andInvolvement PlanTool: Educational EventsPurpose: To establish shared vision or base of understanding among key stakeholders prior to the charretteProcess: One or a number ofefforts including educationallectures, workshops,neighborhood walks, andpreference surveys
  • Educational EventsEducational Events• Lectures, presentations and workshops by experts covering key subjects, e.g. sustainable design, traffic calming, affordable housing
  • Educational EventsStakeholder Tours• Project site tour• Examples of sustainable development tools in practice
  • Educational EventsNeighborhood Walks• Groups of no more than eight• Mapped route• Group leader• Note taker• Renderer City of Portland, Oregon Bureau of Planning
  • Low-tech Outreach and EngagementMethods
  • High-tech Tools for Outreach and Engagement
  • Thin vs. Thick Communication
  • Social Media and OutreachOpportunities Challenges• Allows organizations to • Better for dissemination of broadcast real-time updates on information, not brainstorming events, programs, meetings or discussion• Supports rapid dissemination of • Potential problems with digital information; good for outreach divide• Enables two-way dialogue • Not a replacement for face-to- between organizers & face communication stakeholders, and between • Must be carefully managed as community members part of a holistic• Can be cost-effective and communications strategy widely accessible
  • PdxPlan.com • 384,527 hits in the last 12 months • Prominent links to various social media networks
  • Facebook.com/pdxplanCurrently1,912 “likes”
  • Portland Plan Phase One Campaign Results• 8,000+ completed surveys• 1,000 workshop attendees• Dozens of community group meetings• New participants: 31 percent of workshop attendees reported they were not “public participation regulars”• Social Media: 1,363 FB fans and 690 of Twitter followers• PdxPlan.com: 134,000 hits over past 12 months with spikes in November (28,000) and December (40,000)
  • City of Ashland: Open City Hall• Open City Hall has generated a number of useful ideas from the public, and has shifted the overall tone of the discussion
  • Open Town Hallby Peak Democracywww.peakdemocracy.com/
  • City of El Paso: MindMixer• The planning team talked to more than 1,200 participants• More than 35,000 people followed the project on its website
  • City of El Paso: MindMixer• Participants viewed and critiqued the charrette team’s plans, contributed ideas, and voted on ideas they liked• Real names and addresses held participants accountable• Local input led to greater context- sensitivity on the part of the planners
  • MindMixerwww.mindmixer.com
  • OMI Neighborhood, City and County of SanFrancisco: Crowdbrite Case Study
  • Crowdbritewww.crowdbrite.com
  • Distance ParticipationOpportunities Challenges• Broader opportunities for • Potential problems with citizen engagement digital divide• Provides forum for • Not a good standalone disenfranchised stakeholders solution• May reach audiences who • Requires some degree of don’t typically participate- education about local single parents, the elderly, issues for valuable etc. contribution• Lack of anonymity can discourage negative, heated, and one-sided discussion
  • Key characteristics of the charrette process..• Collaborative and dynamic work process, integrating multiple points of view in a defined and compressed time frame.• Short-feedback loops (short in time and space).• Cross-disciplinary design (from the big picture to the details).• Feasible, action-oriented outcome.
  • Making it work for you.• The collaborators need to understand (and trust) the framework of collaboration.• This is the work of long-term education, building social relationships and an enduring culture of responsible participation.• Key starting points: participants prepared to own the process, experts prepared to support it, leaders prepared to help lead it.• There are tools and techniques to support this work.
  • Hands-on Workshop Exercise
  • Meeting Start-ups• Welcome by Official(the following should be posted hard copy in the front of the room)• Meeting Purpose and Desired Outcomes• Agenda• Roles• Ground Rules• Parking Lot
  • Ground RulesGround Rules:• Present a set of ground rules as a means to keep the meeting on track and to assure that everyone has a chance to participate.• Ask if anyone has additional ground rules.• Ask for permission to be the “traffic cop/ground rule enforcer.”
  • Ground RulesExample Ground Rules:• Listen actively and respectfully• Be respectful and constructive• No one dominates• Be concise and stay on topic• Avoid cross-talking• No personal attacks• Silence your cell phones• Talk with your pen (for workshops)
  • The Parking Lot / Commons / Bike Rack • Use a flip chart • “Park” off-topic ideas • Resolve or decide how to defer before end of meeting
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:“Food for thought” lectureSustainable Smart Growth Principles:• Walkable streets• Local food• Stormwater treatment• Mix of uses• Choices of housing• Transportation options• Safe and convenient neighborhood parks and open space• History of sustainable performance in the region
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:Hands-on Exercise• Groups work on visioning exercises at tables
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:Hands-on Exercise• Participants, not staff, from each table report back to the group
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:Report Backs Dover Kohl
  • Charrette Public Meeting #1:Hands-on Exercise
  • • Visit www.charretteinstitute.org for more informationDavid Brain, Ph.d.National Charrette InstituteNew College of FloridaCollaborative Community Design, LLCEmail: david@charretteinstitute.org