Una Ciudad Lineal a lo largo de “La Avenida de CastelldefelsPresentation Transcript
high speed journeys along highways don’t usually, attract or interest. On the other hand, a pedestrian in journey the central areas of a city, where the mixture of people circulating and the activity in the low stores make for stimulating and agreeable.
The project deals with the particular situation of the freeway C-246, now found in transformation process and change of some of its uses, which connects Barcelona with Castelldefels town.The freeway C-246, La avenida de Castelldefels (The avenue of Castelldefels), built at the end of the 50’s by a group of planners, infrastructure engineers and urban planners. The freeway offers a complex of relationships among city of Barcelona and Garraf territories, areas of beaches and pine groves of the plane of Llobregat’s Delta.It was an operation linked to diverse urbanization proposals; leisure areas and sport of Viladecans, of second residence in the pine groves of Castelldefels and Gava.
The growth and the construction of aviation’s field of the Prat in the Airport of Barcelona, they didn’t make more than give importance to this new infrastructure.The recent construction of new quick roads and freeways in the Delta and the perspectives of changes in the area for the amplification of the airport, and also for the substitution of exclusive uses that they make inaccessible parts of the coast, they don’t make more than situation of fragility to buildings and structures that have gone building axis along years.
“In highway design, the problem is reduced to the simplest and most commonplace terms: traffic, volume, design speed, capacity, pavements, structures, horizontal and vertical alignment. These considerations are married to a thoroughly spurious cost-benefit formula and the consequences of this institutionalized myopia are seen in the scars upon the land and in the cities.” Design with nature – Ian. L. McHary, 1992
What is the coast that society pays for keeping the highway between Barcelona and Castelldefels?-highway’s length 19 km (19000 meters)-width of paths 13 meters in average-area the highway covers 247 km2Privation of land sources that could be used for agriculture, residency or peripheral urban parks.
The land sources could contain among the area of 247 km2 that is a square of 500 meters x 500 meters:- 16 city blocks of 100 meters x 100 meters- Avenues between the blocks of 33 meters wide.Privation of an urban fabric that could be used for commercial, offices and residency.
In low density of 20 units for hectare:It’s possible to have 4600 units in that urban fabric that will inhibit 18000 people (4 people in each unit)0.58% of the population in the metropolises of Barcelona (today stands on ~3.4 million people).In medium density of 30 units for hectare:It’s possible to have 6900 units in that urban fabric that will inhibit 27600 people (4 people in each unit)0.88% of the population in the metropolises of Barcelona (today stands on ~3.4 million people).In high density of 40 units for hectare:It’s possible to have 9200 units in that urban fabric that will inhibit 37000 people (4 people in each unit)1.17% of the population in the metropolises of Barcelona (today stands on ~3.4 million people).Privation of condensation options and residency for future population.
19 000 m x 13 m
247 km 2
of Urban parks
What is the utility of the highway?“Interstate Highways should maximize public and private benefits:- By increasing the facility, convenience, pleasure and safety of traffic movement.- By safeguarding and enhancing land, water, air and biotic resources.- By contributing to public and private objectives of urban renewal, metropolitan and regional development, industry, commerce, residence, recreation, public health, conservation and beautification.- By generating new productive land uses and by sustaining or enhancing existing ones. Design with nature – Ian. L. McHary, 1992 -
The freeway is a generator of new land uses, and the responsible for residency strip existence growing along years among it and the shore. In addition to the utility that it grants Barcelona the city with the accessibility for city inhabitants to nature sources, beaches and pine grooves.
City of Barcelona AirportAgriculture lands Residential Strip
The distance between the highway and the residential buildingscreate a green strip. The purpose of this strip is to protect theresidential building from the noise produced by the highway,while the building border is created as an OFFSET of the highwayline in a distance between 50 meters – 100 meters.
The strip that is 3 km long is a land without any economical value, part of themunicipal ownership and declared as a natural zone according to urban law.The purpose of the project is taking advantage of the phenomena that goes alonghighways, generating new land uses in the strip, that will enhance its economicalvalue, and at the same time reserve its previous function as a protecting area fromthe noise of the highway.
The urban block as a part of city systems, developed in the city frame, and turned to be a presentation of daily life, in the same time designing relations with the surrounding responsible for its own existence. The import of the urban block into its new environment is the conceptual structure of the building plan. The planning process is re-designing the block as an urban figure in its new environment, outside of city limits. An environment that contain new elements that the city block is stranger to them, as they are stranger to it.Copy – Paste – Edit Elements like the highway from one side and the sea from another. The process is held within reserving the city block essence and its elements.
