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Joachim Henkel provides an overview of the concept of IP Modularity introduced in his article with Carliss Baldwin and Willy Shih. These three authors claim that firms seeking to take advantage of distributed innovation and outsourcing can bridge the tension between value creation and value capture by modifying the modular structure of their technical systems.
Henkel, J., Baldwin, C. Y., & Shih, W. (2013). IP Modularity: Profiting from innovation by aligning product architecture with intellectual property. California Management Review, 55(4), 65.