PRESENTED BY ADIL
3 RD YEAR
2. Definition of micropropagation
Clonal propagation ‘IN VITRO’
 Micro-propagation is the production of
whole plant from small section of plant
such as a stem tip, node, meristem,
embryo, or even a seed.
3. STEPS OF MICRO-PROPAGATION
 Rooting and hardening
 Sometimes one step is also included in cases
where establishment of plantlets in soil is
4. Selection of an elite mother plant
STEP 1- ESTABLISHMENT- In this
step, selection of suitable
plants, their sterilization and
transfer to nutrient media for
establishment, i.e. initiation of a
sterile culture of the explant.
STEP 2 – PROLIFERATION- Proliferation
or multiplication of shoot from the
explant on medium.
STEP 3 – ROOTING & HARDNING-
Transfer of shoots to a rooting medium
followed later by planting into soil
Surface sterilization and
Establishment on growth
Transfer to proliferation
Transfer of shoot or
plantlets to sterilized soil
or artificial medium by
5.  METHODS OF MICRO-PROPAGATION
 AXILLARY BUD PROLIFERATION APPROACH
• Meristem and shoot tip culture
• Bud culture
6.  AXILLARY BUD PROLIFERATION APPROACH
Meristem and shoot tip culture Morel and Martin (1952) develop the technique of
meristem culture for in vivo virus of Dahlia.
 G. Morel (1965) was developed the technique shoot tip
culture for micro propagation of orchid Cymbidium.
 This method is more successful in herbaceous plant.
 Bud culture Buds contain active meristem depending upon the physiological
state of the plant. The various types used in bud culture,
a). Single node culture
b). Axillary bud method
7.  ORGANOGENESIS
 Indirect This pathway includes a callus stage.
 Callus is undifferentiated tissue that develops on or around an
injured or cut plant surface.
 Direct This pathway is bypasses a callus stage.
 This method is particularly suitable to herbaceous species .
8.  EMBRYOGENESIS
• The process of initiation and development of embryos and
embryo like structure from somatic cells.
• It usually involves a callus intermediate stage which can
result in variation among seedlings.
• Its not a common micro-propagation technique but
currently being used to produce superior pine seedlings.
a). Direct embryogenesis
b). Indirect embryogenesis
9. HOW does micro-propagation work?
 Plant cell have the ability to reproduce the whole plant
from a single cell. This is called totipotency.
 Totipotency is the ability of single cell to express the full
genome in the cells to which it gives rise by cell division.
Why do we do it?
 To regenerate plant from single cell or plant tissues.
 To produce large quantities of identical plant.
 To create new plant varieties.