New and old relations – what is reserved and what is changed?What is the relation between the block and the highway?What is its relation to the residential area and to the sea?What is the relation between the blocks themselves?And what is the relation between the interior and exterior of the block? HighwaySea Residence surrounding
Back to Barcelona – What were these relations in origin betweena street and a block?Between the blocks themselves, between envelope (buildings)and the street, between envelope and interior?
1860 - 67 1891 - 19241924 - 76 1976 - 86
First block type based on plots (1860 – 1867):At the beginning the block covered 50% ofthe land it stands on.Was composed by buildings that each one ofthem stands on a different plot.Section height moves between 16–20 meter.In the last period of building this type itcovered 70% of the land it stands on.
Second type “Island of houses” (1891 – 1924): Covers an area of 73.6% of the land it stands on. Section height starts at 20 meters and arrives in the end to 23 meters. Usage of patio between apartments – that starts at the height of 4.4 meters. Two strips of apartments that the patio strip pass between them. Every apartment has one dominant direction of ventilation. Building’s depth 28 meters.
Third type “dense block” (1924 – 1976): Covers 73% of the land it stands on. Section height 24.4 meters including entrance level, 7 levels of residence, 2 attics. Patio starts at the height of 5.5 meters. Two strips of apartments, interior and exterior, with the patio strip passing in between. Each apartment has one dominant direction of ventilation. Two strips of patio. The block with the highest lifetime, and the most spread.
Fourth type – P.G.M “General Metropolitan Plan”(1976 -1986): Covers 70% of the land it stands on. Section height 20.75 meters. Patio starts at the height of 4.5 meters. There is no restriction on the number of underground level. One strip of apartments that is stretched between outside and inside. Offers a design of the block as a whole.
Block-street section in Barcelona
Activity concentration in the street space – the street as a cultural presentation Landscape systemsResidence Residence Pedestrianscommerce commerce Traffic Axis
And what is the interior of the block?
Interior of a block in Barcelona Storehouses
Layers of the block Merchandise storage / workshops / Parking / garbage gathering patio Stairs private public patio Apartment plan Block plan according to P.G.M Street as a cultural presentation Quality spaceService strip – staircases (movement) / patio (light and instillation) Quality space
Un-related behavior: the interior of each block function in an independent wayTypical pattern The model of P.G.M as the final step in the block development The impermeability of the block towards the outside and the inaccessibility to the inside lead the block to function as a container, and the interior of the block remains for the people of the city as a hidden place, that they see from their apartments only, without the possibility to be there. Creating an illusion of unity around a theoretical interior space.
Personal interpretation:The block as a model of a neighborhood: the unity of the buildings around the interiorspace as the center of the neighborhood and the perception of the block as a collection ofdisassembled elements that gather around the same space. The conjunction between theseelements create different situations and contribute to the enlivening of the interior. Acollection of this urban typology create a linear city that function between its sides. Insteadof the fact that the city uses the block to design the streets and the traffic arteries, it usesthese elements to connect the interiors system and to define new relations inside them.
Instead of systems working in parallel creating a nutshell structure, while theblock warps the street space and the streets warp the blocks, maybe there isneed of congruence and intersection of these systems in order to create newsituations, a kind of superposition of the systems instead of a dual structure.
The principal of Rob Krier of street intersection with square Three blocks in the Olympic village Barcelona 1992 by Carlos Ferrater
The arteries that lead to the sea continue into the block interior
The sea arteries build a new system inside the block. A system thatconnect every two blocks instantly, and connect the entire blocks inan indirect way, by a sort of journey path. This system also connectthe blocks to their environment. From the side of the highway, theconnection between the blocks is by copying the street line into theexterior envelope. A connection more direct, rational, reserving thesame relation with the highway.
The sea arteries together with the connecting paths between blocks usethe topography to create change in the levels inside the square, creatinganother situation that magnify the connection between the block and theneighborhood in the side of the sea.
The building follows the movement of the axiss inside the block that determine, inaddition to the change of heights inside the square, the relation to the neighborhood.
First floor plan
Second floor plan
Third floor plan
movement balconies roomsService area Functions plan
Concept of highway façade
Exterior facade Second floor First typology – building next to the highwayInterior facade First floor
Façade building technology
Third typology – inner and seaside buildings Second typology – lateral buildings
Interior façade – horizontal movement
Block entrance – seaside
The sea axis define the entrance and connect the interior with the exterior
connection between two proximal blocks
Inner building and connection between the square and the commercial alley
Artificial typography – block parking underneath the square